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Full text of "A history of the Forty-seventh regiment, Ohio veteran volunteer infantry. Second brigade, Second division, Fifteenth army corps, Army of Tennessee"

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A HISTORY 



OF THE 



Forty-Seventh Regiment 
Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry. 

Second Brigade, Second Division, 
Fifteenth Army Crps, 

ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE. 

EDITED BY 
JOSEPH A. SAUNIER, Regimental Historian. 

Assisted by Diaries and Manuscripts Furnished by 

Samuel J. Johnston, Co. "A", and Mrs. Col. H. T. Elliott, 
William A. Rittwager, Co. "C", and Col. Thomas Taylor, 
•George W. Girton, Co. "E", and Dr. Jacob Huber and Capt. King. 
William Bakhause , Co. "C", and Capt. H. D. Pugh, Co. "I". 
Louis Walker, Co. "K", and Capt. Henry Bremfoeder, Co. "B" 
And Many Others, and Official Reports of War Department. 



From June 15th, 1861, to August 24th, 1865. 



PRESS 

THE LYLE PRINTING COMPANY, 

HILLSBORO, OHIO. 



A HISTORY OF THE 

FORTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT, 
OHIO VETERAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, 

Giving a complete account of the Regiment from its organ- 
ization at Camp Clay and at Camp Dennison, Ohio, in the 
months of July and August, 1861, to the close of the War, 
and of its final mustering out August 24, 1865, 

INCLUDING 

All of its Marches, its Camps, its Battles, Battle Scenes, 
skirmishes, and of its Sieges, Bivouacs and a description of 
the country through which we marched and fought, and of 
the various cities, towns, rivers, etc., that came under our 
notice. 

By J. A. S., Historian. 



To the Sacred Memory 
of 
OUR FALLEN COMRADES 

Who died in the defense of their country in the War of the 
Rebellion, whether they fell upon the battle field or in the 
skirmish line, or wasted away from wounds and disease in 
hospitals or in Southern prison pens, or whether they lie 
buried in lonely Southern fields, or returned home to suffer 
and sink into untimely graves, 

This Volume is Most Affectionately 

Dedicated by 

THE AUTHORS. 



PREFACE. 

In submitting to our comrades and the public generally our 
Kegi mental History, we have no apology to offer to the effect 
that we have numerous histories dealing with the late war. 
We concede this fact, yet we do think there is a lack of works 
like the one we submit. The events of the War of 1861-1865, 
as seen by the rank and file, and especially the events that went 
to make up their daily life, can not be found in the general 
histories. They can only be found in the regimental histories 
written by the participants in zhe events of these four years. As 
such a history we submit our work for your approval. 

The object in view in writing the history of the 47th Regi- 
ment of the Ohio Infantry Volunteers, is to put upon record as 
impartial statement of what the regiment did in service; the 
part they took in suppressing the greatest rebellion the world 
has ever seen, and written by men whose every day action 
helped to make history. Owing to the lapse of time since the 
events narrated have occurred, some facts may have been for- 
gotten, yet we think that nothing of importance has been 
omitted. 

In writing our history we thus lay our mite of praise on the 
graves of our heroes, who died that our country might live. 
Let us bear in mind that a country worth living in is of neces- 
sity a country worth dying for. 

JOSEPH A. SAUNIER, Historian, 
Late of Co. F, 47th Regiment O. V I. 
Westboro, Ohio, 1903. 



History of the 47th O. V. V. I. 



The memorable political campaign of I860, that resulted in 
the election of President Lincoln, was over. The Southern 
States, which had made threats of leaving the Union before his 
election, began to secede one after another, and the whole coun- 
try was in a state of feverish excitement. No one seemed 
to be able to avert the coming storm. Thus matters stood 
until that eventful day arrived. On the twelfth day of April, 
1861, the Rebel General, Beauregard made the attack upon 
Fort Sumpter, S. C. After a terriffic bombardment of thirty- 
six hours the garrison, under the command of Maj. Anderson. 
was compelled to surrender to the Rebel forces. 

When the startling news flashed over the wires, the whole 
North, from the shores of Maine to the Pacific slope, arose in 
its might. Ignoring party lines the people rallied under the 
immortal words of Gen. Jackson, "the Union, it must and 
shall be preserved." Then the President called for seventy- 
five thousand men to serve for three months, but no sooner 
had the call been filled and the troops sent to the front, than 
they were outnumbered by the volunteers from the seceding 
states at every point, and another call was made by the Presi- 
dent, this time for three hundred thousand volunteers to serve 
three years, unless sooner discharged. Following this call came 
the reverse at Bull Run, which fell with stunning effect over 
the confident North. It was at this time and in this emergen- 
cy that the 47th Regiment was recruited through the persever- 
ance of the Hon. Charles F. Wilstach, and soon brought to the 
required strength, and was thenceforward known as the Wils- 
tach Regiment. Many of those who joined the regiment had 
been in the three months' service. Maj. A. C. Parry was one 
of them, and a gallant officer he was. 

The Regiment's first rendezvous was at Camp Clay, an east- 
ern suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio, were the men began to assem- 
ble. On the 15th of June, 1861, to July 29th, they removed 
to Camp Dennison, Ohio, where the organization was completed. 
Thirteen nationalities were represented in its organization. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 9 

Six companies were composed chiefly of Americans, and four 
were Germans, and of German descent. 

Frederick Poschner, a native of Hungary, and one of the 
heroes of the Revolution of 1848, and formerly an officer in the 
Austrian army, was chosen Colonel; and Lyman S. Elliot, of 
Michigan, Lieutenant Colonel, while Augustus C. Parry, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Major. 

While the command remained at Camp Clay, a gentleman 
of great enterprise by the name of Cobb, acted as Quarter-mas- 
ter, and fed the men at the Pendleton Restaurant, and when it 
was crowded, issued army rations to those whom it could not 
feed, as was sometimes necessary. 



DESCRIPTION OF CAMP CLAY. 

Camp Clay was at the upper end of Fulton, and about four 
miles east of the center of Cincinnati, Ohio. The buildings of 
the camp consisted of a large livery stable two stories in height, 
and built of brick, which had been vacated for camp purposes. 
We were informed, by the first and second Kentucky regiments. 
This camp was quite a source of dissatisfaction to us new re- 
cruits. We had just left our comfortable homes and we did 
not relish waking up at night drenched by the rains that trickled 
through the roof. But, in spite of all we were as jolly a set of 
boys as you would wish to see, and we only hoped that we 
would be in time to help crush the Rebellion. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This regiment was raised chiefly by the exertions of the 
Hon. Charles F. Wilstach, and in honor of him was named 
the Wilstach Regiment, for without his exertions the regiment 
could not have been organized so quickly. About the first of 
July, 1861, a great many regiments had ' been filled up with 
what were considered the best men that the cities and the 
country could furnish, and were soon off to the front, and all 
who joined the 47th 0. V. I. had time to reason on what they 
were about to do. Consequently, when we reached the front 
we had but few who regretted that they had taken up arms to 
fight for our country and its flag. We opened recruiting of- 



10 HlSToKV OF the 17th Regiment < ). V. V. I. 

fices in the city and in many other places in the State. We 
were then removed to Camp Dennison, Ohio. 

Upon the arrival at Camp i'cnnison an amusing dilemma de- 
veloped itself. It had no cam]) equipage. It had i o rations, 
and the men had not eaten supper. Requisitions were required 
according to the strictest regulations. The Quartermaster was 
disgusted. The Colonel did not know how to make a requisi- 
tion, nor did either of the officers of the companies mustered 
in know anything about a requisition, and nothing could be 
secured, not even quarters for the night. There the battalion 
stood with empty stomachs, no blankets, no beds, and only the 
broad canopy of heaven for a covering. In this emergency the 
Colonel sent for a recruit, who had been a lieutenant in the 
three months' service, and ordered him to make the requisi- 
tions, receive the equipment and rations, and issue the same. 
By midnight I^ieut. Taylor, who soon became Captain of Com- 
pany F, had complied with the orders, and everyone was soon 
snoring under his own blanket, on the "soft side of his plank." 

This was a celebrated camp. It is still a historic spot. It 
was the first great military camp of Ohio, and was the drill 
ground for the most of Ohio's "Three Year Heroes." 



DESCRIPTION OF CAMP DENNISON. 

This camp is situated about 14 miles east of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
on both sides of the Little Miami R. R. The railroad com- 
pany built a depot at this place. The quarters for privates 
and officers are built some distance away from the railroad, 
and on each side of it, leaving a large level drill ground be- 
tween the quarters and the railroad. One street was laid off 
parallel with .the railroad. Between this street and the rail- 
road, across the drill grounds, other streets, called "company 
streets," run at right angles to the principal streets. The quar- 
ters for the men are built on each side of these company 
streets, ane one company is quartered on each street. Each 
company has from four to six houses, or barracks. These bar- 
racks are small but well arranged in regard to ventilation, 
cleanliness, etc. There were two openings in front, one door 
and one window. Each barrack had one room well floored, 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 11 

and a raised bunk running across the back of it, capable of 
containing about twelve sleepers. In the rear of the company 
quarters were the officers' quarters, near which were the wells 
giving an abundant supply of good water. The grounds in the 
vicinity of Camp Dennison are level, and of a sandy nature, 
that readily absorbs the rains, so that soon after a shower the 
drill grounds became as firm and solid as before. The coun- 
try around the camp was hilly. But as soon as we were fixed 
in our quarters at Camp Dennison the boys had no complaints 
to offer, except to complain of their backs, which had become 
sore from lying on the soft side of our pine bunks without any 
straw. But we were soon put to the art of war; drilling at 
squad and company, and sometimes battalion drill. The 
grounds were lively with companies and squads of men in. all 
parts of the camp trying to learn the mysteries of Harde's 
tactics. But we all pitched in like good fellows, and quite 
soon made a very soldierly appearance. At this time no one 
knew who was to become our colonel, but a few days before 
we left Camp Dennison for the front, Frederick Poschner was 
appointed our colonel, joined us, and assumed command of the 
regiment. 

Col. Poschner was an Austrian by birth but an American by 
choice. He was of low stature, with a well built figure and 
a quick inquisitive eye. He was a rapid speaker. He was a 
well-meaning man. He gained the affections of his command. 
While lying at Camp Dennison our recruiting officers were not 
idle, and the regiment was rapidly filling up with good men 
Quite a number of Germans, and those of German descent, 
joined us, until we were sometimes called the Third German 
Regiment. On August 27th, 1861, the regiment numbered 
nearly 850 men in its ranks, and about August 25th, '61, we 
received our muskets and uniforms. We did not like to re- 
main in Camp Dennison while others were out in the field reap- 
ing all the glory, while we could do nothing. But our turn 
will soon come, we thought, and so it did. 

At Camp Dennison the work of recruiting was prosecuted vig- 
orously. On the 7th day of August, Captains Ward, Taylor 
and Pugh were mustered in, and the tenth company was mus- 
tered on the 21st. The Colonel, regardless of the dates of the 



12 History of the 47tb Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

muster of the various companies, arbitrarily changed the let- 
ters and position oi them. 

Alter the regiment was full the officers were convened to Be- 
led regimental officers. At this meeting Frederick Poschner 
was recommended for colonel, and L. S. Elliott for lieutenant- 
colonel, both unanimously Thomas T. Taylor was nominated 
for major, but declined and nominated in his stead W. H. 
Ward, who was unanimously recommended, but Gov. Dennison 
refused to commission him on the grounds that he could not 
give two field officers to citizens of the State of Michigan, 
which had contributed only one company to the regiment. 
Augustus C. Parry, late major of the 2nd Ohio three months' 
troops, was subsequently commissioned to fill that office, and 
joined on the morning of the 28th of August, at the depot, 
where the regiment was embarking for the seat of war in Weai 
Virginia. 

The Quartermaster's department was in a chaotic condition 
Charles McDougal had been relieved by a Mr. Holloway. who 
knew very little of the requirements of the position. Failing 
to secure a commission he relapsed into private life, and John 
R. Craig, who was commissioned first lieutenant, November 
25th, was placed in charge. He was a natural-born quarter- 
master. Under his watchful and intelligent care, the regiment 
quickly became one of the best equipped in the service. But 
during the year of 1862, Col. George Crook, commanding a 
brigade, discovered the sterling qualities of Lieut. Craig, and 
appointed him Brigade Quartermaster, and as Crook was pro- 
moted to Brigadier and Major General, he took Craig wit h him 
as a part of his permanent military household, and the Forty- 
Seventh settled down into its military life with Lieut. William 
E. Smith in charge of this department, who gave general sat- 
isfaction. Lieut. Smith declined a captain's commission, pre- 
ferring to continue to occupy the post for which he knew him- 
self to be fully qualified. 

On the 27th day of August, 1861, the equipment was fully 
completed. Companies had been armed with the old Revo- 
lutionary musket, altered from a Hint lock and rilled. They 
generally carried well, but wild, and when discharged, made 
the careless soldier think his right shoulder had been knocked 
off by the kick of a mule. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 13 

The Government was unable to replace these until the lapse 
of a year. The Hank companies were armed with Enfield 
rifles. 

The band was also complete in its musical outfit, and was 
perfect in gorgeousness, on the 27th the Colonel concluded he 
would hold a dress parade with arms, accompanied with all 
the "pomp and circumstance of glorious war. 11 The exercises 
in the manual of arms being concluded, marching orders to the 
field of active warfare in West Virginia were read. The Colonel 
then concluded to have a drill, and after one or two evolutions 
lost one company completely, and reported it to the remainder 
as lost in action, but when the other companies returned to 
quarters they found Capt. Taylor and Company F were quietly 
enjoying their supper, and their practical joke on the Colonel. 
Gov. Dennison visited the regiment the following morning, made 
the acquaintance of each officer present, and presented him 
with his commission. He watched the formation of it into 
line, had it wheel into column and platoons, and in that man- 
ner march to the point of embarkation. 

He expressed considerable gratification at the appearance of 
the men, their soldierly bearing, and at their steadiness. The 
compliment was highly appreciated because there were only 
two officers in the regiment who had, according to tradition, 
seen actual military service. Col. Poschner had a reputation 
for gallantry, and efficiency acquired in the Hungarian Revo- 
lution of 1848. He was distinguished for his attention to the 
little things which are essential to create an esprit de corps 
without which no military organization can win renown. Of 
course, the volunteers disliked exceedingly to submit to his 
rigid discipline; to the observance of the strictest military 
etiquette in their associations, and to his inspection and super- 
vision of the minute details of the camp and soldier Life, and 
resented in various ways what they denominated "poking his 
nose in other folks' business," and he made himself, unfortu- 
nately, to some extent, unpopular. To illustrate, he believed 
that every officer had a duty to perform. He could not see 
"how a chaplain could benefit a regiment, 11 but said, "the 
Government had put him in for a wise purpose, and py tarn he 
mustvork." He ordered him to preach twice on each Sunday, 



14 BlSTORY OF THE 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 



.■Hid in bold prayer meetings in the companies, during the week, 
beside making \ is its i<> the hospital and guard house, and to be 
presenl and deliver a parting benedictioD to nil detachments 
aboul to depart on an expedition. Nor was he less strict with 
the officers and men in requiring their attendance in all suita- 
ble weather, upon the chaplain's service, regardless of their re- 
ligious convictions. They were compelled i<> attend, if not on 
duty, or sick, if necessary at the point of the bayonet, and give 
respectful attention throughout the entire service. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Elliott was a practical business men 
who made no pretensions to military skill, hut was always 
ready for duty. He was gentlemanly and pleasant in his in- 
tercourse with all. 

Major Parry had served in the second Ohio three months' 
volunteers and had been, prior thereto, a member of the com- 
pany known as Rover Guards, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

August 27th, 1861. We received marching orders, but where 
we were to go none of the privates knew. But all hoped it is 
to join (Jen. Fremont in Missouri. It may be we will join the 
army now collecting near Clarksburg, Va. All we are inform- 
ed is t hat we are to report at Columbus, to-morrow night. There 
we will receive further orders, and now the men are wild with 
delight. Some, however, are full of strong drink, which some 
injudicious friends have sent to them. 

Eleven o'clock p. m. This day has been one of lahor. getting 
reaily to move, packing knapsacks, drawing rations, and cook- 
ing them. All has heen trouble and confusion, and now as 
midnight draws near quite a number of t he boys are getting 
boozy in celebrating our intended departure, and bon-lires 
burn all night long. 

A.ugus1 28th, L861. We are preparing to march. We were 
up and had roll call by daylight, and some of the boys were up 
all night. Some were cooking one day's rations, while many 
were feasting and drinking, and a Dumber looked red aboul the 
eyes, and have quite an unmilitary gait about them this morn- 
ing. However, we are just starting out on our travels to put 
down the Great Rebellion, and perhaps many of us will never 
return. Now conies the whistling of the locomotive at Camp 
Dennison station, and warns us that we are to linger in this 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 15 

camp no longer. We have been informed that our regiment 
now only numbers 890 men. But hark, the bugle sounds "fall 
in." We must be off. Oh, what a cheer. There are three 
times three for Dixie, and willing voices obey, making Camp 
Dennison resound with joy. At the bugle sound we sling knap- 
sacks, and cartridge boxes, and haversacks, and shoulder our 
muskets. We now march out of our cpiarters for the regiment- 
al line, and while we are all in line let us see who are our 
officers. They are as follows : 

Colonel, Frederick Poschner; Lieutenant Colonel, L. S. El- 
liott; Major, Augustus C. Parry; Surgeon, Geo. A. Spees; 
Asst. Surgeons, Holtze and A. C. Barlow; Adjutant, John G. 
Durbeck; Quartermaster, John R. Craig; Regimental Chap- 
lain, Michael Bitter; Sergeant Major, Chas. P. Dennis; Quar- 
termaster Sergeant, Matthew Rheinaker ; Commissary Sergeant, 
John Harding; Hospital Steward, Daniel Sykes; Chief Bugler. 
Frederick Poschner, Jr., and also a brass band of 22 men, 
nearly all from Company C. 

The company officers were as follows : 

Company A, Capt. S. L. Hunter; 1st Lieut. L. D. Graves: 
2nd Lieut. John W. Duchman. 

Company B, Capt. William H. Ward; 1st Lieut. Henry N. 
Sinclair; 2d. Lieut. Abram Wing. 

Company C, Capt. Alexander Frelich ; 1st Lieut. John W. 
Durbeck ; 2d. Lieut. Felix Waggoner. 

Company D, Capt. John Wallace ; 1st. Lieut. Webster 
Thomas; 2d. Lieut. Joseph E. Pinkerton. 

Company E. Capt. Allen S. Bundy; 1st. Lieut. Andrew F. 
Deniston; 2d. Lieut. Charles J. Cunningham. 

Company F. Capt. Thomas T. Taylor; 1st. Lieut. Henry N. 
King; 2nd. Lieut. Geo. W. Reeves. 

Company G. Capt. Valentine Rapp ; 1st. Lieut. Esadore 
Worms; 2nd. Lieut. Wm. H. H. Koo. 

Company H. Capt. Charles N. Helmerich; 1st. Lieut. Win. 
G. Derbeck ; 2nd. Lieut. Geo. M. Zeigler. 

Company I. Capt. H. D. Pugh ; 1st. Lieut. Horace Eghbert ; 
2nd. Lieut. Alonzo Kingsbury. 

Company K, Capt. Frederick Hesser; 1st. Lieut. Charles 
Holtenhoff ; 2nd. Lieut. Frederick Fisher. 



16 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



A,I ; I ."" W ,h " command was given "righl face, forward 
march, and we marched to the depot at Can,,, Dennisou 
After our arrival here we noon filled the train, which was com- 
posed chiefly of box ears, except cars for the officers We 
^ eard "fll aboard," the bell rings, and we are off for Columbus 
( J hl °- We were ; " thai time armed with the Old Earner's 
Ferry musket, warranted to kill at nine hundred yards and 
kick a man down every time. We left Camp Dennison on the 
Little Miami R. H, about ten A. M., and stopped at Xenia to 
hll our canteens with ice-cold water, which had been provided 
by, the people of the town. 

When we got within about a mile of Columbus, our locomo- 
tive blew its whistle for some cross-roads, frightfully searing a 
horse on the left side of the railroad. The horse was hitched 
to a small one-horse wagon; in the wagon were two little 
r hildren, one about six years old and the other four years old 
I he horse ran in the same direction as the train was going and 
reached the railroad track just as the locomotive did The 
horse was thrown on the right side of the track and killed 
while the wagon was thrown on the left and turned upside down 
over the children. The engineer whistled down breaks, and we 
went back to the scene of the accident, where we were shocked 
bo find the horse dead, one of the children dead, the other one 
tatally injured, while the father stood crying for the loss of his 
'■hildren. 

About sundown our train drew into Columbus, where we 
were given a supper of one cup of coffee, and soft bread and 
cheese. It was said at that time that this supper was given us 
by the Governor. That evening we left for Newark, but 
before we left Columbus one incident occurred in Capt, Taylor's 
Company. Capt, Taylor had a man in his company who was 
uniformed and armed like the rest, but would not be mustered 
into service when the rest were. He had all along declared 
be would and must go with the company, but as that was 
against the rules he was three times given a chance to be 
mustered in, but would not do so. He was therefore stripped 
of his uniform and marched off to some guard house, and that 
was the lasl we ever saw of him. 

We arrived ;1 , Newark late at night, where we were switched 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 17 

off a long time waiting for some train to pass. Our train then 
proceeded to Zanesville. The boys get quiet and sleepy. The 
majority of us were quite sober when we left Camp Dennison. 
The Germans sang the old song of "Fatherland," and enjoyed 
themseb.cs well. Who could blame them? for the future of 
toil, and hardships, and of blood, is getting nearer, as our 
train is nearing Virginia. 

August 31, 1861. We arrived at Bellaire this morning at 
aboul 7 o'clock, and at once proceeded to cross the Ohio River 
to Benwood, W. Va. This occupied about three hours, after 
which we embarked on board of a black freight train on the B. 
& 0. R. R., and about ten o'clock our old freight train moved 
out. Here our Germans, of whom we had four companies, 
commanded respectively by Captains Froelich, Rapp, Helm- 
rich, and Heser, gave expression to their enthusiam by singing 
most inspiringly in German, a patriotic song, with a chorus. 
but they did not tell us in English what they were going to do 
"in the South." However, the vivacity was contagious, and 
the Buckeye boys opened up with "Dixie." How those old 
hills rang and reverberated with the declaration, "I'll live 
and die in Dixie." 



DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY IN VIRGINIA. 

This division of the B. & 0. R. R. runs through some scenery 
as fine as you would wish to see. The surface of the country 
is very broken and rugged, forming pretty valleys and rough 
and frowning mountains. One moment we run along the side 
of a deep and dark chasm, then across a deep fill, with rough 
and rocky valleys on each side. Then through a deep cut in a 
hill, next we are plunged into a tunnel, emerging only to re- 
peat the process over and over again. The scenery is weird and 
wild, yet beautiful, and only a few villages greet our sight. 
No level ground, nothing but hills and mountains. Through 
these scenes our locomotive drags our train slowly along, like 
a thing of life. 

Xol even the issue for the first time of forty rounds of am- 
munition to each man, nor the order to load, repressed the en- 
thusiasm of the men, but the chorus of their songs rolled out 



1^ History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. [. 



over the flying train, echoing up and down the dells and (dirt's 
formed by the towering ridges, through and up which the train 
swiftly wended its way. as though it "scented the battle from 
afar. 

We are rapidly moving to * rrafton, passing through a count ry 
not quite so rough as thai we passed through this morning, vet 
quite mountainous and gloomy t<> our eves. 

8:80 p. m. We arrived at Grafton W. Ya.. and were switched 
off on the Parkersburg branch of the B. tfc O. R. R. Then we 
went to Clarksburg, W. Va., arriving aboul 11 p. m. and re- 
mained on the train till morning. 

August 81, 18G1 — This morning we were awakened early, told 
to get breakfast, and get ready to lie reviewed by Gen. \V. S. 
Rosecrans. We got up, tired of railroading, and dusty as 
chimney-sweeps, got breakfasl on Virginia soil, and got ready 
for review. Here we were drawn up in line in a field near the 
railroad and Gen. Rosecrans reviewed us. Before starting us 
off on our travels each company, after forming, marched under 
the command of its company officers to its place in the regi- 
mental line. Here the company was halted and brought to a 
front face and dressed to the right and kept at shoulder arms. 
After the regiment had thus been formed into line by the Ad- 
jutant it was turned over to Col. Frederick Poschner, who al 
once rode down from the right wing to the center of the regi- 
ment, then turning to the front rode towards where Gen. Rose- 
crans and staff were waiting to receive the salute of the regi- 
ment. The Colonel did not order the regiment to present arms 
as he should have' done. This was so gross a breach of mili- 
tary discipline that Gen. Rosecrans could not stand it. and 
gave the command, "Colonel, bring your regimenl to a present." 
Col. Poschner halted, passed his hand over his face in adogged 
sort of way. as if he did not understand. He then Hushed in 
the face, turned rapidly, drew his sword, and commanded, 
''attention, battalion, present arms." We at once presented 
arms. The Colonel then turned and faced the Genera] and 
promptly saluted him and his staff with his sword. Gen. 
Rosecrans promptly acknowledged the salute and ordered the 
Colone] to join the stall'. That done. Gen. Rosecrans ordered 
Shoulder arms, order arms, parade rest, which orders were 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. ID 

promptly executed. Gen. Rosecrans then made an address to 
tie 17th regiment, in which he said that he Was proud to see 
such a fine body of men and he demanded of us three tilings; 
to eat well, to sleep well, and t<> fight well. He said if we did 
one we could do all. He said it was his place to see that we 
were properly eared for, clothed warmly, and kept in rations, 
and that it was our duty to keep ourselves in military appear- 
ance and to perfect ourselves in drill, and "when you meet 
the enemy face the noise and let us have no more Bull Runs.' 1 

Here were immense army trains, belonging to the Commis- 
sary and Quartermasters' Departments, and myriads of refu- 
gees, loyal people who had been driven from their old Virginia 
homes, by the rancor, assaults, and threats of their Confeder- 
ate neighbors. At this post wagons and teams were issued — 
two wagons to each company and four to regimental head- 
quarters, and still others to Quartermaster and Commissary 
departments. This was Gen. Rosecrans' supply depot or base, 
and was crowded with officers, soldiers, stragglers and settlers. 
It seemed to our unaccustomed eyes and ears ;i babble, verily. 
There was a confusion of tongues, a profusion of oaths, the 
shouting of trainmasters, the braying of mules, the swearing of 
teamsters, the din of brass bands, the whistle of locomotives, 
the frenzied screams of the babies and frightened children of 
the refugees, and the hoarse voices of the officers giving com- 
mands, but the long line of white-topped wagons with its guards, 
lengthening always, and continually moving out of "park" to 
a particular point, and winding thence away over and around 
the hills until it was lost to view in the beautiful foliage of the 
deciduous forests fringing the road, showed that order and sys- 
tem held sway even here. 

Our first march now commenced. Our wagon train being 
ready to move, Gen. Rosecrans gave the command, "Right 
face, forward march," and he and staff rode southward and 
soon disappeared from our view, and we were off on our first 
campaign and our first march. 

Our German band marched us through Clarksburg to the 
tune of Sweet Ben Bolt, and every man stepped as though the 
destiny of the country depended on the emphasis with which he 
put his left foot down. When the suburbs of the city were 



20 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



reached, the music subsided, and the route step, or the "go-as- 
you-please" gait, was taken, and each one went into the busi- 
ness of face mopping. Soon the column struck a branch of I he 
Monongahela River, and the first halt was made. The canteens 
were refilled, and a Wreathing spell was given. After the bugle 
call the march was resumed, and the hand played "The girl 1 
left Behind Me." This was mournful, as the parting scenes 
were still vivid, and it was necessary to follow it with "Yankee 
Doodle."* which braced everybody up, and caused them to step 
proudly as Long as the music continued. In a little while it was 
necessary to play another tune, and again played Dixie. 

We are now to march to a small place called "Jane Lou," 
supposed distance about 18 miles. We rested ten minutes of 
each hour of this march. 

10 o'clock P. M. We have now reached Camp Jane Lou. al- 
ter a most fatiguing march, and went into camp. Our camp is 
on the side of a small hill, which is covered with most luxuriant 
grass. The tired mules crop it with quite a relish. Every- 
t hing around is in a confusion, worse confused by our inexperi- 
ence. After awhile the boys eat their suppers and spread their 
blankets on the grass to seek repose under the blue canopy of 
heaven. 

Sept. 1, '61. Reveille sounded this morning while the stars 
were still brightly shining: breakfast was cooked; the Sunday 
inspection made, and the march resumed. Soon the band elec- 
trified the column with a lively march. Afterward, silence 
prevailed, and then came the sequence. At the repetition of 
the repertoire, a wag numbered them "Hymns 101, 102 and 
103," and the fun-loving men would call for the number. It 
was the knell of doom to the band. 

We marched from Jane Lou to Weston. How glorious and 
beautiful the sun rose this morning with its flaming banner of 
red and gold. Oh. how like the blushing of a bride is the usher- 
ing in of the god of day. May our cause be as bright on his- 
tories' pages as the blood red streams are on the bright blue sky. 
We had an early breakfast and broke camp quite early. The 
boys were quite still' and tired from yesterday's march, so the 
boys threw away many of their things to make their knap-sacks 
lighter. Like all new soldiers they had too much load, but be- 



Histoky of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 21 

fore long they all became wiser. After marching over 8 miles 
we arrived at Weston, soon after 12 o'clock M., and as we move 
forward we hear of the enemy trying to strengthen himself to 
lie prepared to meet us. But we can not hear where that will he. 
That Gen. John B. Floyd willgive us battle we hear from good 
authority. That the Rebels, Gen. Floyd and Gen. Wise are not 
on very good terms we also hear, but history teaches that the 
friendship of a traitor cannot be relied upon. We are now in 
that part of the country where secessionists once predominated, 
but they are now scarce. They are supposed to have joined the 
Rebel generals, Floyd or Wise. 

Weston was reached about noon September 1st. Notwith- 
standing the half-day's march, the desire to exhibit his regi- 
ment caused the colonel to order it to break into platoons, and 
in this order to pass through the principal streets of the city out 
to the camp ground, winch was on a promontory formed by a 
bend in the river. There was no rest at this place, but strict 
orders were at once issued for company drill, and from sunrise 
to sundown the scene was as shifting as the views in a kaleido- 
scope. 



COL. POSCHNER'S MARCH TO THE BATTLE OF CARNI- 
FEX FERRY, W. VA. 

Sept. 3, '61. Left camp at Weston at 2 o'clock P. M. and 
marched in southerly direction and marched till 10 P. M., and 
went into camp, in a small field to the right of the road. 
Raining and very disagreeable, and the roads are very bad. 
The country mountainous and rough. 

Sept. 4, '61. Left our camp early this morning, wet and weary 
from our march yesterday, and our exposure last night. At 12 
o'clock M., we rested at Jacksonville, about one hour. This is 
quite a small town, only about half a dozen houses. The en- 
emy is reported at or near Big Birch Mountain, about two day's 
march from here. Evening arrived and we went into camp at 
Bull Town, a real Virginia Mountain town, situated between two 
mountains, and along the banks of a small stream called Elk 
River, spanned by a wooden bridge. Crossing the bridge we 
arrived at Bull Town. This town was named in honor of a 



-_ History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

tribe of Indians. Here they had their squaws and papooses 
Located, and amassed their wealth of beads and wampum. 
Happy, delighted Indians, would thai you could only see the 
vast improvements since your day. A sawmill, a lanyard, and 
a dwelling house composed the town. We camped on the out- 
skirts of the town, and immediately put out pickets out, fear- 
ing i lie bush-whackers. 

Sept. 5, 61. Marched from Bui] Town at LO o'clock A. ML, 
and at 5 P. M. we arrived at Sutton. Here we joined the regi- 
ments thai have preceded us a few days. Eere we learned that 
we are brigaded with the 9th Etegimenl ().. commanded by 
Lieut. Col. Charles Sohdershoff, and the 28th Regimenl ().. 
commanded by Col A. Moore, the brigade commanded by Rob- 
ert L. McCook. The first and third brigades are at this point. 
and are composed of the following regiments : The firsl brigade 
is commanded by Brigadier Gen. H. W. Benham, and the fol- 
lowing regiments, 10th Keg., O., Col. Win. Lytic: 12th Reg., 
O., Col. J. W. Low, and the 18th Reg., O., Col. William E. 
Smith. The third brigade is commanded by Col. E. P. Scam- 
mon. The brigade is composed as follows: The 30th 
hVu\. 0., Col. Hugh Ewing, and the 23rd 0., Col. E. P. 
Scammon. Our artillery consists of William Schneider's 
Rifled (inns, and Capt. Jas. McMullen's Howitser's. We have 
some cavalry. The Chicago Dragoons and some Ohio cavalry. 
The Rebel forces in our front arc we learned, commanded by 
Gen. John B. Floyd, and his forces are estimated to be equal 
to ours. Gen. Henry A. Wise, C. S. A., is in command of a 
force called 'ldic Legion, and are said to be operating on the 
Kanawha and New rivers. Our forces in those parts are com- 
manded by Gen. J. D. Cox, and while Gen. Cox is engaged in 
driving the rebel forces from that valley we will try and drive 
them from this part. We expect to remain here a few days to 
rest and to gel into a lighting condition. It is reported the 
enemy has fallen bach to Summersville, Va. 

Sept. 6, '61. We remained in camp. Nothing doing but 
guarding and strong picket duly. 

Sept. 7,61. Marched from our camp al Sutton this morn- 
ing, and at 10 o'clock P. M. arrived and went into camp at the 
foot of Big Birch Mountain. Our cavalry had a skirmish and 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 23 



drove some of the enemies 1 cavalry from the top of Birch 
Mountain. One of the enemies' men was killed and two were 
wounded. We left Capt. Wm. H. Ward, Co. B as a re-enforce- 
ment to the garrison at Sutton. 

Sept. 8, '61. We remained in camp all day, cleaned up our 
guns to be ready to fight. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans reviewed the 
army to-day, and gave us the following good advice : He said : 
When you meet the enemy keep close to your ranks and aim 
at the breast-plates, and keep to your guns. Never fail to face 
the noise, and he assured us we would have an easy victory 
over the enemy. But he did not inform us where we would 
find them. A rebel flag was seen on a cliff near the top of 
Little Birch Mountain. As it was the first rebel flag we had 
seen it created quite an excitement. The country over which 
we have marched for the past few days is very broken with bleak 
mountains, rough and frowning precipices, with green cedars 
jutting out of their crevices on their almost perpendicular 
sides. The views from the top of the mountains, with their 
vast panorama of ridges and valleys are beautiful. Their many- 
colored garments of leaves are made magnificently grand by 
the watch-fires of the two armies. By this I mean our army 
and that of the enemy. 

Sept. 9, 61. We left camp at Birch Mountain and after a 
laborious march up the mountain we went into camp again. 
We drove the enemies' outposts of cavalry before us all day. 
We are eight miles from Summerville. 

Sept. 10, '61. The column began to move soon after four 
o'clock this morning and reached Summerville at 8 o'clock a. 
m. We were delayed by a burned bridge. A regiment of in- 
fantry and a company of cavalry were driven from this place. 
Our advance captured some prisons. The boys are not daunted 
at the near prospect of an engagement. As many jokes are 1 >and- 
ied back and forth as ever. To see us you would! hardly think 
that the men who are now so jovial would soon engage in strife 
in which human life is of so little weight. 

The following is the official report of Gen. W. S. Roseemns 
concerning the battle of Carnifex, W. Va. ; Vol. 5, p. 129, War 
records. "From Summerville the command moved contin- 
ually but rapidly forward over four miles of very bad n>;ids. 



24 History of the 47th Regiment <). V. V. I. 

forming almost a defile, and then over more open country, 
until the head of it reached a point where the firsl road lead- 
ing to the Ferry diverges from the lower road to Gauley Bridge, 
on which we were marching. Reached there about two o'clock 
and halted for half an hour for the column and tram to close 
up. and then we began to move down to the Rebel position, 
said to be about one and a half miles distant. Skirmish firing 
commenced at the head of the column within three-quarters of 
a mile. A.s we neared Carnifex Kerry the advance guard he- 
came engaged with the enemy." 



UATTLE OF CARNIFEX FERRY, VA. 

This battle was fought September 10th, 186.1. Gen. Rose- 
crans issued his orders. Everything was now life and activity. 
A marching column must be changed to aline of hat tie. Gen. 
Rosecrans took his post off to the right of the road on a small 
clear hill. Our brigade, the second, was inarched to the Left 
of the road and deployed into two lines of battle. The 9th 
Regiment, O., formed with its right resting on the road, with 
t he 28th 0. joining on its left and containing the line of battle. 
The 47th 0. was also formed into line of battle, some fifty feet 
in the rear in reserve. On a higher elevation of ground and 
behind us were posted the Chicago Dragoons. The first and 
second brigades were deployed out to the right of the road and 
encircled the (dear hill on which Gen. Rosecrans was posted. 
In five minutes after the firing began our army was in line of 
battle and ready for the fight. In a short time, possibly half 
an hour, the 10th Ohio was sent ahead supported by the first 
brigade. We watched the gallant 10th as it went down the 
road toward the enemy, and as it went forward through the 
woods w ithout a shot being fired we were amazed. The wildest 
sort of rumors now prevailed. "The Rebels are gone." We'll 
have no fight." We watched and listened. The coolest gave 
a twitch to their trousers or a look at their guns. In the midst 
of this silence came a blast like a wind storm — a crashing 
sound of rifles and artillery was home back to us, telling us 
that the gallant 10th had met the enemy. Volley after volley 
followed, mingled with the booming of the artillery. Our 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 25 

commanders having their orders, we were marched down the 
road double-quick toward the scene of action. The enemy had 
been encamped in a field to the left of the road, and upon our 
approach they fell back to their entrenchments, covering 
Carnifex Ferry. After the 10th 0. had passed through the 
woods for half a mile their skirmishers became engaged with 
the enemy, and the regiment pushed on to their relief until 
it reached a clear space on the summit of the hill, where for 
the first time the enemy came into our view, posted in front 
behind their entrenchments, with artillery in position, sweep- 
ing the road for over a mile. Col. Lowe of the 12th regiment 
0. was killed in the first volley. 

We will now give the offiial report by Col. R. L. McCook, 
commanding our brigade. After describing our arrival at the 
works and our support of the battle of the first brigade, says. 
''At three o'clock I ordered to storm the Rebel works. I put 
in motion the 9th Ohio in advance, followed by the 28th Ohio 
and the 47th Ohio. After we had advanced under fire close to 
the enemies' works and three companies of the 9th Ohio had 
passed the cornfield in front of the enemies' works, and had 
deployed into the brush, the order to charge the works was 
countermanded. I immediately placed the brigade in such a 
position as to be most available and under cover from the 
enemies' fire. This "was done as follows: Seven companies of 
the 9th Ohio on the path back of the hill occupied by McMul- 
len's Battery. The 28th Ohio in their rear, and the 47th Ohio 
on the main road leading to the enemies' works. We remained 
in this position until about 7 P. M., when orders were again 
received to storm the enemies' works. The 47th Ohio was se- 
lected to take the enemies' artillery, and was to charge directly 
up the road leading to them, and while we were standing in 
line waiting for the word, the other regiments marched to their 
respective positions. It was now getting dark. In getting 
into position the 18th Ohio ran foul of the 28th Ohio by mis- 
take and shots were exchanged between them. Before the 
lines could be arranged and the different regiments gotten into 
position, it became too dark to move, and we received orderB 
to move back to the abandoned Rebe] camp, which we did in 
good order.' 1 — [ Taken from Vol 5, War Department. 



26 History of the 47th Regiment. O. V. V. I. 

In this, our first engagement, we have learned some things 
The Rebels will fight, and our boys are as brave under fire as 
one could wish. While the 47th Reg. <).. although not direct- 
ly engaged, was close to the front. We were in as bad a po- 
sition as new troops could be placed under fire, and had no op- 
portunity to return the fire. The regiment stood firm, and 
it' we had been allowed to charge the rebel artillery I believe 
we would have taken it. Our brigade lost in this engagement 
in killed and wounded 40 men. and for the army under Gen. 
Rosecrans. the loss was 17 killed and 141 wounded. Rebel 
Gen. John B. Floyd's report of the battle of Carnifex Ferry, 
from Vol. 5, Official Report, War Department, page 147. he 
says : The assaults — Union — were made with spirit and determi- 
nation, with small arms and grape and round shot from How- 
itser's and rifled guns ; There was scarcely an intermission in 
the conflict until night put an end to the firing. 

Sept. 11, '61. At daylight this morning we found the Reb- 
els gone. They evacuated during the night, leaving one stand 
of colors, or the Rebel rag they call their flag. Our scouts 
brought it into our lines. The enemy under John B. Floyd have 
found out we have the force to drive them. Floyd concluded 
not to fight with a river in his rear, deep and rapid, and crossed 
only by a military bridge. So, after the battle closed last night. 
he must have commenced his retreat, for when our scouts 
went out this morning they found the enemy had fled How 
they came to abandon the flag no one knows. Could it have 
been forgotten? There is some picket firing down at the river, 
about a mile from here, called Camp Scott. The reports say 
that Floyd is fortifying on the other side of the Gauley River. 
Our artillery has been moved down there. We visited the 
evacuated Rebel works this morning. They mounted four guns 
commanding the road, and had quite a strong earthwork. It 
extended for about 200 yards on each side of the road. The 
flanks were guarded by log breastworks which extended toward 
the Gauley River. Rails have been placed upright, against the 
log breastworks, forming quite rude but efl'ective palisades. 
Those breastworks extend back to the river, embracing quite 
an area. The crossing of Gauley River is quite dangerous here 
without a bridge, as the crossing is just above the falls. The 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 27 

firing ceased toward evening, and our artillery came back to 
cam]). The enemy had disappeared . 

September 12 and 18. '61. In the same camp; resting and tak- 
ing care of the wounded, and burying the dead. 

September 14. '(51. Left Camp Scott. 

September 15, '61 Marched to Camp Lookout, after crossing 
Gau ley River. 

September 16-20, '61. In Camp Lookout. No events of im- 
portance. 

Sept. 21-22, '61. A private was shot in the arm by hush- 
whackers, and four men were arrested on suspicion of doing 
the shooting. 

Sept. 23, '61. Orders to march were issued and we marched 
out of Camp Lookout at 9 a. m. and passed through Dogwood 
Gap. This place is strongly fortified and the enemy abandoned 
the works at our approach this evening. Co. K, 1st Ky. V. I. 
had a skirmish with the enemy. They had one man wounded, 
while the enemy had one man killed and two wounded. On 
our march to-day we reached the gap of Big Sewell Mountain 
and encamped. The enemy are again in our front, and are 
commanded, we understand, by the Rebel Gen. Wise, ex-Gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

Sept. 24. '61. Big Sewell Mountain. Our cavalry wentout 
this morning and had a skirmish with the enemy. The Rebels 
used their artillery on them. Our artillery then got into po- 
sition, and with a few well directed shots silenced the enemies' 
battery. One of the shots the Rebels directed at our artillery 
only came about half way. We judged they had very poor 
ammunition. 

Sept. 25, '61. Our artillery fired a few shells into the Reb- 
el camp. This morning a small force of our men went out and 
had a skirmish, and our loss was four men wounded. We will 
give here a description of Big Sewell Mountain, W. Va. This 
mountain is in Greenbriar County, W. Va., and forms part of 
the range known as the Alleghaney mountains. It is in the 
form of a semi-circle, with peaks slightly elevated, and is 
about six miles from the point of one elevation to the point of 
the other, to follow the ridge. Our army is encamped on one 
peak and the enemy on the other, out of gun-shot of each other. 



28 History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 

The pike connecting Charleston, W. Va., with Covington, in 
the same state, crosses Sewell Mountain here, and it winds up 
one side and crosses the western peak, then along the connect- 
ing ridge to the other peak, and crossing it descends into the 
valley beyond. This pike is very steep and rocky as it winds 
up the mountain. 

Gen. Wise's forces, C. S. A., lay entrenched at the point 
where the road crosses the eastern peak of Sewell Mountains, 
with their artillery in position to control the pike in front, 
with both flanks well drawn back, and guarded by log breast- 
works all along its entire front. The timber has been felled 
and pointed outward forming an almost impenetrable barrier 
to our attacking forces. Our army is encamped on the western 
peak of the same mountain, where the pike crosses it, with 
wings well to the front and well guarded but not fortified. 

Sept. 26, '61. To-day a Rebel captain was killed and his 
sword was brought into our lines. We are skirmishing with 
the enemy to make them show their weak points, but with no 
effect. It is late in the season to make a flank movement, and 
no attack could be made in front, without great loss of life. 
It is rumored we are to retreat from this point soon. 

Sept. 27 and 28, '61. We are still in the same position, and 
we are annoyed a great deal by cold, damp, drizzle weather, 
and standing guard or picket duty is horrible work. As we 
are allowed to build only a few fires, and they must be where 
the enemy can not see them, as we do not want them to ascer- 
tain our exact forces. We have tents, but they are not of much 
use, since the ground they stand on is very muddy, and there 
is not a place in camp that is not shoe-mouth deep in mud, in- 
cluding the grounds in the tents. 

Sept. 29, '61. We are still in the same position. It is fine 
and clear to-day. 

Sept. 30 Oct. 1, '61. The enemy still fortifying. Company A 
of our regiment was sent out on duty at an advanced picket post 
to support a cavalry picket to the left of the enemies' line. 
Major Slemmer, of Ft. Picken's fame, inspected us to-day. 

Oct. 2, '61. No events of importance, except that our rations 
are very scarce. The rumor is that we will retreat from here 
soon . 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 29 

October 3 and 4, '61 The enemy are still fortifying. The 
rumor is gaining ground that we are to retreat from hereto the 
Kanawha valley. A battery of small 12-pounder Howitsers ar- 
rived here to-day. 

October 5, '61. We have been in this position since September 
23. We arrived in good condition, having defeated both Rebel 
generals, Floyd and Wise, and have driven them thus far, and 
believe we could drive them still further if we were ordered 
forward. Orders received to be ready to march at a moment's 
notice, and as soon as darkness enveloped the mountains we 
began our 

RETREAT FROM BIG SEWELL MOUNTAIN, W. VA. 

We struck tents and packed our knapsacks in the darkness, 
fell in line and began our retreat. The night was dark and 
cold and toward morning. October 6, it was raining. We were 
ordered to move quietly, but it was very hard for us to keep in 
the road and do so. The road over which we had to retreat 
was in a most horrible condition. It runs through a broken 
country, the hills rivaling mountains. The advance regiments 
tramping over the roads converted them into an almost im- 
passable morass, so when our brigade was to pass over it, it 
was almost impassable. Our regiment held the post of honor, 
the rear of the army, and we held it for the good cause. Our 
heavy-laden wagons, the cavalry and the infantry, all passing 
over one road, together with the darkness, made speed impos- 
sible. A number of our wagons mired down, and as they were 
all well loaded an exchange from one wagon to the other was 
utterly impossible. All we could do was to unload and des- 
troy. Tents were piled up along the side of the road and set 
on fire and left to burn. Officers' mess chests were consigned 
to the flames. Boxes of hard tack were rolled down the moun- 
tains, while coffee and rice we poured in the gullies of the road 
to fill up the deep ruts. By this means we soon light- 
ened the wagon train of a great part of its load, and it was no 
longer an impediment to our march. Yet no progress could be 
made, and daylight found the rear guard at the western part 
of Sewell mountain. At sun-up Gen. Rosecrans rode along 
the line and was greeted with rousing cheers. His presence 



30 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

caused an increased activity among the men. The advance 
marched fast in order to gain the name of the fastest march- 
ing regiment in the army. The rear guard — our regiment — 
besides watching the enemy, were determined not t'o lose 
gr< mid and cause a break in the column. By 1<» o'clock a. m. 
the army reached Spy Rock, fourteen miles from the base of 
Sewell Mountain and twenty miles from its tup. Here we 
went int<> camp. The en^mie's cavalry followed us, but they 
dared not attack us. Why it was necessary for us to retreat 
from Big Sewell Mountain we did not know. 

October 7th, '61. We remained in camp at Spy Rock all 
day. 

October 9, '61. We marched from Spy Rock to Camp An- 
derson, near the Hawk's nest, and arrived here at 4 p. m . 
where our brigade is in camp resting. 

October 10. 11 and 12, '61. No events. 

A description of the Hawk's Nest, as we saw it is as follow-: 
It is situated on the New River, six and a half miles above 
Gauley River Bridge in the middle of a bend in the New River. 
This bend is about three miles long and Cotton Mountain is on 
the south side of the rifer. Cotton Mountain has rugged walls 
and frowning peaks, with here and there a patch of evergreens 
frowning upon the stream which encircles and lashes its base 
on the same side of New River. Away up the stream are hills 
upon hills, some greatly excelling Cotton Mountain in size. 
while some are only satellites planted around their large neigh- 
bors, allowing our gaze to sweep over their crests and down 
their rugged sides until it rests upon the rushing torrents of 
the river. Cataract after cataract are seen, with here and 
there a single gigantic rock that rears its hoary head far above 
the rushing watersand, throws it back foaming and roaring 
only to encircle its base and pass on. As we allow our gaze to 
follow the hastening waters for a moment, to admire the foam- 
ing river speckled with rocks, then on again, admiring the river 
as it surges around a single defiant rock, and still on over in- 
numerable beauties, until at last we find we have been drawn 
by our curiosity to stand on the very verge of the cliff. We 
look down upon the river, which runs apparently at our feet, 
but which is 1200 feet below us, and see what looks like shrubs 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 31 

in the distance, but far below. They are the tops of the trees 
that line thn river banks. Down the river we allow our gaze 
to wander until the river is seen to lose itself around Cotton 
Mountain. This entire scene is called the Hawk's Nest. 

THE LOVER'S LEAP. 

The Lover's Leap is not far above the Hawk's Nest, and on 
the same stream. It is a perpendicular cliff 700 feet high over- 
looking New River, and as you look down from this cliff you 
can see the rocks below near the edge of the river. It was told 
us by some old people here that one time many years ago a 
young couple wanted to get married, but their folks were op- 
posed to the marriage. After long coaxing and trying every 
means to get the old folks to withdraw their opposition, all ef- 
forts proved a failure. The young couple determined that if 
they could not be allowed to live together in this life, they 
would go to this cliff and commit suicide. So they went to the 
cliff, and locked arms, and threw themselves down the cliff. 
Of course they went down and were mashed to a jelly. So they 
died together, and from that time this cliff has been called the 
Lover's Leap. 

October 13-18, '61. We are still at Camp Anderson, near the 
Hawk's Nest and Lover's Leap. Not much occurring, only the 
Rebel militia on the other side of New River are getting some- 
what active. Their principal work consists in firing upon or 
bush-whacking our picket post at Miller's Ferry. 

October 19, '61. Our Brigade left Camp Anderson this morn- 
ing and crossed New River at Miller's Ferry. We marched to 
Fayetteville, or Fayette Court House, and had no opposition 
from the enemy. When we reached the town we found no 
Rebels there — they had retreated. The first regiment to reach 
the town was the 47th Ohio, and some of the boys confiscated 
some rebel property. The distance of Fayetteville from Camp 
Anderson is about seven miles. After resting here some time, 
we marched back to Camp Anderson. The following is the 
report of Gen. Rosecrans on the capture of Fayetteville. He 
says: "The militia, which all summer long occupied the region 
wfst of the New River and south of the Cook Creek Hills, 
showed themselves opposite Miller's Ferry, near McCook's 
Brigade, about October 18th, '61, when they were, as we 



32 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

learned, to be assembled at Payette for the purpose of being 
paid off. But as we then supposed, and since ascertained, 
with the real object of rallying them if possible. Col. McCook 
was. therefore, directed to pass over with sufficient force to cap- 
ture or disperse them, and occupy or retreat as circumstances 
might indicate to him best, He passed over, had a skirmish 
with a small militia force, occupied Fayette, reconnoitered 
the roads in the vicinity, satisfied himself that there were no 
forces excepting the bush-whacking militia rebel residents of 
the country, and retired over Miller's Ferry without leaving a 
guard on t he other side. Esteemingit of so little consequence, 
he was so dilatory that when he attempted it he found the 
cliffs occupied by a force of sharp-shooters, which rendered 
crossing dangerous to a small force, and so reported to me." 
The above is taken from Vol. 5, p. 258, War of the Rebellion. 
Official Records, War Department. 

October 20, '61. All quiet at Cam]) Anderson, hut some 
picket firing at Miller's Ferry. 

October 21,'61. Skirmish at Miller's Ferry. W. Va. The 
enemy have been very annoying at the Ferry today, and we 
were ordered to march down to try to drive them from their 
• •over on the south side of the river. Their position there is 
almost formidable for their skirmishers, and at almost num- 
berless places on the cliffs of the wild mountains they can find 
cover U'hi n< 1 rocks and trees, from which to annoy us. When 
companies "A" and "A 1 " our regiment reached the river the 
enemy opened quite a severe fire upon us. The companies 
marching by the left dank crossed a creek and ascended the 
hill. When they reached the top of it they deployed as skir- 
mishers, and sought shelter behind trees and rocks. We then 
opened a spirited lire upon the Rebels, but the distance they 
were from us and the advantages they had in sheltering them- 
selves, gave them somewhat the' advantage over us. Finally. 
.•il'ier a spirited skirmish, the enemy broke and fled. Some of 
them were killed or wounded, but how many we could not find 
out, as we did not cross New River after the fight, but return- 
ed to ('amp Anderson. 

October 22to November 3, '61. Wearestill at Camp Anderson, 
and the dangerous picket duty at Miller's Ferry continues. The 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 33 

Rebel Gen. John B. Floyd's men dare not make a stand and 
fight. We gave them ;i chance a few days ago, and when we 
stopped pursuit of them their bushwhackers followed us up. 
One of our boys was shot by one of those bushwhackers while 
carrying dinner to the picket post. He was shot from the op- 
posite side of New River, and at once started on a double-cpiick 
for a house near the picket post, and just as he was about to 
enter tie louse he was again shot, this time in the stomach. 
when he fell in the door. He was presently taken in and sent 
to the camp, where he was taken care of. 

November 4. 5 and 6, '61. The Rebel Gen. John B. Floyd at- 
tacks our force with artillery. The enemy have appeared in some 
force on the south side of New River, where they have Keen 
firing shells and solid shot into our camp. They are driving 
us. but we have no artillery at this place and can not reply to 
the enemie's fire. Floyd, who is now in command of their forces 
on the south side of the river, has returned since we drove him 
beyond Fayette C. H.. and has planted a piece of artillery on 
the bluffs of New River. He annoys us a great deal. Their 
cannon balls come fast, so that we were driven to take shelter. 
The 47th took refuge behind a hill, and every once in a while 
we could hear the cannon balls whistle over our heads, while 
some damage was done to our tents in the camp. This an- 
noying fire was continued on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednes- 
day, when some artillery was sent to us from Gauley Bridge, 
with which we drove the enemy away. After all this cannon- 
ading our regiment suffered no loss, excepting John J. Turner, 
of Co. A. was stunned by a solid shot. 

November 7 to 10, '61. We are still at Camp Anderson. Noth- 
ing of importance to report. But on account of the inclemen- 
cy of the weather we have a great many sick in camp, who are 
being sent to the hospital at Charleston, YY. Ya., which is down 
the river. 

November 11, '61. This morning we received marching orders, 
and knapsacks were packed, tents taken down, wagons loaded. 
and every preparation made to move. At 6 P. M. we started 
on our march for Gauley Mountain/ which some call the 
Thompkins Farm. 

November 12, '61. At one o'clock in the night we reached Grau- 



84 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

ley, Mountain. Here are the headquarters of Major General 
Rosecrans. We put up our tents, after a fatiguing march 
during the night, but we can not understand why we marched in 
the night, as there is no enemy in sight or near. 

November 20, '61. We are still at Grauley Mountain. W. Va. 
We do not know if we will winter here or not. There are 
reports that we will not remain here all winter, and then again 
reports t hat we will. 

November 21 to 25, '61. Snow fell, the first of the season. 
and now, on the 25th there are two inches of it on the ground. 
To all appearances winter has set in; the weather is so cold 
that the bell tents are no protection against the inclemency of 
the weather. Standing guard or on picket in the mountains 
without fire is awful in the extreme, the cold penetrating every 
joint until the whole body is benumbed. 

November 26 to 29, '61. We have found out now that we will 
remain in winter quarters here, which is called Camp Gauley 
Mountain. The position of the armies are as follows: Scank's 
Brigade is at Fayetteville, and the 47th Ohio is entrenched at 
Gauley Mountain, under command of Col. Poschner, with one 
twenty-pounder Parrott gun and two mountain Howitsers. At 
Gauley Bridge is the 28th Regiment under Col. Moore. At 
Summerville, the 36th Regiment Ohio, under Col. Geo. Crook. 
At Cannelton and on the west side of the Kanawha River is 
the 37th Regiment Ohio, under Col. Siber. At Camp Piatt. 
the 44th Regiment Ohio, under Col. Gilbert. Charleston and 
Kanawha River, with supervision of the defense of the valley, 
Brigadier-General J. D. Cox, his brigade at Charleston; the 8th 
Virginia at Buff alo ; the 34th Ohio under Col. Piatt, at Bar- 
bourville and Mud River; the 2nd Virginia Cavalry under Col. 
Bailes, at Guyandotte, and the 5th Virginia at Ceredo. The 
whole commanded by Brigadier-General W. S. Rosecrans. 
— Taken from the Official Records of the War Department, Vol. ■'>, 
First Series, pages 669 and 670 

November 29 to December 4, '61. Winter quarters at Camp 
Gauley Mountain. We are not actively engaged, that is. we 
did not have any engagements with the enemy. We had plenty 
of scouting to do, plenty of drilling, plenty of hard work build- 
ing breast-works and block-houses, and getting artillery into 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 35 

position. Our regiment is the only one that is to remain here 
all winter. Having been detailed to hold this out-post we 
were supplied with Sibley tents. This tent is a round-bottom- 
ed tent, running to a point at the top. In erecting these tents 
we would mark out a circle the size of the tents, and as our 
camp was on the hillside, we would then dig out to a level and 
cut a ditch around the circle. In this ditch we put in slabs 
upright and fastened them securely in their places, forming a 
wooden circle about three or four feet high. On the outside of 
this, dirt was thrown up, forming a bank as high as the slabs. 
The tents were fastened to these as usual, with wooden pins. 
This could not be done in all parts of the camp, but very near- 
ly so. When the tents were thus erected a sheet iron stove was 
placed in the center, with the pipe extending out at the top of 
the tent. This arrangement frecpiently caused fires and badly 
burned tents ; around this stove bunks were built, and from 
twelve to fifteen men were quartered in each tent. These 
Sibley tents are vast improvements over the the wall tents, but 
in the winter, which proved to be so cold, some of the men dug 
furnaces under their tents, and by this means kept good and 
warm . 

Description of Gauley Mountain Camp, Winter of '61-'62. 

This camp, true to its name, is situated on Gauley Mountain, 
in W. Va., on the pike connecting Lewisburg and the head- 
waters of the Great Kanawha River, and about two miles above 
the junction of the Gauley and New Rivers, the two rivers 
forming the Great Kanawha. We have our artillery posted to 
command the road leading to Lewisburg, and in the rear of 
our camp is a mountain which encircles and protects both our 
right and left flanks, It is inaccessible at all points, except 
where we are encamped. This mountain is higher than any of 
the others near it and consecmently commands them. On the 
top of it is planted our artillery. Our guns command the road 
which sweeps around the mountain for several miles. As this 
is the only road leading to our camp. Col. Poschner thought 
after fortifying it that it was an impregnable position. There 
was no doubt that our artillery with the rifle pits constructed, 
made our position secure. Immediately south of this camp 



36 History of the 47tit Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

sweeps New River along the fool of the mountain on which we 
are encamped. It rushes over rocks and bolders, making such 
a noise thai we can hear it in the camp. South of New River 
rises Cotton Mountain, with its rugged walls and frowning 
precipices, jutted with scrubby cedars. Looking westward we 
see nothing but many frowning mountain peaks and their 
rocky sides. But with the exception of Cotton Mountain our 
camp is above them all. 

September 3, '61. At Weston, \V Va We will now go 
back with the reader to the camp at Weston, which we left in 
the early part of this work, to this date, the day Col. Poschner 
and Major Parry left here with Companies A, B. C. D, H and 
K, under the command of Lieut-Col. Elliott, the remaining 
Companies, E, F, G and I. commanded by Captains Bundy, 
Taylor, Rapp and Pugh, respectively. This camp is on the 
west fork of the Monongahela River, and south of the town of 
Weston. It is situated on a hillside, west of the pike running 
from Clarksburg to Carnifex Ferry. We were left here as a 
garrison to guard the road and base of supplies for Gen. Rose- 
cran's army, which is operating at or near Carnifex Ferry, 
against the Rebel generals, John B. Floyd and Henry A. Wise. 
While we remained here our picket and guard duty are double 
duty, as when one goes out on picket duty he remains 48 hours 
each time. There are only four companies here, and the bush- 
whackers are thick around us. If we could have our wish we 
would not remain here, but goon with the rest of the regiment, 
have a share in the fights, and take a part in the victories over 
our rebel foes. However, we have taken an oath to be obedient 
to our superior officers, and we must submit to orders. The 
boys say they have sow-belly, coffee and hard tack for break- 
fast, and then hard tack, coffee and sow-belly for dinner, then 
for a change they have coffee, sow-belly and hard tack for sup- 
per. So the joke went on. In a few days after Col. Poschner 
had left us here under the command of Col. Elliott, he took 
measures to make the boys realize that they were in the 
enemies' country. Accordingly, one night while the writer was 
on duty as camp guard, the officer of the day came to him at 
dusk and said: "Corporal, when it gets a little darker I want 
you to go with me and we will go around and test the camp 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 37 

guards." Accordingly, when the time camp we started. The 
offie-r told me to remain behind him, the first guard we came 
to said: "'Halt! Who comes there?" The officer told him, 
friend, with the counter-sign. The guard said; ''Advance and 
give the counter-sign." This was done. Then the officer, cal- 
ling the guard by name, said "you ought to know me," to 
which he answered that he did. Said the officer, 'iet me see 
your gun and see if it is well-loaded and capped, for this 
country is full of bushwhackers. The guard gave him the 
musket to examine, but instead of giving the musket back to 
the guard he handed it to me, and we went on, leaving che guard 
on his beat without a musket. We made the rounds of the 
camp that night and secured six or seven muskets in that man- 
ner. Going back to the guard house we went around with the 
relief and brought those men under guard and put them m the 
guard house for the rest of the night. The next morning they 
were given a lecture concerning the rules of war, and what they 
might depend upon it, if caught in that way again. This in- 
cident went through the camp, and no officer nor any one else, 
would have been safe to undertake the like of that on our picket 
post as our camp guard again — it would have been a dangerous 
experiment. But this lesson from Col. Elliott was a good 
lesson to all of us. 

Another good lesson he gave us a short time after. Col. El- 
liott had given the command to the picket post to fire and give 
alarm as though they were being attacked by the enemy. They 
did as ordered one day at noon, and you ought to have seen 
the officers having their men fall in line, and form in line of 
battle. We remained in line in this way until an officer went 
out to the picket post and returned, when we were dismissed, 
not knowing what had happened. In the course of a few days 
we heard the firing at the picket post again, but in another 
direction from our camp. The Colonel and the officers got us 
into line even much quicker than before. The same tactics 
were repeated, and a day or so we learned that the firing had 
been done by- the orders of Col. Elliott. He was now satisfied 
that if we should be attacked by the enemy we would be in 
line quickly, ready to fight like men for the Union and the 
Flag, and if need lie to die for our righteous cause. We had 



38 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

also learned a good lesson, which in the near future will t'll 
what 1 1 i * - gallant 47th Regiment did for our country, and will 
tell how many of us were left cold in death on the b ittle-fi (Ida. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott was appointed Post Commander 
and Provost Marshal of Weston, and Captains Taylor, Bandy, 
Helmrich and Pugh were detached as a garrison to hold the 
military post. A large quantity of supplies had been accumu- 
lated at this point, toward which the Confederates cast long- 
ing eyes. Hence the duty was arduous. Spies and other pris- 
oners were captured in considerable numbers. There were 
quite a large number of rebel families in the town and vicinity, 
and the hills were badly infested with guerrillas. Incessant 
vigilance was required to prevent surprise and the destruction 
of the stores. While at this place, from among the loyal in- 
habitants, Co. F obtained some excellent recruits. There were 
but few social attractions in the place, and hence, when the 
order to march to Cross Lanes and relieve the 13th Ohio was 
read at dress parade on the 18th, it was hailed with demon- 
strations of pleasure by those who were to march. At 5 A. M. 
of the next day, Capt. Bundy, with his company, was left as 
garrison, and the march was begun by Companies F, G and I. 

The day was pleasant, the commander moved liesurely and 
took his command into Jacksonville in good condition. This 
was a small place at the intersection of the Buckhannon road 
containing two dry taverns, and about seventy inhabitants. 
Capt. Taylor was detailed as officer of the day The pickets 
were posted, and the camp soon became silent, as an early start 
had been ordered for morning. The night was passed without 
alarm, but just as the officer of the day was about to relieve 
the guard a shot was fired. Of course, at that period of the 
service, a single shot sufficed to startle the camp, and the com- 
panies were formed, while the officer of the day hastened to the 
place and found that a member of Company G had committed 
suicide. It was ascertained that the dead man had killed him- 
self, just as he was about to be relieved from his post as guard. 
He had said to two of his comrades that he still had two years 
and nine months of his enlistment to serve, that marching by 
day and the performance of guard duty by night would ex- 
haust any man, that he wouldn't stand it any longer, and that 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 39 

he wouldn't get tired any more, but they did not grasp his 
meaning. An order was given to have a coffin prepared at 
once and bury him, and a detail "was made from Company G 
for that purpose, and he was buried there. This made it nec- 
essary to go into camp at Platwoods Church, otherwise known 
as Camp Squires. An early start on the following morning 
brought the detachment into Sutton at noon. Here we found 
Capt. Ward's Company and the 30th Ohio performing post 
duty. The command was assigned quarters in some dwelling 
house, and was comfortably sheltered during a very heavy rain, 
which fell on Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

The first attempt by the detachment of foraging upon the 
enemy was made in this vicinity by Companies F and I, which 
were always associated in good and evil. Capt -tins Taylor and 
Pugh were almost inseparable, Pugh sang the songs and Taylor 
told the stories. Upon this occasion those companies were 
reported to the Post Commander, and their captains were or- 
dered to report to his headquarters. They obeyed promptly, 
and were confronted by some furious citizens, who demanded 
the surrender of some of their men for stealing their hogs. 
Pugh looked at Capt. Taylor, who said : 

"Col. Jones, our men are Buckeyes, and don't steal. There 
is not a hog thief or any other kind of a thief among them." 
But being strongly pressed he said, "these gentlemen and you 
may accompany us to our company quarters, and if you can 
find your hogs, we will surrender the men who took them, if 
they belong to our companies, for trial." The irate individ- 
uals looked the quarters over. There was fresh meat hanging 
on the porch, but there were no marks or brands perceivable. 
If it had ever been pork, the hogs had shed their skins and 
could not be identified, and the officers refused to surrender 
anybody on presumptions 

The Lieutenant-Colonel's long-legged orderly displayed great 
science in the practice of this high art. He was then but a 
callow youth, and with great trepidation called upon a benevo- 
lent dame, and asked for "a piece of bread." She passed him 
a loaf and a knife, that he might cut it for himself. He did 
so, then generously gave her back the slice and the knife, and 
put the piece, as he called it, in his haversack, while she looked 



tO History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

on with unfnigned admiration at his genius. As he pass 
out of her gate he sang "Way Down South in Dixie." He was 
severely reprimanded. 

The detachment marched out of Sutton on Monday morning 
in safety, to the great relict' of the Post Commander, and after 
a pleasant march went into camp on Little Birch River, when 

"The day was done and darkness 

Fell from the wings of night." 

The regular details were made and sent out on picket duty. 
Some of the pickets had heard of the terrible atrocities com- 
mitted by the guerrillas of that locality, and believed that 
every tree contained a guerrilla. Those nervous fellows, as it 
happened, were together, and were stationed near the summit 
of a ridge by the officer of the day. who. as he was about to 
leave them heard one of them remark m an undertone that "he 
-aw a lantern just beyond a pile of brush, and he was not going 
to stay there and lie picked off in the night." In a moment the 
whole post was iii a state of intense excitement and wanted to he 
moved away from that locality, and could not he reassured by 
words. Therefore, he had them point out the object that oc- 
casioned their fear. It was at the bottom of a brush pile. 
He had the brush pulled away, and found some rotten wood 
aglow with phosphorus, or fox-fire. He passed it around among 
them, and made them handle and smell it. This experience 
was part of the inevitable. Those men made excellent sold iers . 
but city-raised, they had never heard of fox-fire. 

On Tuesday night camp was pitched on the summit of 
Powell .Mountain. Here it was that General Rosecrans issued 
his deservedly famous order that ''The top rail only of a fence 
should he taken by the soldiers for fuel, or other purposes." 
This point overtopped all the other ridges. The atmosphere 
was very invigorating, the camp was most delightful; every 
on.- felt the exhiliration of the pure air. At reveille there were 
no laggards, at roll call every man was in his place, wearing a 
satisih d smile. Roll call over very many turned to enjoy the 
view. Down the proximate slopes, and from the summits of 
the lower peaks, which were clad in every conceivable tint of 
green, varied with slight tinges of orange and red, the mists of 
the night were rolling away before the morning light, in gently 



His [ok v of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 41 

undulating clouds that '-has d each other like waves of the sea, 
while through their rifts could be caught occasional glimpses 
of the rustic homes, and life in the dells away below; shifting 
the position a little, the panorama was changed; The golden 
of the morning sun had not yet relieved and illumined this 
region, the green seemed almost black with the darkness, the 
clouds rolled swiftly, and stirred over a deep valley by a whirl- 
wind, dashed with fearful black caps against the mountain, 
but over beyond this fierce rebellious warfare was a beautiful 
picture of peace. Miles and miles away flowed in graceful 
meanders the river Elk. It was not in the grasp of human 
vision to see its limped surface, yet above the celestial com- 
motion in the blackness ran a wavy thread of brightest silver, 
which indicated where it went swirling, dashing andsingingon 
its peaceful way to the Kanawha. The grandeur of the seen 
was beyond description. Reluctantly I turned from it to 
the exhibition of power given by dependent and puny man. 
feeling that the delight of that hour had repaid me for the 
trials of the preceding campain. 

The march was resumed and continued until Summerville, 
t he county seat of Nicholas County, was reached, some time 
during the afternoon. 

Only one family of the entire population of the village re- 
mained to witness our arrival. All the rest had tied, some to 
Lynchburg and others to Parkersburg, as their sympathies had 
directed. The appearance of the unpeopled homes, and aban- 
doned country houses, produced a feeling of melancholy. There 
was no destruction of improvements, except the fences in the 
vicinity of camps. The ruthless hand of war had not yet 
wasted the possessions of any. Foe and friend were guarded 
alike, to the great disgust of the men. 

On the morning of the '2(\th of September, the detachment 
started on the last stage of the march, and reached Cross Lanes 
about noon. It was over two hours in advance of the wagon 
train. Before it arrived a heavy rain storm began, and all 
were quite thoroughly soaked before the tents were pitched. 
On September 30th, the 13th Ohio was relieved from post duty, 
and with Schneider's battery and Gen. Rosecrans staff, joined 
t he main army, east of the G-auley River. The detachment 



42 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



settled down to the exacting demands of post duty. urnlm- 
Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott as Post Commander. The work of 
this post was exceeding arduous. The owners of the surround- 
ing farms with few exceptions, were hostile to our cause, and 
looked upon the l'n ion troops as invaders. The country was 
quite broken, and full of places of shelter, which the enemy 
occupied with great assurance of safety, and from which they 
would make forays upon the camp or train, or secretly bush- 
whack. The remaining families, with one exception, would 
give no intelligence of the movements of the hostile forces. 
The army had to resort to military methods to procure infor- 
mation. At this post the 5th Ohio under Col. Tyler, had 
been surprised, scattered and captured. East of the Gauley 
River was a large scope of wooded and broken country, very 
sparsely settled, known as the Nicholas wilderness, which was 
infested with a local organization of guerrillas, who designated 
themselves "The Moccasin Rangers," to indicate their methods 
of stealth in attack. They had been hunted by two or more 
Ohio regiments, but under their sagacious captain, Ammick, 
had eluded discovery and pursuit. 

At this time Generals Floyd and Wise, in command of the 
Confederate army, were on or near Little Sewell Mountain, and 
Gen. Rosecrans was marching to attack him. Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Elliott was ordered with his handful of troops to do the 
work that a brigade had been unable to do, to drive the guer- 
rillas out of Nicholas Wilderness, to keep it free from them, 
and to maintain his own supply train. In addition to this 
herculean task, it was necessay to keep those serpents off the 
flank of Rosecrans. To accomplish this, the command became 
an army of scouts, adopting perforce a system of independent 
warfare, operating by night as well as by day, with great celer- 
ity, to the consternation of the guerrillas. This method of 
warfare challenged the admiration of the loyal population, and 
they began to come forth from their hiding places and report 
to the Post Commander. Soon they acquired sufficient spirit 
to volunteer as guides to scouting parties. The wilderness 
then gave up its secrets, and its hidden places became plain as 
beaten highways. 

Before the Unionists returned to the country the work of 



History op the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 48 



scouting was exceedingly perilous. The expeditions were short 
and hurriedly made after nightfall, the guides for which had to 
be first surprised and then captured. Of course, such a guide 
was an unwilling actor. He was faithful only because he knew 
he would be the first to die, if he betrayed the party. The 
roads were circuitous, and the narrow foot-paths uncertain, 
and in places dangerous, winding over high ridges, and through 
laurel brakes, jungle or dell, or along precipices. Frequently, 
on account of cloud and storm, the darkness was so intense 
that the line of march could only be maintained by holding 
to each other's garments, and moving in single file ; now and 
then some one would slip or step too far to the side, and 
tumble over a precipice, dragging two or three after him, who 
would generally alight upon the bushes below, which would 
break the force of the fall. Usually the involuntary guide 
would lead the party the longest and roughest way, and in this 
way he would doubtless derive much satisfaction in the per- 
formance of an unpleasant service, and lay up a stock of mirth 
for the entertainment of his friends in the future. 

After the cessation of the equinoctial storms on the 9th of 
October, a detachment was sent under Capt. Taylor, with four 
days' rations, on a tour of observation in Fayette, with orders 
to cross the Gauley River in the vicinity of Carnifex Ferry. 
Upon arriving at the crossing it was found necessary to con- 
struct a raft to cross the river, the material for which could 
be seen only on the opposite side of the river, above the con- 
fluence of the Meadow River. Lieut. Horace A. Egbert, Ser- 
geant Sprague and Mr. Mason, a scout, volunteered to cross 
over and construct the raft They were ordered to proceed 
upon the west bank of the Gauley River until above the mouth 
of the Meadow, and then across to the pile of material. But 
from some unexplainable cause, they rowed directly across the 
Gauley River, and into the rolling waves at the mouth of the 
Meadow, which swamped the boat, and only Mr. Mason was 
rescued, the boat having been carried over the falls there wen 
no means left with which to cross the river at that point and 
the expedition returned to camp. 

The shock produced by the scene and the participation in the 
unsuccessful effort to rescue the others on the nervous system 



44 History of the 47th Regiment. O. V. V. I. 



of a sergeanl of Company F, who up to that date had been a 
very promising soldier, made of him a coward, and he was after- 
wards of no account as an officer. On his own application and 
acknowledgment that he had been unnerved, he was reduced to 

th»- ranks, and transferred to the drum corps. 



A SCOUT IN WESTERN VIRGINIA, OCTOBER, 1861. 

There was no sentiment or poetry in driving guerrillas or 
bush-whackers from their lairs. They never made an open at- 
tack, but always kept concealed. A puff of smoke and the whiz 
of a bullet was the only warning. They had hunted the Union- 
ists unmercifully. Their methods outrivaled the savage, who 
would kill and scalp his enemy and leave his body to rot in 
peace, but Capt. Amick, C. S. A., with his "Moccasins," would 
lie in wait around a spring or other place of resort for the 
Unionists, until an opportunity presented itself to kill the party 
they sought, then they would remain watching the corpse to 
kill the male friends who might come to claim and bury it, 
until the stench arising from it actually drove them away. 
Mr. Pearson, who lived near Cross Lanes, and James R. 
Ramsey, whose family lived in this wdlderness, had lost re- 
spectfully a brother-in-law and a son by this inhuman method, 
and when Amick found those men had eluded him by flight, 
he stripped their respective farms, and those of their victims. 
id everv movable thing outside of the residence and disposed 
of them. They had fled on the 4th of June, and had had no 
communicatton with their respective families from that day. 
They came into the post on Saturday, and Capt. Taylor was 
nid' led to make a detail, take them as guides, conduct Ramsey, 
a scout, to his home, and thence move at discretion, keeping 
the guides in his service. On Sunday, the 18th, with Sergeant 
Richardson, Corp. Saunier and eight volunteers from his com- 
pany, Lieut. King and the guides, who had gone from the camp 
singly by different routes to prevent observation, proceeded to 
the (rauley River, crossed over, marched directly to Ramsey's, 
ami after a brief rest continued the march. Thecountry being 
very rough and broken the march was necessarilly slow, but at 
midnight, the house of a notorious and bloodthirsty Moccasin 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 45 



was reached and surrounded. When found, he was under a 
bed, clad like Tain O'Shanter's witches, his body supported 
by the tips of his fingers and toes, pressed closely against the 
bed tick, was almost hidden by a large willow clothes-basket. 
He presented a grotesque figure, and his discomforture was 
highly amusing. His arms were secured. Several other places 
were surprised. At length the house of a Unionist who had 
recently escaped from a "Secesh" military prison was reach- 
ed. Here it was ascertained that Capt. Amick, the chief of the 
"Moccasins" was at his own house within the Confederate line, 
amply protected as it was thought, by Gen. Floyd's picket 
line and outposts, which extended some distance west of it. It 
was reported that he was going to move with his company early 
in the morning. Capt. Taylor wanted to capture this long and 
often-sought man above all others, and dared the peril. He 
asked for six volunteers who felt that they were not too much 
fatigued to make a rapid inarch. Sergeant Richardson, Corp. 
Saunier, Neff, Mike and John Lee stepped forward, and Lieut. 
King, Ramsey and himself, constituted the party. Ramsey's 
eagerness was intense. His spirit seemed to tell him that the 
supreme moment had come, that vengence was at hand, and 
his eyes sparkled with the long restrained hate of his soul. The 
inarch was long and rapid, much of it being on the "double 
quick." At daylight it was evident from the smoke which 
gracefully curled above the tree tops, that a cottage was near. 
The instructions were given, the clearing cautiously approached 
and the house quietly surrounded. The Captain ran in an open 
passage between the dwelling and an out-room, opened a door 
and stepped unannounced into the room in which the family 
were taking breakfast. Across the table, facing him, was the 
chief of the serpents. The Captain asked : 

"Are you Capt. Amick?" The answer came, "No." Being 
further interrogatively addressed, "John T. Amick?" With a 
supercilious smile he looked at his antagonist, who was in 
appearance only a stripling, apparently alone, and said "Yes." 
The Captain responded, "You are the man I am looking for! 
Get your coat ! " He rose from the table and opened a door 
leading into another room. The Captain could not shoot with- 
out danger to the children, and the result of the struggle be- 



4f> History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

rami' a question of agility, in which he was the superior. Not 
being able to gel his arms. A.mick dashed out of the front door 
againsl the revolver of Lieut. King, who forbearing to shoot. 
pleasantly said. "Good morning, sir." Hastily he turned, 
saying to the Captain, "I'll get my coat now. Lfyou'lllet me," 
sprang across the parlor into the breakfast room, and dashed 
through the back door like a finished sprinter. Further for- 
bearance and protection could not be extended to him, and in 
his frant i<- efforts to escape, he was twice wounded, before he 
ceased his vain race. He was too severely wounded to be 
moved. He was relieved from internal hemorrhages by Lieut. 
King, his wounds hurriedly dressed, and he was paroled to 
come into camp and report. But he dishonored his parole, 
and in attempting to reach a Confederate camp, brought on 
internal hemorrhage and died. 

The firing on the flank and to the rear of Floyd's command, 
within their picket lines, alarmed the commander, and several 
detachments of cavalry and infantry were dispatched by him 
to capture the intrepid party: but Capt. Taylor having taken 
only a small band that he might escape observation and elude 
pursuit, was quickly hidden by the vast forest, and the parties 
sent out had gone beyond him. They ambushed the ferries, 
fired upon and drove in the Federal pickets, and produced the 
belief that the party was captured. Colonel George Crook, of 
the 86th Ohio, of Summerville, sent Capt. Duvall with his 
company, and Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott dispatched Capt. 
Pugh of the 47th Ohio with his eompany to his relief. The 
two companies formed a junction near Hughes' Ferry and 
marched toward Ramsey's home. In the meantime, Capt. 
Taylor picked up the men he had left, took other guerillas 
prisoners, frightened some men who were trying to take a 
hundred beeves into the Confederate Quartermaster's so badly 
that they turned about, and with their beeves, fell into the 
possession of the Union Army. Midnight, and the great 
fatigue of his men, induced him when in that vicinity to go to 
Ramsey's and wait for morning. By this deflection from his 
line of march, he avoided an ambush ef the Moccasins under 
Lieut. McDonald, on the road along the cliff on the North side 
of Meadow River. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 47 

About breakfast a picket announced the presence of troops, 
but not being able to distinguish whether they were friends or 
foes, a stong defensive position was taken, and a reconnoisance 
was made with extreme caution, until it became evident they 
were friends, when there was a season of congratulations and 
real rest. The detachment had penetrated to within twenty- 
five miles of Lewisburg, and fifty miles of the march had been 
made on only two hours rest. The Moccasins having lost their 
Captain and one of their Lieutenants from this raid, never re- 
covered their spirit, but all who were not killed, or sent to 
Camp Chase, Ohio, slunk away to other parts where the Fed- 
eral forces were not so energetic and daring. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott was indefatigable in his efforts to 
relieve the country of bushwhackers, and there was no rest for 
his officers or men. Every day was a day of duty. Capt. 
Pugh was almost always with detachments scouring the country 
and bringing in prisoners. Sometimes from his little garri- 
son, the Colonel would have three scouting parties simultane- 
ously moving through the wilderness. 

This duty by necessary evolution led up to what was subse- 
quently styled "living off of the country." It was impossible 
to move quietly and with celerity if the men were loaded like 
pack animals. This became a self evident fact after two or 
three expeditions. Ever afterwards, with the 47th, a scout 
meant "to live off of the country." This was done with dis- 
crimination. The guides knew the secessionists by reputation. 
and when an expedition moved from Camp, its leader had a 
fixed route, and the men carried only their arms and ammuni- 
tion, canteen, blanket and coffee, with a double ration of salt. 
After crossing Gauley River, near meal time, the detachment 
would be divided, a rallying point designated, and each squad 
would call upon a different family for a meal, which was forth- 
coming. No widow was ever annoyed by them, except to in- 
quire if she were in need ; the rich yielded to the party the 
things necessary for her sustenance, except coffee, sugar and 
salt, which the men almost always contributed. Occasionally 
it was necessary for the entire band to dine at one place, win mi 
a party would forage the necessary edibles, and some Union 
family would be designated as the rendezvous. At such times 



Is History of the 47th Regiment <). Y. V. I. 

ii was unnecessary to watch the meal room or the cooks, and 
there was general rest and enjoymenl in receiving and impart- 
ing intelligence, and in visiting, except for the picket. 

It became oecessary to re-establish the Unionists in their 
home, thai West Virginia might return to the Union. To ac- 
complish this, the Union man was required before leaving bis 
home aft;'- his return visit, to make an inventory of the things 
of which be had been deprived by the guerrillas, for the com- 
mander of the detachment: the person was required to ac- 
company the expedition, which would visit the richest farmers 
in the country, and select from their abundance the articles 
necessary to replace those which had been taken from bim. 
This practice made the rich people after this experience, zeal- 
ous in preventing the property rights of anybody from being 
disturbed. The possession was enforced by the information 
that the person who molested or in any wise countenanced the 
molestation of the Union man in his peace or property, would 
be sent to ('amp Chase. Ohio, and his property destroyed. The 
respective communities organized so as to preveut the neces- 
sity for the enforcement of this regulation, and order was re- 
stored. 

The movements of the Confederate army required on ourpart 
the exercise of high degree of vigilance to prevent the Hank of 
the Federal army from being turned, and the army cut off 
from its base. The post at Cross Lanes was the first on the 
left Hank, and as New River, with its inaccessible, precipitous 
banks completely protected the righl flank of the army, thi 
enemy turned all its efforts to this flank, and this post the 
duty was most difficult and severe, and its commander was 
held to the strictest accountability. There was not a day in 
the week, qot an hour in the day when there was not a party 
on the move. When Capt. Taylor returned from the expedi- 
tion which disabled Captain Amick. he found a detail awaiting 
him. with which he was ordered to move into the wilderness t" 
procure supplies and horses for the train. Captain Pugh was 
ordered to accompany him. As the weather was delightful, 
the resistance inconsiderable, and the living good, the march 
was enjoyable. This expedition penetrated to the community 
in which Capt. John A. Hauver lived, and had organized the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 49 



"Woods Rangers," but that command retired very deferenti- 
ally as the command approached. The Gauley River on ac- 
count of the numerous falls and rapids in it was always dan- 
gerous to cross, bnl at this season swollen by the frequent 
rains, it was especially so. On arriving at the river, it was 
found necessary to construct a raft to ferry over, but as there 
was no material to be had on the west side suitable for this 
purpose, it became necessary to cross to the other side to con- 
struct it. The guide, Ramsey, found a log on which to cross. 
The commander asked for a volunteer to accompany him, but 
the scene of the accident in which Lieut. Egbert and Sergt. 
Sprague had been drowned, was still fresh, and not a soul 
moved. Capt. Taylor joined Ramsey, paddled across, built 
the raft and ferried the command over. A year later this 
march would have been denominated a raid. It was successful 
m the highest sense of the word; captured a large number of 
horses and equipment complete, together with camp equipage, 
and returned to camp by way of Hughes' Ferry, with practic- 
ally a mounted command, on the 22d of October, having lost 
only one man. 

In one locality the people, who mistook the party for Con- 
federates, were all packed up ready to abandon their homes 
and flee from the Yankees, who were represented to be swarm- 
ing through the woods in great numbers. This harmless mis- 
take was not corrected. Of course, the command owed its 
clothing to a Union citizen, "which had been taken." Con- 
gratulations were showered upon all for despoiling the Yankees 
to such an extent, refreshments were served ad infinitum, and 
the commander was urged "not to advance and take the risk 
of an engagement with the Yankees for the reason that they 
had too many men for him to overcome." He replied "thai 
it was his duty to 'feel of them' in order to make an accurate 
report," and at their request, assured the good people that if 
he "found the Yanks too many for him, he would check t heir 
advance, and send a runner into the neighborhood with the in- 
formation, so all who were prepared might get out of 1 he 
country.' With this understanding I he parly moved about 
one-half mile forward into the woods, when one company was 
deployed as skirmishers and opened a lively fusillade, while {he 



50 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

other responded by volley firing. The racket was tremendous 
for thai quiet country. Meantime, a sprightly Irish messen- 
ger \v;is sent with the message that "'they had better make 
haste to get away, as the Yanks might soon sweep over the 
neighborhood. This was enough; in a few minutes the fright- 
ened and nervous inhabitants were hurrying their teams in hot 
haste towards Meadow Bluffs and Lewisburg, to the great mer- 
riment of "the boys." At sundown there were not many in- 
habitants left in that community. For this escapade, Captains 
Taylor and Pugh were requested to visit Col. Crook at Somer- 
ville. They reported promptly. Col. Crook interrogated them 
closely "as to their methods." Capt. Taylor explained the 
impossibility of making a successful scout without "subsisting 
upon the country" and that "where the irreconcilable inhabi- 
tants were out of the wilderness, the Bushwhackers and Guer- 
rillas were gone, and there was peace." He laughed over this 
novel mode of warfare, said it would probably have to be 
adopted as regular on account of its effectiveness, enjoined 
them to be careful in their forays, take only such things as 
were absolutely necessary to the success of the expedition, and 
congratulating them upon their past successes, bade them 
goodbye. 

The succeeding day, Capt. Taylor was ordered with two 
companies to make another scout. Capt Pugh accompanied 
him. They moved over a new route upon the enemies' dank, 
under cover of a cold rain storm the greater part of the day. 
The object was to surprise a body of Confedarates who patrol- 
ed that part of the country and protected the flank of their 
army. The detachment avoided the road, marching through 
the trackless forest. As night settled down, it entered a hem- 
lock woods of considerable extent in which the darkness was 
so dense that the guide failed, as he thought, to find the path 
which would lead to safe and comfortable quarters during the 
storm. A halt was ordered. Fires could not be permitted, 
nor even a light, as it was in proximity to the enemy, and 
mighl lead to discovery and capture. Every man stood up, 
tired as he was. Finally, one of them from sheer exhaustion, 
belonging to Company "I" sat down, when he found' that the 
ground under him was compact. He felt that it extended on 



History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 51 

either side of him in a narrow belt, and communicated the dis- 
covery to the Captain in a whisper. After the guide had de- 
termined it to be the path for which he sought, the march was 
resumed in single file. The path was followed through the 
woods into the open country. In the meantime, the rain had 
changed into a severe sleet and snow storm. The night was 
highly favorable for surprises. It was such a night as only 
spooks and hobgoblins delight in; even the dogs had sought 
the shelter of the most hidden places that they might not be 
tempted into the storm. It was not expected that the enemy 
would lie found where it was desirable for the party to shelter 
from the violence of the tempest; but it was within their lines, 
and great caution was required to avoid disaster. In a short 
time, a large barn filled with hay and straw was reached, into 
which the party was ordered until the storm should moderate. 
Guards were detailed, and Capt. Pugh was sent to reconnoiter 
a house, from every window of which the light gleamed into 
the howling storm. He reported that a considerable number 
of Confederate soldiers were enjoying its hospitable shelter, 
and were beguiling "old times" with song and story, while 
awaiting the preparation of a substantial supper by some 
ladies. It was a grand opportunity to win a victory without 
the effusion of blood. The detachment was again compelled 
to breast the fury of the storm. The house was quietly and 
quickly surrounded, and the Confederates, amazed at the sud- 
den appearance of Yankees in their midst, seeing that resist- 
ance was useless, surrendered without firing a shot. Captain 
Taylor assured them that he had no disposition to mar the 
festivities of the evening; that he would contribute coffee, 
sugar and salt to the repast while the family could add some 
more moat and flour, and all would enjoy it. Not one had 
escaped to give the alarm. The prisoners belonged to Major 
White's battalion, which was quartered in the neighborhood. 
The supper was concluded about midnight. The storm had 
ceased, and the cold wintry wind had already "warped the 
waters" and crusted the snow, when the march was resumed. 
House after house was visited, until all the battalion in the 
neighborhood, including the Major and Adjutant, were captur- 
ed, and their arms destroyed. At daylight, at another place, 



52 Histoky of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

several Confederate soldiers were found convalescing from the 
nuasles. They were also captured, but paroled with orders to 
report to ramp in two weeks. They observed their parole. 
When the expedition returned to Camp it had horses enough 
t<> put the Quartermaster's train in excellent condition. 

Lieut. Geo. W. Reeves, of Company "F," with some recruits, 
joined his company, and Captains Bundy and Ward with their 
Companies, also arrived at the post, and thus re-enforced, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott, redoubled his activity until De- 
cember 4th, 1861. 

Mrs. Col. H. T. Elliott's Experience in October, 1861, at 
Cross Lanes, W. Va., Says: 

It took me several days getting as far as Canalton, 
where 1 arrived Sunday morning at 10 o'clock, find- 
ing the escort had returned to camp after waiting two days for 
the boat. Our only resource was to walk. Among the passen- 
gers were three ladies and a child, on their way to Gauley 
Bridge. After a walk of four miles we came to a halt, the fe- 
male part of the procession gave out, and sitting down under a 
tree held a council of war. While deliberating, one of the pas- 
sengers, who was on his way to Gauley for the remains of his 
brother, and had the coffin and box in one of the government 
wagons, offered us a chance to ride in the wagon if we would 
sit on the box, which offer we gladly accepted. It was well we 
did for Gen. Rosecrans had issued an order the day before that 
women must not be allowed within the lines. Being in the 
covered wagon we passed the pickets. The Commander was 
very much surprised when we walked into headquarters at the 
Reed house, and declared he would send us back to the boat 
landing in time to return on the same boat. One lady was 
very anxious to go to her sick husband at the Bridge, and the 
other two begged very hard to go, but he would not hear a word. 
Knowing it was about dinner time I made up my mind it would 
be wiser to wait until he had a good, square meal before making 
my petition, so, took a seat on a camp chest and waited for his 
ret urn after dinner. 

I don't think there had been many ladies in camp for some 
time, as the boys came in a few at a time, and looking at us 



History of the -J 7th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 58 



would go and report, when another squad would come and give 
us a look. On the return of the Commander I inquired who 
was the Commander at that post, and he very haughtily re- 
plied that he was ; then one of the ladies told him my name 
and where I wanted to go. His manner immediately changed. 
He could hardly do enough for us, saying the Colonel had sent 
horse and saddle for me, but the boat being so much later than 
was expected the man could not wait longer so left the saddle 
at these headquarters, and had promised horses and escort to 
Cross Lanes. He then ordered an ambulance to the door, into 
which we were helped and sent up to Millers' at the Bridge, 
where we were glad enough to rest until morning. 

About 10 o'clock the escort arrived with the horses. Just as 
we were preparing for a start Major Parry arrived from Gen. 
Rosecran's headquarters, going direct to camp. On his advice 
we dispensed with the escort and retained the horses, which 
would be returned in three days. Not being used to horseback 
riding it soon became very tiresome, but that was the only 
way to travel through the mountains. After riding until 2 
o'clock we discovered a house at the foot of a mountain, where 
it looked as though we might get something to eat. We rode 
up to the bars, I held his horse while he started to the house, 
but a woman seeing him stationed herself in the door, placed 
her hands on her hips and throwing her elbows out so as to fill 
the doorway, stood waiting for the Major. He very politely 
inquired if we could have something to eat, as she would be 
well paid for her trouble. She very roughly answered "she'd 
be d — if she would cook for any G — d Yankee." The Major 
gave her a bow, and turning, said, "we are not very hungry, 
are we, Mrs. Col?" So, starting on up the high mountain we 
continued our journey, either up or down the immense moun- 
tains until about sundown, having gone about 22 miles before 
we came to a log house, where, stopping, we found a very old 
i nan leaning over the bars. 

The Major asked if we could stay there over night. Well, 
he says, "I am hern with my daughters and children, one of 
whom is sick, but we will make you as comfortable as possible 
and give you some supper." He said it is not safe in this part 
of the country anywhere, but safer here than to try to get to 



54 History of the 47tii Regiment 0. V. V I. 



camp, which is yet eight miles away, and the mountains are 
full of bush-whackers Dismounting, the old man Called a 
boy aboul 14 to come and take our horses. The Major went 
with him to know where to find them in ease of alarm. They 
wriii around the foot of the moutain until they came to a 
stream, went some ways in the water, then crossed over and 
took them to a cave, fearing they might be stolen. The woman 
cooked sueh as she had for our supper, but nothing I could 
eat, being bacon, corn bread and tea. It was cooked in front 
of the (in? place, with more dirt than eatables. The men had 
to climb a ladder to get to their sleeping apartment, with loose 
boards for the floor. Every step they took the boards rattled 
as though they must come through. Was too tired and lame to 
sleep, hut rested some while waiting to see morning. 

The first break of day I heard the Major and the boy getting 
up to get the horses, and I was ready when they returned. The 
weather was fine and we had a lovely ride to camp, where we 
arrived in time for breakfast. Was very glad indeed to get to 
our journey's end. 

The females of West Virginia were coarse, rough and igno- 
rant, and as apt to swear in conversation as to talk. Nearly 
all were rank Rebels at Cross Lanes, Va. Our Chaplain had 
full access to the medicines, as he acted as Surgeon as well as 
Chaplain for that part of the regiment. Some six weeks later 
he got a leave of absence and started home. About two hours 
after he left camp, some of the boys needing quinine, on search- 
ing found the medicine box nearly empty. Colonel learning 
the facts dispatched a messenger to Gen. Rosecran's headquar- 
ters to intercept the Chaplain, where he was searched and the 
quinine and morphine found on his person. It was afterward 
learned that he either paid his way with or used up all the 
dainties sent by the Church ladies of Cincinnati, for the sick 
boys in camp, who never received them. About the 1st of 
November, the camp was alarmed, everybody was ready to fight 
(or run), but soon found it not necessary to do either. I left 
camp for home Nov. 21, and rode the thirty miles. Col. El- 
liott accompanied me to Canalton. I took the boat for Cincin- 
nati, where I arrived safely, and after stopping there I returned 
home. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 55 

The reader will have noted that on September 7, 1861, we 
left Captain Wm. H. Ward, Company B, at Sutton, W. Va., 
as a re-enforcement to the garrison. The following is furnish- 
ed by Lieut. Wm. H. Kimhall and Ed. DeLaney, they say: 

Capt. Wm. H. Ward, commanding Company B, 47th Regi- 
ment, on Sept' mber 7th, 1861, was detached from the Regi- 
ment, while on the march a ft-w mi 1ms north of Sutton, and 
now known as Braxton C. H., W. Va., for the purpose of re- 
pairing the wagon road, which had became almost impassable, 
for the wagon trains of the army under Gen. W. S. Rosecrans; 
utter accomplishing this work, the company marched to Sutton 
and went into camp with four companies of the 30th Ohio. 
The garrison was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Jones; 
while camped at Sutton the Company was employed chiefly in 
doing picket duty and guarding a considerable quantity of 
Commissary Stores left at that point, with occasional scouts 
into the country in pursuit of marauding parties of the enemy 
who were disposed to commit depredations on Union citizens 
remaining in the country. There was, during this period, no 
causalities in the Company occuring on account of engage- 
ments with the enemy, who so far as I can now remember wer^ 
not •"come up with" in a bellicose way, though often chased 
after they had "bin thai* and done gone." On one of these 
scouts a portion of the Company under Capt. Ward, together 
with about a hundred men of the other command made a three 
days expedition eastward into the mountains, which failed in 
its purpose, mainly on account of a heavy rain, which set in 
on the second day. This was in the latter part of October, 
and many of the mountain streams speedily became impassa- 
ble. At one point where we had crossed dry shod the day be- 
fore we found it necessary to procure axes and fell a large oak 
tree on which a few of us crossed with much difficulty, when 
the tree was broken in two by the force of the current, and the 
command separated for the night. On our return to Camp 
the following day we found that the Elk River, on which the 
town was located, had flooded its banks to the extent of in- 
undating the town and filling the first stories of nearly all the 
houses with several feet of water, and doing great damage. A 
large mill had been washed from its foundations up the river 



56 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



""-I clashed to pieces against the Suspension I ridge which 
spans the Eft River at this point, damaging the bridge to the 
extent oi rendering it unsafe f„r crossing. The whole valley „f 
the stream was filled with drift-wood and debris making a 
picture oi desolation, possible only in mountainous countries 
Our Camp, fortunately for us, was on a plate.iu above the town 
and suffered no special damage from the storm 

Company R had its Camp about 200 yards from the Camp of 
thedOthOhio, and it being our first regular Camp in the field 
its associations are clustered in my memory in many respects 
more fully than any other Camp .luring the war." We were 
provided w,th our full allowance of Sibley tents for the men 
with a wall tent for the officers, and a large square tent drawn' 
from the lost Quartermaster for the use of the officers mess 
which included the Orderly and Quartermaster Sergeant The 
Company also had an army wagon and team under its control 
which was used wh,le in Camp to haul rations, wood etc , We 
were at times able to procure vegetables and other eatables not 
in Uncle Sam's bill of fare from the citizens who remained in 
the country. These we sometimes bartered for with coffee 
etc when it could be spared, or with such scanty funds as we 
had let or had been sent us from home. We had not as yet 
made the acquaintance of the paymaster. Some of the mis- 
chievous boys organized a raid one evening, after night, and 
went several miles into the country to capture certain '-bee 
hives, the whereabouts of which had become known to them 
Ihe expedition was under the command of a Sergeant whose 
name need not now be mentioned, and consisted of the Com- 
pany team with driver, and six men. The pickets on the road 
on which the expedition moved were from Company B and of 
-ourse were let into the secret. The wagon was halted'about a 
half mile from the place which was the residence of a well-to- 
do farmer. On arriving near the house a couple of dogs set up 
a tremendous barking, and disputed the entrance of the men 
into the yard where the hives were kept. Shortly the man of 
he house appeared on the veranda m his night clothes, not 
having paused to draw on his other garments, when he was 
commanded by the Sergeant to call off the dogs and reman; 
under guard until further orders. The other men went Z 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 57 

rear of the ho ine ; took two of the -'bee gams," set them on 
blankets, which were then tied by the corners over the tops 
and slung on muskets and borne away to the wagon, when by 
the aid of burning sulphur, the honey comb was extracted from 
the hives and brought to Camp. The poor man was relieved 
from his uncomfortable position. But on the following day he 
came into Camp and reported the affair to the Commanding 
Officer, who ordered a search to be made especially in the 
Camp of Company B, suspicion being directed there by the 
man reporting that the soldiers who took the honey wore hats 
while the other troops stationed there wore caps. There being 
uo traces of the honey found, and it happening that on that- 
night another detachment of the 47th Regiment encamped in 
town on its way to the front, the men of which also wore hats 
a reasonable doubt was created in the mind of the Command- 
ing Officer as to the identity of the perpetrators, and the mat- 
ter was passed over. Company B had "milk and honey" so 
long as it lasted. A matter of this kind may seem quite too 
trival to being incorporated in the history of the Regiment 
yet there are living at this time some of Company B, who 
would recall the incident with interest and pleasure, and'there 
are very few of the "boys" who do not know that there were 
occasional little foraging expeditions planned and executed 
with a degree of skill worthy ot a better cause. 

While stationed at Braxton Court House, Company B lost 
two of its members by death, their names I am unable to re- 
call. They were buried with the honors of a soldier, Captain 
Ward conducting the services. It is not difficult to recall our 
impressions on first hearing the muffled drums and the mourn- 
ful cadence of "The Dead March of Saul." Company B re- 
ceived orders to join the portion of the Regiment lying at 
Cross Lanes, where it arrived the latter part of November, 
1861 



58 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

March from Sutton to Cross Lanes, W. Va. 

[About November 15th, 1861. written by Ed. DeLaney, Cum 
pany B., and incidents at Cross Lam*, W. Va \ 



When we received orders to go to Cross Lanes we had a 
wagon and span of horses; when the wagon was loaded with 
our tools and Camp equipage we had a big load. We did not 
go far before our team gave out, and we got telegraph wire, 
twisted it into a rope and put ten sticks through at equal dis- 
tances, we then divided the Company into three reliefs, twenty 
men on a relief, the other reliefs carrying the arms, while the 
one on duty ahead of the horses, ten on a side, with those 
sticks against their breasts, kept on for Cross Lanes. This was 
in November, 1861 ; the roads were in bad condition, and we 
had a hard time of it. On this march comrade Ford ruptured 
himself and he was sent home from Camp Gauley Mountain 
and died. This was killing the men and Captain Ward pressed 
into service a yoke of cattle, and we finally got to Cross Lanes. 
An incident I would like to tell you is one that happened here 
at Cross Lanes. The officer of the day sent me with a guard 
and three wagons to get straw for the hospital, some three 
miles from Camp. I was to bargain for the straw and give 
him a receipt for the same, and he was to come in Camp and 
gel his pay. I found the farm and sent the men to the barn. 
I went into the house and delivered my instructions to the 
owner; he heard me through and then ordered me to take men 
and teams off of the place, that no straw from his place would 
make a bed for any d — d sick yankee. I went to the door and 
railed a guard. I told the guard not to let that man out of 
the house until I returned and I went to the barn. We got 
the wagons loaded, and Corporal Teachout says: "now, Ed., 
you go to the house and relieve the guard and we will be right 
along." I done so and we got to Camp all right with our straw. 
The next day our friend, the farmer, came to Camp, went to 
Col. Elliott and gave me a bad setting on. He said that I was 
not satisfied with taking his straw, but that I took every turkey 
and chicken he had. After my report was heard and that I 
had not seen any fowls, he was ordered out of Camp. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 59 

WESTON, W. VA., SEPTEMBER 19th, 1861. 

To the reader of this history : You will remember that we 
have written of Col. Poschner marching out from here with 
six companies on September 3d, and that we have written of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott marching out from here to Gross 
Lanes, leaving Company E here as a garrison, commanded by 
Capt. Allen S. Bundv. The duty of the company was — police 
and strict guard and picket duties — the picket duties were 
never out for a less time than forty-eight hours, and each one 
was detailed twice each week. At many times details were 
made to go on scout far away from Camp, to ascertain the 
whereabouts of the enemy, and to route their bushwhackers. 
So, the reader will see that our companies' lot was a very hard 
one. 

About November 10th, 1861, pursuant to orders, we started 
on the march to join that part of the Regiment commanded 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott at Cross Lanes, which was eighty 
miles south of us. There was but one Company of us, with 
quite a wagon train. We had seven days to make this march 
through a wild and mountainous country, which was full of 
bushwhackers. We got our wagon train through all right, al- 
though we were shot at from ambush cpiite a number of times. 
At Big Birch Mountain we got quite a skirmish with the bush- 
whackers, but we succeeded in driving them back, but they 
came very near cutting us off at one time. 

About November 17th, 1861. Late in the evening we arrived 
safe at Cross Lanes. On coming to this Camp we began to 
think there was a skirmish going on. A little later we found 
out that the firing was a mutineer against Lieutenat-Colonel 
Elliott, the parties were afterwards court-martialed and sen- 
tenced to be shot, but later they made their escape from prison 
or were pardoned by the President and the sentence, therefore, 
not executed. 

The March from Cross Lanes to Gauley Mountain, W. Va. 

December 4th, 1861. The regiment was reunited at this post, 
which was an exceedingly strong position, covering Gauley 
Bridge and the Kanawha River. The march from Cross Lanes 
to Gauley Mountain, for some unexplained reason, was made 



60 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



in one day, a distance of thirty miles, by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Elliott. It was a cruel march, apparently without reason. 
The road was rough, broken and muddy, and crossed moun- 
tain streams, some of which were quite large, twenty-eight 
times. It used several men up. In many cases, severe colds 
were contracted in fording the streams, which resulted in pneu- 
monia. Some died from the effects of it, and others were dis- 
charged disabled. There is at least one man now living in 
Ohio, who lost his toe-nails as a result of this march, and lias 
kept them as a precious relic of the hardships suffered by him. 
It made Lieutenant-Colonel Elliott some enemies. 

The important work of fortifying this position was contin- 
ued. It was done by details made from the regiment. The 
only road leading into Grauley Bridge directly from the East, 
was constructed on the Southern slope, and around the point 
of the mountain. Various peaks, or eminences, commanding 
considerable stretches of the road, were fortified with block 
houses, lunettes, and simple redans, in which were placed 
mountain howitsers and Parrot guns, ten, twelve and twenty 
pounders, of which there were ten pieces. The blockhouses 
were loopholed for infantry. In addition to this, the Colonel 
constructed a "Devil's trap." A large rope cable was drawn 
taut about four feet from the sloping side of the mountain, 
which supported one end of a large log cut into lengths of 
about five feet, the other end resting on the sloping ground. 
This contraption overhung the road a considerable distance. 
It had a fearful look, and it was said that a blow upon the 
cable with a sharp ax would precipitate the "devil's trap" 
upon the doomed heads id' a marching column. The enemy 
never gave the Colonel an opportunity to test the merit of the 
•■devil's trap." Therefore, he knew it was a splendid success, 
and it gave the men a high degree of confidence in the impreg- 
nability of the position. 

Following this work in January, came the visitation of the 
measles. Funerals were quite frequent from this cause. 
Lieutenant Deniston, succeeding Captain Bundy, who resign- 
ed Nov. 19th, was a physician of good repute. After losing 
one man by the measles at the hospital, Capt. Taylor proposed 
to Capt. Denniston that he should doctor them with cold 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 61 

water treatment in their comany quarters. Capt. Deniston, 
having lost several men from the same cause, adopted the sug- 
gestion, after which the members of the regiment did the duty 
of their sick comrades, and Capt. Deniston successfully treat- 
ed every case. 

From some cause Dr. Spies, the surgeon, resigned, and Dr. 
8. P. Bonner was appointed to that position, and with Bonner 
as surgeon, and Dr. Hoeltge as assistant surgeon, it seemed 
for a year at least that death from disease "fought very shy" 
of the 47th Ohio. The reason of Dr. Spies' resignation was 
that he was tried by a court-martial, as will be seen from what 
Mrs. Col. Elliott says in some of the future pages. 



CAMP GAULEY MOUNTAIN. W. VA. 



Scout Under Major Parry. 



January 25, 1862. This morning Companies A, 0, D, H, E 
and K got orders to cook three days' rations, and be ready to 
inarch the next morning. We knew not where we were to go, 
but we guessed that we were to make a demonstration toward 
Louishurg. On the morning of the 26th, we were drawn up 
into line and our captains said that if there was a man among 
us who thought he could not stand heavy marching and the 
smell of powder, he was at liberty to remain behind. We are 
proud to say no one left the ranks. Then our Captain and 
Major Parry spoke to us. Major Parry was to command the 
expedition. Amid cheering from those left behind we started 
on what proved to be a most wearisome march. 

On our march we passed Camp Anderson, the famous Hawk's 
Nest and the Lover's Leap, and at night reached Mountain 
Cove, a deserted tavern. As we numbered 250 men we took 
possession of it for the night. We had marched more than ten 
miles over muddy roads and were weary. After partaking of 
hard-tack and coffee, we lay down on the floor and were soon 
sound asleep. The next morning bright and early we were up, 
and after a six o'clock breakfast we started. The weather was 



62 IIiskihv of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

quite rough, snowing, raining and freezing alternately, so that 
the roads were very muddy. We marched the extraordinary 

distance of 20 miles, passing old Camp Lookout, and reaching 
the base of Sewell Mountain. If any command ever was tired 
we were that night. But the prospect of a battle kept the 
hoys up till ten o'clock, when we lay down t > sleep in a house 
we took poseession of. We named this Camp Louse. 

January 28, '62. Skirmish at Little Sewell Mountain. At 
6 o'clock this morning we started upon our inarch, and soon 
reached the top of Big Sewell Mountain. We saw again from 
its top the Rebel camp, and some of hi- intrenchments were 
where we knew not. Major Parry commanded us to keep to- 
gether, and keep a good lookout for the Rebels. We l>egan the 
descent of the mountain, and soon were among the breastworks 
abandoned by the enemy, but there were no Rebels in sight. We 
passed through places fortified in a most scientific manner, 
and where an army last summer found it impossible to go. Leav- 
ing Big Sewell in our rear we approached Little Sewell, and on 
its eastern peak came upon the enemy dashing forward on the 
double quick. We drove them from their position and down the 
mountain side.' At the base they were re-enforced by Jenkin's 
cavalry. Here they tried to check us, but we again charged 
upon them, and in dismay they scattered and fled in confusion. 
Our object having been accomplished, we returned to Camp 
Gauley Mountain, arriving there February 1st. 1862. 

February 2, '62. Gauley Mountain, W.Va. When wecame 
to Western Virginia we noticed that the men were nearly all 
gone. This state of things continued till winter set in and 
the trees were stripped of their leaves. During this period 
bushwhacking was very prevalent. A great number on the 
different picket posts were shot at, some wounded, but as soon 
as winter came we found plenty of men at home, all claiming to 
be good Union men. Strange to say, bushwhacking came to 
be a thing of the past. Could it be that the weather afflicted 
these men ? But when hot weather came these men went to 
bushwhacking again. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 63 

Hardships at Picket Duty in Winter, at Gauley Mount. 

About this time our regiment became very much reduced in 
numbers, so that those who could do duty had to almost do 
double duty — at times two miles from camp in rain and snow, 
and at times it became so very cold that it was impossible to 
keep warm and make any coffee, and remain on duty thirty- 
six hours. 

Our Regimental Sutler and his Charges. 

It was no wonder so many of our regiment became sick at 
Gauley Mountain. Our sutler was with us all winter and we 
could purchase things we needed of him. But his prices were 
outrageously high. He sold three sheets of foolscap paper for 
ten cents, two envelopes for five cents, cheese, rotten and 
stinking, for forty cents a pound, and other prices in propor- 
tion. We got tired of these things and got up a petition 
against it, and out of five hundred and fifty-one men fit for 
duty, three hundred and eighty- five signed. We presented it 
to the Colonel, and for a while our sutler reduced his prices. 
Part of the time he was allowed to sell whisky to the boys, but 
the result was that some of the boys became so boozy that the 
Colonel ordered it to be stopped, and after that the men could 
get no whisky unless on an order of a commissioned officer. 
The result was we had no more intoxicated men in camp. 

During the period when the enthusiastic pressure produced by 
the presence of and contact with the enemy was removed, and 
only the daily monotonous routine of camp and picket duty 
occupied the attention of the troops, a few resignations were 
tendered and accepted, First Lieutenant Isadore Worms, a 
promising officer, could not reconcile himself to outpost duty 
in the mountains shut out from the world, and resigned as 
soon as the army retired from Sewell Mountains. Second 
Lieutenant Charles J. Cunningham, of Company E, was com- 
pelled by his unsettled business to withdraw from the field on 
the 21st of December. Second Lieutenant Felix Wagner, of 
Company C, resigned on the 17th of February, 1862, and Capt. 
Andrew F. Deniston followed March 17th. These officers had 
been efficient, had won the favor of their superiors and the 



04 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 



esteem of their associates, and it was a misfortune to the re- 
giment to lose them. 

The great vice and weakness in the organization of the Ohio 
regiments, was that the Govergor, apparently forgetful that the 
regiment, as a unite of the military force, in the face of the 
enemy, advanced rapidly in knowledge and experience in the 
an of war, dumped the sons of his political henchmen, regard- 
less of their inexperience and unfitness, upon them. It was 
demoralizing to ihe respective companies to have strange offi- 
cers placed over them, who were ignorant of the duties of a 
soldiers, and of necessity had to be educated by the subordi- 
nates whom they commanded. Nov. 27th, 1861, Alonzo Kings- 
ley was commissioned in pursuance of this policy, a first lieu- 
tenant in the 47th, and in January and February following, t he 
Governor sent his compliments again for second lieutenants 
W. 0. Wright and Alexander Campbell, of Cincinnati, Isaac 
N. Walter, of Springfield, and Theodore Davis. All except 
Davis had the effrontery to accept and join the regiment, de- 
spite the emphatic protest of the entire body against the ap- 
pointment of interlopers. 

They were without military experience; they had never seen 
an armed foe, except in the picture hooks, and knew nothing 
which would promote the welfare of the companies to which 
they were assigned. Their appointment was considered an 
outrage upon the rights of competant and worthy non-commis- 
sioned officers, who were entitled to and would have otherwise 
received promotion, and it appreciably affected the solderly 
pride and bearing of the entire command, and by undermining 
the hope a soldier always cherrishes of promotion for the ex- 
hibition of high solderly qualities and gallantry. 

On outpost duty with artillery andfortifical ions, ami nobody 
1" serve the g U ns. What was to be done? The Colonel solved 
the problem by making a detail from the respective companies 
which he placed under the command of Lieut. J. G. Derbeck. 

ul|M P r o< <h^l to instruct them in artillery drill and practice. 

Pour of the pieces were mountain howitsers. This gun weigh- 
ed two hundrad and twenty pounds; whole length. 37.21 
inches; diameter of bore, 4.62 inches; lenghth of chamber, 
8.84 inches: range, 500 yards, at an olevation of two degrees 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 65 

thirty minutes, with a charge of one-half pound powder and 
shell; time of flight, two seconds; with same charge and ele- 
vation, the range of spherical case is 450 yards at an elevation 
of four to five degrees, the range with cannister is two hundred 
and fifty yards, according to elevation the range varies from 
150 to 1000 yards. A battery of four of these guns required 
twenty-two pack saddles and harness and twenty-two horses or 
mules. A mountain howitser ammunition chest will carry 
about 200 musket ball cartridges, besides eight rounds for the 
howitser; this command became highly efficient. Lieutenant 
Frederick Fisher, of Company K, and Sergeant William E. 
Brachmann, of Company E, were connected with it, and after 
a time were in command of the battery, and during our service 
in West Virginia ; the regiment comprised a four gun battery, 
which could be brought into position wherever there was room 
to lift it. Camp and outpost duty only occupied the post 
during the winter of 1861 and 1862, except on the 24th of Feb- 
ruary, 1862, when the officer of the day having reported firing 
beyond the lines. Capt. Thomas T. Taylor was sent with part 
of his company in quest of the place or the force from which 
the sound had proceeded. A long toilsome march disclosed 
that it had been a false alarm. Our camp at Grauley Moun- 
tain, after this disclosure, settled down once more, and ex- 
cept for a few inconsequental raids, drilling, target practice, 
guard duty, both pickets and regimental, as we are on the 
outpost, was quite severe, and besides that our regiment was 
badly afflicted with the measles, from which many died. 

Mrs. Colonel Elliott at Gauley Mountain, W. Va. 

Among our sick. Her work of mercy well done. She says: 
At that time the hospital was full, as many of the boys were 
down with the measles, many having died during the absence 
of Col. Elliott. As soon as it was known I was in Cam]) mes- 
sages came every hour or so for me to come to the hospital, 
but as it rained steadily for two days and the mud was knee 
deep and rising, I did not attempt to go until the third morn- 
ing, when starting out through the mud, I met Dr. Spiese 
directly in front of the hospital building, who seemed very 
glad to see me. After chatting a few minutes I turned to go 



66 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

in. put my hand on the door handle when he stopped me to 
ask where I was going, 1 told him to sec the sick boys he re- 
plied "you can not go in there, it is no place for a Lady." I 
said 1 always visited every hospital I ever came to and while 
in Camp before, did what I could for their comfort, but he 
shook his head and said no you can't go. Well! I said, there 
must be something wrong. There were two or three standing 
in the windows and heard the remarks and saw me go back to 
headquarters, who looked as disappointed as I felt in my not 
going in. That evening Chaplain Shaffer came in and as Col- 
onel sat writing, he sat down by the fire to visit me, and the 
first question he asked, had I been to the hospital that day. 
I then told him of my trip through the mud, and the doctor 
refusing to let me in. I then and there told the Chaplain I 
did not believe the doctor was doing as he ought to by the boys 
or so many would not have died in so short a time, and finish- 
ed by telling him I believed that the vermins were carrying 
t lie ni out of the key-hole. He said not a word but bowed his 
head two or three times as much as to say, yes, yes, yes. I then 
asked if he meant to say that they were lice, he bowed his head 
again for yes. I then asked the Colonel if he heard what the 
Chaplain said, and he answered no. No wonder he did not 
hear him as he had only bowed to my questions. I then re- 
peated the conversation and the Colonel turning to the Chap- 
lain asked if that was the case;, he answered, "Yes, that is the 
reason the boys were so anxious for your wife to come up 
there," as they thought she could help them by telling you 
what a condition they were in. By that time several officers 
had dropped in and it looked to me like a put up job between 
them and the Chaplain, all being interested, they were wait- 
ing for me to start the ball rolling and they were all ready to 
help it along. It being by this time after 11 P. M., and the 
rain still pouring in torrents. The Colonel called his servant 
and asked him to bring him his lantern, rubber coat and boots, 
and the procession started for the hospital; on arrival, put the 
old doctor under arrest and the young doctor with a detail of 
several men went to work to clean the house and get the boys 
rid of the vermin. They worked there the rest of the night. 
Their (dean clothes were in plain sight on a high shelf the 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 67 

length of the room, and when the Yankee boys wanted t<> be 
cleaned up the doctor would tell them to wait until they got 
well and then they could take care of themselves and be as 
clean as they liked. The regiment was composed of four 
companies of Germans and the balance of Yankees, as they were 
called both doctors being Germans they took better care of 
there own countrymen than of the Americans. Dr. Spies was 
Court-Martialed, had his trial in Charleston. I went with the 
rest as a witness, but my testimony was not needed. I think 
he was given a chance to resign which he did and retired to 
private life in Cincinnati. Dr. Bonner, of Cincinnati, was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy. After staying in Camp about two 
months I started for home. 

A Reconnaissance from the 4.7th, 0. V. I., from Camp Gduley 
Mountain, April and Ma;/, 1862, Resulting in the Capture of 
Lcwisburg, W. Va. 

About this time it seems there were orders to advanee our 
army towards the east, in aid of Gen. Siegle, who was making 
a movement westward; accordingly on the 24th of April 1862, 
Captain John Wallace with twenty men of Company D, and 
Captain H. D. Pugh, of Company I, with about thirty men of 
his Company, started on a scout to Sewell Mountain. This 
movement betokened an early advance and active operations 
on this line, and on April 27th, 1862, Captain Taylor was 
ordered by Col. Elliott to take his company and go and re-en- 
force Captains Wallace and Pugh at Big Sewell Mountain. 
Accordingly Capt. Taylor asked permission to take with him 
Lieutenants Obeded G. Sherwin and Robert McElhaney, of 
Company E, which permission was granted. We at once start- 
ed on the march eastward up the New River, and passed over 
the Hawk's Nest and the Lovers Leap to Mountain Cove, and 
joined Capt. Wallace's forces on Big Sewell Mountain, sixty 
miles east from our outposts at Gauley Mountain — this was on 
or about April 29th. Captain Wallace was the senior Captain, 
and in command of the expedition. From this point scouting 
expeditions were sent each night to the south, east and north, 
and by this means we captured many officers and men of the 
Rebel bushwhackers. Those nightly scouts were continued 



68 History of THE 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

until about May 8th. On this date Captain Wallace ordered 
Captain Taylor to move by stealthy march at night, and 
secreting ourselves, to capture and occupy Little Sewell Moun- 
tain, which was successfully accomplished by very hard work 
through the laurel brush and up the rocky heights of the 
mountains. Here Captain Taylor awaited Captain Wallace 
with the remainder of his command, which in due time arrived. 
This movement and advance and active operation on this line 
was hailed by every one, regardless of rank, with satisfaction, 
as all were worn out and disgusted with the exacting demands 
of the duties of the outposts at Grauley Mountain. At this 
time four citizens, who were Union men, and had been driven 
away from their families and their homes, were notified if 
they were ever caught at home they would be hung to the first 
tree; these true loyal, men had attached themselves to my 
company. They had been awaiting a forward movement so 
they would have a chance to see their families, who lived near 
the city of Louisburg ; they were armed with squirrel rifles and 
knew the mountain paths. Captain Wallace moved cautiously 
with the whole command forward; covering the country com- 
pletely in a south-east direction, on Little Sewell Mountain; 
thence to near Meadow Bluffs and found no enemy. From 
this point we turned to the left towards the Louisburg road, 
over Meadow Bluff, where a few of the enemy was encountered 
and some prisoners and horses were captured. While on this 
march one of these citizens said to me, the writer, that he 
would give everything he possessed in this world if he could 
only go and see his family to-night. It was only nine miles 
from here across the mountains; it would be nearly all the 
way by mountain paths. He would cry, saying, he had not seen 
or heard from his family for a year. Hearing this the writer 
offered to go with him if he had to go half way to Richmond ; 
but before he could go he must have permission from Captains 
Taylor or Wallace. Coming to a halt after this conversation, 
the citizen knowing Captain Taylor's love of adventure, awak- 
ened his sympathy. He obtained permission to select four 
soldiers of his company, they were as follows : Corporal J . A . 
Saunier, privates Alexander Evans, John Heaton and Robert 
McElhaney of Company E, with the four citizens comprised 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. 



V. V. I. 69 



our party We were to escort the citizens to their families 
through the mountains and run the risk of being captured and 
perhans hung, as we were over sixty miles from our outpost, 
and were to procure all possible information as to the position 
and number of the Rebel forces at Louisburg, and the ap- 
proaches to the same. At the same time Captain Wallace 
would remain at Meadow Bluff until next morning, when we 
would return if not captured. Everything being ready Capt, 
Taylor said- Now,you understand that if we should be attacked 
by the enemy, we will all stick together until the last one of us 
shall die; there will be no running or surrender with us; all 
in the little squad replied, we will. We turned to the East 
and ascended a mountain; we struck a path through the 
laurel brush and rocks. We had not gone very far when we 
come in sight of a clearing with a cabin in it, this gave us 
some trouble, for we had to turn to our left for a longdistance, 
so as not to be seen by any one and not arouse the dogs. Came 
again into the mountain path away east of the clearing; we 
marched on eastward in mountain paths over rocky bluffs and 
ridges. This march in the Rebel lines, was uneventful until 
about a half hour before sun down when we reached the west 
side of Sinking Creek Valley. On a high mountain overlook- 
ing the valley, which we knew we could not cross in day light 
without being seen by the enemy, a halt was made at the edge 
of the forest on this mountain. We looked from under the 
foliage, from between the rocks, looking north we have a grand 
view before us; we can see up Sinking Creek Valley for many 
miles, by using field glasses we could count about eight high 
hills under which Sinking Creek passed under, as though the 
hills had been tunnelled, and on our left, almost at our 
feet we could see the pike from Meadow Bluff to Louisburg. 
At this point is a log house, and Sinking Creek is crossed with- 
out a bridge, for the creek again disappears under a small hill. 
and below the pike the creek again reappears running south- 
west, and away in the distance again diappears under a high 
mountain and is lost to our view; Sinking Creek is quite a 
large stream. Looking across Sinking Creek Valley we see the 
pike winding up Brushey Ridge away east of where we are 
standing. Looking in that direction we beheld a Rebel squad- 



70 History of the -)7th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

con of Cavalry coming. They were patroling the pike towards 
Meadow Bluff l<> our rear. We could easily have emptied most 
of their saddles from our position, bui we feared to arouse the 
Rebel Army at Louisburg. Looking north-east we saw tin* 
Virginia Military Academy twenty miles distant, and saw the 
Rebels drilling mar it. and counted the buttons on their uni- 
forms with field glasses, and as it was oearing dusk we took 
another look at Sinking Creek Valley, which we would Boon 
cross. The valley is open and partly under cultivation, and in 
this valley was a county road from the Louisburg pike south- 
ward, which we had to cross. Captain Taylor said we would 
soon start on our way, and he pointed out the way we would 
travel up Brushey Ridge to a point near Helm's Chapel on the 
ridge, and he cautioned all to he very quiet as we would be 
within the Rebel Picket lines, and Rebel Cavalry on all roads; 
he said we will follow that fence up the ridge into the brush, 
and Corporal Saunier and Alexander Evans will go in advance 
live or eight rods, and in crossing the road or at any other 
time they see someone coming, or danger, they will give the 
alarm by a loud whistle. At dusk all beini>- ready, we started 
down the mountain into the valley as above directed, nothing 
happening on the way down. All at once Corporal Saunier gave 
the alarm, as he stepped into the road looking south he saw a 
man coming on horseback. Our whole party at once came 
together at his side. We halted the man. and he explained 
that he was returning home from work, and that he did not 
belong to the Rebel army in any form. He was discredited by 
all but Captain Taylor and one citi/en. He was sworn by the 
Captain to secrecy, and he solmenly promised never to tell 
what he had seen and heard. 

The Rebels were in motion all night long in our hearing on 
the pike, the forest and thick brush covering Brushy Ridge was 
soon reached by following afeneeon the south side of it. As we 
were going up the ridge we could hear the Rebel Cavalry gal- 
loping westward on the pike just a short distance north of us, 
and having reached the forest and thick brush covering Brushy 
Ridge we crossed over a multitude of dead branches that snap- 
ped and broke under our feet, with sufficient noise to startle 
the dogs at a. house near by, when, oh, Heavens, the bay ing and 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 71 

dashing through the brush, it seemed as though nature had re- 
fused to keep her secret longer. It was then that we knew we 
had been betrayed by the citizen that Captain Taylor had 
sworn to secrecy; but somehow we eluded the dogs and reached 
the top of Brushy Uidge near Helm's Chapel. Here we found 
another road from the pike running south on the bridge, which 
we followed some rods to the left of the road in the brush for 
some distance. Then we came to a path turning on our left, 
turned into this path and were soon going down into Muddy 
Creek Valley; went down to a fence and came to a halt for 
consultation. In the valley was an old Union man's house, 
where we started to go. It was decided by one of the young 
citizens that he would go down to the house alone, find out if 
there was any danger for us to come down. He said I am 
single, if they capture and kill me, I will leave no wife nor 
children to mourn after me, if there is no danger I will come 
out of the house and whistle ; if there is danger I will get away 
and come back here if I can, but if I don't whistle in a reason- 
able time you had better get away to a place of safety. We 
agreed to this arrangement, and the young man went down to 
the house in the valley, while we remained at the fence almost 
holding our breath, to hear the whistling that we would be safe 
to go down to the house, but the whistle came not for a long 
time, so long, that we began to think that the young man had 
been captured by the enemy. 

We could hear the enemies cavalry on the pike ; at last we 
heard the joyful whistle, we at once went down to the house, 
(the owner , we are sorry to say, we have forgotten his name) 
he being eighty years of age and living with his daughter, 
they were union at heart. The old gentleman did not want to 
die, he said, until the old stars and stripes floated over our 
country and the Rebellion whipped. The old man was so over- 
joyed that he cried for joy. We found one wife here belong- 
ing to one of the men in our party ; k she volunteered to go 
and bring the wives of the other men in the party. She went 
and brought them and their children; oh, the great joy and 
happiness of that meeting, it would be impossible for the pen 
to describe, but the joy our party had conferred repaid the ven- 
turesome boys for the risk they had undertaken. The old 



12 HlSTORV OF THE 47TH REGIMENT O. V. V. I. 



gentleman as soon as we got in the house cautioned all present 
to keep very quiet as we were within the Rebel picket lines 
and posts. All windows and doors were closed with, quilts to 
keep one outside from see i ni;' any lights, and the greatest sup-, 
per was prepared and eaten that was ever prepared during the 
war in Virginia. Now the first thing in order for us to do 
after getting into the house was to put out two soldiers on 
picket, and watch the movements of the enemy and not let 
them surround the house with our party in it. The Union citi- 
zens of our party talked to their families for the last time, per- 
haps. The old gentleman of the house and his daughter had 
been to Lewishurg two days previously, as that was also 
a part of our coming, we had risked our lives for those 
Union citizens, and to the procurement of an accurate knowl- 
edge of the Rebel forces and the position occupied by them at 
Louisburg, about three miles east of us. The old gentleman 
stated he had been there and was able to tell us all about the 
Rebel position at Louisburg, and he said that we were inside of 
their picket lines of Cavalry, and that the Rebel forces at 
Louisburg was about six hundred cavalry, supported by some 
irregular infantry of some two hundred more, and at Bunker's 
Mills there were about one hundred cavalry, also a picket post 
at Helm's Chapel. A mile north-west from here, almost in 
our rear our party was inside of the Rebel Picket line; we were 
in their grasp, but did the Rebels know it. It appeared to our 
party the man we had captured in Sinking ('reek Valley and 
let him go on his oath, must have reported that there were 
some Yankees in the neighborhood, for the dogs along the vari- 
ous lines of highways soon began harking in regular succession 
from farmhouse to farmhouse in all directions. We could 
bear the Rebels moving westward; we could hear the clatter of 
their horses feet and the saber at their sides; the old Union 
man gave us all the information about the enemy, and had 
great hopes we would capture Louisburg. In* wanted to see 
the glorious old flag, as the reader will see in future chapters. 
Captain Taylor at first was determined to remain there the 
next day. but the old man said he would like to have us remain 
with him for weeks, if we were safe to do so, but under the cir- 
cumstances he said you should Leave here by % o'clock A. M. 



History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 7B 

to save yourselves from capture, and save me and those fami- 
lies from being persecuted by the Rebels; finally about 12 
o'clock it was decided to leave there about 3 o'clock A. M., 
consequently we had but little rest that night in the Rebel 
lines. Breakfast was gotton ready by 3 o'clock A. M. and 
eaten, the farewells were exchanged and Captain Taylor order- 
the same comrades to take the advance, go back the path we 
had come, then up Brushy Ridge to Helm's Chapel; there try 
to capture the Rebel Picket, but no firing to be done Corpor- 
al Saunier and Alexander Evans led us up Brushy Ridge, to 
some eight rods of Helm's Chapel, remained in the brush, went 
to the Chapel, found no Rebel Pickets, they had gone west in 
our rear probably to cut off our retreat. Saunier and Evans 
then went into the Chapel in the hopes the pickets might be in 
there, but they had gone, they found a testament and carried 
it to the end of the war. The guides led us through the brush 
over Brushy Bidge into Sinking Creek Valley, which we re- 
crossed without seeing the enemy, moved leisurely through the 
woods across the intermediate country without molestation to 
the base of the ridge west of the valley of Sinking Creek. Here 
our little party drew a long breath of relief, and all that kept 
us from being captured was by marching in the brush, led by 
the same guides. When the summit of the mountain was 
reached we were nearly given out, rested a few minutes, then 
resumed our march in the brush on the ridge. We had not 
gone far whe we beheld sitting in their saddles a long line of 
Rebel Gavalry, numbering perhaps fifty or more, deployed as 
skirmishers across our pathway. It appeared that the further 
progress of our party was impossible; we were cut off; one of 
the Rebel Cavalrymen was dismounted and standing by his 
horse. The Rebel Cavalry outnumbered us, more than ten to 
our one ; but there was no time for indecision, for us to at- 
tempt to run away meant death by being run down and captur- 
ed or killed, so the Captain concluded to charge the Rebel line.' 
The Captain in a loud voice commanded, "on the right by file 
into line, double quick, march," followed by (he orders, "fix 
bayonets," "charge bayonets," and ran towards the dismount- 
ed cavalry line. The enemy could not tell how many "Yanks" 
were in our little squad in the thick brush. It was perhaps 



74 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

the only infantry charge upon cavalry ever heard of, but we 
broke their lines and away they dashed, yelling like fiends. 
The dismounted man left his horse and equipments and "ran 
for dear life," and thus nine men put a half hundred to flight; 
after this we resumed our march towards our forces on Meadow 
Bluff. We kept the mountain paths, for we dare not goon the 
roads as they were full of Rebel Cavalry looking for us. When 
we had got about half way, our advance went to examine the 
pike, and they motioned for us to go back t •» the brush again, 
and so continued until we were about one mile from Meadow 
Bluff, when Captain Taylor called on the advance to try the 
pike again. They motioned for us to. come to the pike, the 
evidence by the looks of the pike the enemy had all gone back : 
we then kept the road and soon came to a farm house, at which 
the woman, daughter and a small boy came out to the yard 
fence, and she said to our advance, Where youins going? Youins 
better go back, for our men went back an hour ago. She said 
there is ten thousand Yankees on Sewell Mountain, (she took 
us to be Rebels) and we did not tell her any better, but were 
very glad the Rebels had gone back. We told her that our 
men were coming back there and we were going to drive the 
Yankees out of Virginia, and when she heard this she fairly 
danced for joy, she only wished she was a man to help drive 
the infernal Yankees. We soon came to another house and 
saw a young woman and tried to make her believe we were 
Rebels, but said she knew better, and said the Rebels came 
nearly there last night, but they were too cowardly to go any 
farther. From this we knew we were now safe and marched up 
on Meadow Bluff. 

It was now nearly noon and Captain Wallace with his force 
had gone, given irs up to be captured or killed. Marched on 
over the bluif and when we got to the western slope looking 
towards Little Sewell Mountain, saw the rear guard of Capt. 
Wallace's forces, which was commanded by Lieut. O. G. Sherwin, 
they, also, were looking back and seeing us come to a halt, 
and gave three cheers and waited until we came up, and there 
was'great rejoicing. The march was then resumed to camp on 
Little Sewell Mountain, and the night of the 9th of May was 
given to jubilation over our safe return from near Louisburg, in 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 75 

the rebel lines, and over the information which we had obtained. 
We remained in camp on Little Sewell Mountain until May 11, 
1862. On that morning Lieutenant-Colonel L. S. Elliot arrived 
with Captain Ward with part of his company B. and part of 
company E and one company of the 44th Regiment of Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry and the Second Battalion of the Second West 
Virginia Cavalry commanded by Major Hoffman. Colonel Elliot 
47th 0. V. I. assumed the command of the whole force, and with 
the information procured by Captain Taylor and his party, 
made a few days previous, an advance upon Louisburg was 
determined, with the knowledge acquired by Taylor's party to 
capture and hold the city. The advance was not begun until 
six o'clock P. M., to conceal the movement. Louisburg was 
twenty miles from Sewell Mountain. We marched on to 
Meadow Bluffs; from there the Cavalry, under Major Hoffman, 
left us, turning to the right, they moved via Blue Sulpher 
Springs to a point near Louisburg, while Colonel Elliott with 
the Infantry advanced on the direct road eastward, on the 
same road recently traveled by Taylor and his small party. 
Nothing happened on this night's march until we came to Sink- 
ing Creek Valley, where we came to a halt for a long rest in 
orderto give Major Hoffman time to get in the rear of the enemy 
at Bunker's Mills while we were resting. The men or a majority 
of them, had gotten asleep. All at once the advance guard saw 
three men coming towards them, when they came near, they 
were called to halt, but they did not halt, thinking we were 
Rebels, they jumped over a fence, but were soon brought to time. 
They were three negroes running away from their masters for 
liberty. Those negroes remained with us as cooks until 1865. 
The march was finally resumed over Brushy Ridge to Helm's 
Chapeland crossed Muddy Valley. Looking to our right down 
the valley we could see the house at which Captain Taylor had 
been some three days ago, and as Ave were marching on heard 
a slight skirmish ahead of us, supposed to be at Bunker's Mills, 
when we were ordered on the double quick ; when we came up 
the main body of the Rebel Cavalry had fallen back towards 
Louisburg, before Major Hoffman had arrived at his position 
to cut off their retreat, and only the Picket Post left at the 
Mills was partly captured. Our command was then pushed by 



76 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 



Colonel Elliott rapidly forward; Major Hoffman soon eaine in 
but too late to capture the enemy. We marched <>n together 
and found the enemy drawn up in line of battle on a ridge 
about three-quarters of a mile west of the city. This wasabout 
four or five o'clock on the morning of May 12th. 1862. Tin' 
forces were about equal in numbers. The Cavalry in each 
body occupied the road, which formed the center, and the In- 
fantry protected the flanks. The Rebel Infantry was posted 
behind a fence; our Infantry led by Colonel Klliott, pressed 
rapidly forward, turning the right flank of the enemy and 
simultaneously Major Hoffman made a grand Cavalry charge 
which overwhelmed the enemies' center, when their whole force 
broke into the wildest disorder and flight. After a few volleys 
the enemy was driven into and through the city of Louisburg. 
When Major Hoffman with his Cavalry continued the pur- 
suit to Greenbrier River Bridge, some four miles further east- 
ward. The casualties were few, our forces took possession of 
the city, capturing several prisoners, horses with equipments 
complete, and all the Camp and garrison equipage, hospital, 
stores, etc., belonging to the enemy. The panic became so 
great in the enemies' ranks that the men in some instances 
threw away their arms and clothing, and when girths broke, 
their saddles. About six o'clock A. M. th«- struggle, so far as 
it could be participated in by the Infantry being over, the offi- 
cers went to the best hotel in the city and ate the breakfast 
prepared for the Rebel officers, and while awaiting breakfast. 
Captain H. D. Pugh found in the reception room the United 
States coat of arms, turned bottom up, with face to the wall. 
He restored it to its proper position, and the proprietor kept 
it so as long as we remained there. The troops were in com- 
fortable quarters in the Louisburg fair grounds, where they 
remained during the day. Colonel Elliott assumed command 
of the city, and for two days we were marched out of the city 
at dusk and back again to make the Rebel citizens believe we 
were receiving re-enforcements. We camped each night west 
of the city on a High Ridge, for fear of an attack on our small 
force, and the next morning march back to the city fair 
grounds. In the meantime Major Hoffman with his Cavalry 
had left us and returned to Gauley Bridge. About May 13th 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 77 

the old I'nioi) man and his daughter, from Muddy Creek Val- 
ley, that Captain Taylor and his small party had visited in the 
night and found out the Rebel position and their forces here, 
which led to its capture, came into the fair grounds, and in- 
quired for the same parties. Captain Taylor soon got them 
together; the old Union man and daughter had drove in there 
with a one horse wagon, with the best dinner for the party 
that were at his house, and then he asked to see and take hold 
of the old flag, which was brought to him. and he took hold of 
it, and embraced it time after time. He cried and said, oh, if 
I could only live and die under the grand old stars and stripes 
I would be so glad. The happiness of the old man and his 
daughter with our flag was so great that it moved all present 
to tears. How happy I am, he said. Dinner was ready for the 
men in the party with Captain Taylor on the 8th of May as 
already related, and while eating, the old gentleman and his 
daughter said, Captain, how lucky you and your little party was 
that night in leaving our house when you did, for about a half 
hour after you left, our house was surrounded by the Rebel 
Cavalry, and they called for the Yanks to come out and sur- 
render. We went out and told them, you were gone more than 
an hour ago, but they would not believe us, they came in and 
tore everything upside down searching for you through our 
house. Finally, they gave up the search for you and they cursed 
us and called us very bad names, and then left in a gallop to- 
wards Meadow Bluff. From what they said the man you let go 
in Sinking Creek Valley had told them there were a few 
Yankees in the neighborhood, and they said it was a great 
wonder we were not captured, for the Rebels were looking for 
us that night and the next day. This old Union man and 
daughter came to see us every few days while we remained at 
Louisburg. 

About May 15th, 1862, Colonel George Crook came with the 
36th and 44th Regiments Ohio, to which the 47th Regiment Ohio 
was assigned, and formed one brigade, commanded by Colonel 
Crook. With this re-enforcement we no longer had to march 
out of the city each night and return next morning, as we had 
to do heretofore, and our duty was now Camp and Picket. 
The Mountain Howitser Battery belonging to our Regiment 



78 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 

was then temporarily assigned to the brigade, and it with the 
36th and 44th Regiments Ohio, marched to Louisburg and 
thence to Dublin depot on the Jackson River Railroad (near 
the Blue Ridge .Mountains) which they destroyed. In the 
meantime the 47th, or that part of it here, were again left to 
hold the city of Louisburg, The forces under Colonel Crook 
soon returned from Dublin Lepot, and on the 20th of May, '62, 
Lieutenant-Colonel L. S. Elliott with his detachment of the 
47th Regiment, Ohio, was ordered hack to Meadow Bluffs with 
the balance of the Regiment already arrived there to protect 
the rear. 



BATTLE OF LOUISBURG. W. VA, 

Early in the morning of May 23d, 1862, General Heath in 
command of about 3000 Rebels drove in the Union Pickets 
east of Louisburg, and from a ridge east of the city, and began 
to shell the Camp of Colonel Crook on the west side, to which 
the Howitsers of the 47th replied. Not waiting to receive the 
attack Colonel Crook advanced his regiments, Louisburg form- 
ing his center, and emerging suddenly from behind the houses 
suprised General Heath's Rebel command, with the impetuosity 
of their onset. A company of the 44th Ohio charged a Rebel 
Battery with fixed bayonets and captured four guns of the Bat- 
tery, and in twenty minutes the enemy were utterly routed 
with a loss of four pieces of artillery and three hundred small 
arms, and about three hundred prisoners, and some fifty killed 
and some wounded. The flight of the enemy was very disorderly, 
and so great was their panic, that to prevent pursuit and cap- 
ture they burned the bridge across Greenbrier River, some four 
miles east of the city of Louisburg. The Richmond, Va., Dis- 
patch after this, alluded to this battle as "the mysterious 
affair at Louisburg under General Heath, but it made Colonel 
Crook a Brigadier General. The 47th Regiment Ohio did not 
participate in this battle, but the Battery belonging to our 
Regiment did, and were the only guns used. Colonel Crook's 
loss was thirteen killed and about fifty wounded. 

The reader, now having marched the Captains Wallace, Tay- 
lor and Pugh to Meadow Bluffs, then followed them until the 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 79 

capture of Louisburg under the command of Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Elliott, thence back to Meadow Bluffs, we shall now go 
back with the reader to Camp Gauley Mountain, W. Va., and 
give an account of the rest ot the regiment under the command 
of Major A. C Parry, and of their march, operations from 
Gauley Mountain to Meadow Bluffs. It is as follows: 

May 7, 1862. We lay at Camp Gauley Mountain, drilling 
and preparing for the coming campaign. Several false alarms 
have occured and some scouting was done, but nothing worthy 
of note occured until we were ready to start out on our cam- 
paign. The roads had become good and the troops were in 
good condition when spring came, with all its loveliness. The 
fine weather has dried up the roads so that now they are in a 
fine condition. The boys are all in fine spirits and expect soon 
to move forward to do the work for which we enlisted With 
our regiment we could take and hold Louis burg. The compa- 
nies letters have been changed throughout the regiment at this 
time, and were again changed, but this history has them as 
they were finally established. 



Distributing Clothes. 

May 10, 1862. Orders were given to draw enough clothing 
to do us, as we march in the morning. We move in the direc- 
tion of Louisburg, via the Big Sewell Mountain. The boys are 
all in good spirits. Prom 9 to 11 A. M. cartridges were dis- 
tributed to all who needed them. 

May 11, 1862, Camp Gauley to Mountain Cove. Rumor has 
it that we must reach Louisburg by Wednesday evening, May 
13th, to help drive out the secessionists. Major Parry will not 
allow us to carry more clothing than one shirt, one pair 
drawers, and one pair of socks, as he says we will march from 
twenty to twenty-five miles a day. We started at 5 P. M. to- 
day and marched past Camp Anderson, reaching Camp Moun- 
tain Cove and encamped in the open field. 

May 12, 1862, Mountain Cove to Big Sewell. Breakfast at 
5 A. M. and at 11 A. M. we reached Locust Lane. We passed 
Dogwood Gap, where General Wise had fortified, and also pass- 
ed Camp Lookout, distance eleven miles. We rested untill 4 



80 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



o'clock and then resumed <>ur march, reaching the top of Big 
Sewell Mountain, where we went into camp. 

May IS, 1862. Big Sewell to Meadow Bluffs. We left Camp 
this morning and marched over Little Sewell to Meadow Bluffs 
and went into Camp. The weather is fine, f he country rolling, 
f he roads good. Meadow Bluff is the end of a high ridge and 
is higher than the surrounding country. The view from here 

is very fine. 

May 14, 1862. At Meadow Bluff. Last night we made a tent 
of two rubber blankets to keep the rain- off our bunks. Had 
coffee and crackers for breakfast. Heavy firing heard south of 
us this morning. The 44th Regiment Ohio left us last night 
and are reported to be lying at the junction of the Summer- 
ville and Louisburg roads, one and a half miles from here. We 
have the artillery here. The Second Virginia Cavalry passed 
here this morning. Water and wood are scarce. Vegeta- 
tion pretty forward. Rain this morning. The stars and 
stripes were raised above Meadow Bluff's Postoffice, while the 
band played some national airs. 

May 15th, 1862. Floyd's Camp. We went down to see the 
winter quarters that General Floyd's Brigade built last winter. 
They are log cabins 16 by 20 feet in size, and are arranged in 
streets parallel to each other, five on either side of the street. 
They are located along the brow of a hill running off from the 
Louisburg pike. There are fifteen streets and one hundred and 
eight cabins, capable of accommodating three Rebel regiments, 
and are supposed to be the headquarters of General John B. 
Floyd after his retreat from Carr^ifex Ferry. The boys of the 
Regiment demolished one of the houses this morning. 

May 16th, 1862. In Camp. Our Mountain Howitsers left 
this morning, and were taken in the direction of Louisburg, 
where we expect a fight soon. The remainder of company B 
went out to join their company, also going in the direction of 
Louisburg Part of our own regiment was somewhere down 

that road. 

May 17th, 1862. In camp. Were up at sunrise this morning, 
and went out scouting for chickens, but found none. It is 
reported that three more companies will go in the direction 
of Louisburg tomorrow. Our train has just arrived at 8 P. M. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 81 



May 18th, 1862. In Camp. We were up at sunrise. It is 
clear and warm. We have more rations now than we did, owing 
to the arrival of our train. Pickets were today notified to be 
careful, as suspicious news has been brought into camp by 
professed Union men. 

May 19th, 1862. Scout to Blue Sulphur Springs. Suspicious 
rumors still prevail. We believe this is common just before a 
fight. A party of three men from Company A, consisting of 
Edward Morin, James Clark, and Samuel J. Johnston, was 
sent out on a scout today. We managed to reach Blue Sulphur 
Springs, saw doctor Martin, secured the information needed, 
returned, and reported to Major Parry. 

Skirmish on Greenbrier. 

May 20th, 1862. Company A, Captain S. L. Hunter and 
Company G, Captain Rapp, were ordered by Colonel Elliot to 
go out and kill or capture a company calling themselves the 
Moccason Rangers. We left camp this afternoon on our 
dangerous mission, passing over Sulphur Mountain, and at Blue 
Sulphur Springs halted for a few minutes. We soon resumed 
our march and at 6 P. M. we reached the home of a man by the 
name of Frank. He is thought to be a true blue man. He 
warmly welcomed us, and placed all the provisions he had at our 
disposal. As each one of us had plenty of rations we declined 
his patriotic offer. Here we prepared supper, and after par- 
taking of it we resumed our march until we came to a deserted 
house, in which we encamped. 

Condition of roads. We kept the pike to Blue Sulphur Springs 
at which point we left it and took to the mountain paths, which 
were narrow, crooked, and steep, and running almost perpendic- 
ularly or through cypress thickets whose low branches kept us 
in a bending position as we slowly crept through them. Wher, 
it grew dark our fallings and stumblings were numerous. Wea- 
ried in body and mind, at 10 P. M. we encamped. 

May21, , 62. We began moving at daylight, and at 6 o'clock we 
halted to get breakfast. Some of Company A went a half mile 
ahead and bought a square meal at McGee's house. They re- 
joined the company as it came along. Nothing of interest oc- 
cured until ten o'clock. The companies were resting from their 



82 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

tat igue by the roadside; some o'f t he boys were lying do\* Q, while 
some had gone down to the creek to bathe their feet, while others 
were asleep. All were scattered. One man of company A went 
a short distance ahead and passed around a short bend in the 
road. Suddenly he came upon a squad of aboul 20 of the Moc- 
casin Rangers. He did not see them until then, and Captain 
Thurman snapped his gun at him. At the noise he noticed 
them and ran to the companies, shouting, "Here they 
come." Oneof the rangers firedat himandthe ball went hissing 
over our heads. At the first alarm the boys sprangto their guns 
and at Captain Hunter's command of rally found every man in 
line. Company C was thrown out to the left of the road, and two 
files of four men each were sent out in advance, and we started 
on the double-quick down the road. Company A supported by 
Company G on the left flank. A few minutes brought the com- 
panies in view of the Rebels, who had already commenced to 
draw back. "Charge, Company A" shouted the Lieutenant of 
that company. On a double-quick the company started for the 
enemy, who broke and ran down the road. This company was 
gallantly supported by Company G. The command strained 
every nerve to catch the fleeing enemy. We wanted to give them 
a taste of United States steel. Over hill and dale, across fields 
and over fences we ran them. We were now rapidly approach- 
ing the Greenbrier River. Only one more mile remained between 
them, and if they got across they would be safe. At this point 
we again openedfireon them. A brisk fire was kept up by both 
companies until the enemy reached the river bank, one half mile 
above a ferry. Here the underbrush concealed them and they 
crossed over to the other side in safety. The Confederates had 
the only boat at the ferry and this they took with them. The 
Rangers formed a skirmish line opposite us and a slight skirmish 
tire only was kept up by us. Finding we could not cross, we 
marched up the river and about 9 P. M. we reached Muddy Creek, 
and there encamped, near the junction of the Greenbrier river 

May 22, 18()2. We left Camp at daylight and marched to 
Palestine, wh jre we compelled the people to g'el our breakfast, 
after the disposal of which we marched to Blue Sulphur 
Springs. On the road we borrowed twenty head of cattle be- 
longing to a noted "secesh." We are quartered in the small 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 83 

cottages, six of them to a company, one for each mess of twelve 
men. We have a large dining room and kitchen. Three men 
are detailed to cook for each Company. They use a large range 
to do the cooking on in the kitchen All the boys are well 
pleased at once more getting a roof Over their heads, and 
having three scpiare meals a day. 

May 23, 1862. We heard of a fight at Louisburg. Captain 
Rapp's Company left for Meadow Bluffs, leaving Company A 
alone at the Springs. 

May 24, 1862. Gompany A on duty at the Springs. 

May 25, 1862. Nothing of importance at the Springs today. 
The balance of the Regiment is at Meadow Bluff. 

May 26, 1862. At Blue Sulphur. One of the scouts came 
in today and reported one hundred and fifty men at Hayne's 
Ferry. It appears that upon the night of the 21st a party of 
fifty of the Rangers crossed over the river at Hayne's Ferry 
and protected the towing of the Ferry boat to an upper land- 
ing, where it is now used to cross Confederate troops. 

May 27, 1862. Our scouts came in this morning and report- 
ed that the party we attacked at Hayne's Ferry consisted of 
eighteen men, seventeen of whom had guns. When they arriv- 
ed at their Camp only seven had guns. Six of the party were 
either killed or wounded. 

May 28, 1862. A scouting party was sent out in the direc- 
tion of Lick Run, upon the return of which Company C re- 
joined the regiment at Meadow Bluff. 

The 47th Re-United Once More. 

May 29, 1862. Meadow Bluffs, Va. The forces at Louis- 
burg returned to Meadow Bluffs, and the 47th was again re- 
united, from which time drilling, scouting and building fortifi- 
cations occupied our time. We hear that the Confederates 
have re-occupied Louisburg. Our forces had a skirmish near 
that place today. One Cavalry man was killed, and it is said 
that some were wounded. 

May 31, 1862. We are still at Meadow Bluffs. There are 
rumors that we will make another advance on Louisburg, or 
Union, soon. Weather very hot. We are building fortifi- 
cations. 



84 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

June 1, 1862. Considerable rain last night. Rumor has it 
today that Lor i rig has left Louisburg. 

June 2 and 3, 1862. No news. 

June 4, 1862. Some of our officers have resigned. Heard 
today that Captain S. L. Hunter, of Company G resigned. 

June 5, 1862. Still at Meadow Bluffs. We have begun to 
be dissatisfied with our commander. We had much rather be 
in active service, as we do not care to be idle while others are 
busy. 

June 6 and 7, 1862. We had a small alarm last night, and 
were in hopes that we would have a fight. Only a few shots 
were fired. No loss. 

June 8, 1862. No items of importance. 

June 9, 1862. Skirmish at Meadow Creek. Company A was 
sent out on a scout, and marched all night, reaching Meadow 
Creek. Returned to Camp. We supported the Cavalry, who 
had a skirmish with the Confederates. Killed four and took 
two prisoners. 

June 12, 1862. A volunteer force of ninety men was sent on 
a scout. After foraging awhile they were driven in by the 
enemy. Our force under command of Lieutenant Dearbeck 
was as far as Palestine. No loss. 

June 14, 1862. Our Cavalry scouted out in the direction of 
Louisburg, but saw no enemy. Two members of Company A, 
Edward Marin and Samuel J. Johnston, while scouting out 
and around the south peak of Little Sewell Mountain ascer- 
tained that the Confederates are smuggling salt through our 
lines over that peak. Upon arrival at Camp they reported 
the fact to the proper officers. 

June 14 to 20, 1862. Remaining at Meadow Bluffs. Eigh- 
teen of the Confederates came in and surrendered themselves 
to our force today. Received orders to prepare to march. 

June 21, 1862. Getting ready for active operations. We 
carry two days' rations in haversacks, and two in wagons. 

June 22, 1862. The regiment moved with the rest of the 
Brigade on a diversion in aid of General Cox, through Monroe 
County, via Blue Sulphur and Salt Sulphur Springs. 

June 22, 1862. Marched at daylight on the Blue Sulphur 
road. At 8 o'clock we reached Blue Sulphur, then marched out 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 85 



on the Louisburg road for two miles. We then turned off on the 
Red Sulphur road, and by two o'clock we reached Arlington Fer- 
ry. As the ferry boats were gone we had to wade the stream, the 
Greenbrier River. It was only waist deep. Some of the boys 
stripped off their pants, while others stripped off all their cloth- 
ing. In we went, 3000 of us, rank and file, laughing and joking 
at our funny appearance. It was a jolly sight and not to be soon 
forgotten. It took but a half hour to cross the river, when we 
again took up our line of march towards Red Sulphur Springs. 
This road runs along the river bank. At night we encamped 
on its banks, having marched about 20 miles. 

June 23d, 1862. ' Reveille at 3 o'clock. Started at daylight 
and by noon reached Centerville, a small town nearly deserted. 
Here we stopped for dinner. In the afternoon we marched upo» 
the union road to within three miles of Salt Sulphur Springs. 
After a few shots we drove in the enemie's only pickets. Two of 
the men of our regiment were slightly wounded, one in the face 
and the other in the hand. As we are so near the enemy we ex- 
pect a fight to-morrow, if Loring and Heath don't run. We un- 
derstand that Generals Heath, Loring and Williams are at Salt 
Sulphur Springs with a considerable force. We have the 36th 
regiment, the 44th regiment, and the 47th regiment, besides a 
battalion of cavalry and six pieces of artillery, in all about 3000 
men, 

June 24th, 1862. We were up at daylight, and at sun up we 
were in rank and started for the enemy. Reaching the Springs 
we found, much to our surprise and disappointment, that the 
enemy had lied, no one seemed to know where. We pressed on 
to town, 3 miles farther, to find ourselves again disappointed. 
The enemy have retreated to Dublin Station, which I am inform- 
ed is 50 miles from Union. At Union the enemy declined our 
proffered battle, only a few shots being exchanged. At one 
point on the route, the Union troops while marching through a 
narrow glen, had aline of flankers filed on the top of the ridge 
passing in one direction, and just opposite to them, they reported 
thf Confederate flankers marching in the opposite direction. 
The men saluted each other, hut did not exchange shots. The 
configuration of the country was such that at that point neither 
army could climb the precipitous sides of the ridge, and the face 



86 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

of rugged nature absolutely forbade a conflict. A.t another point 
the column was so close to the rear of the Confederates that the 
offal of the beeves slaughtered by them was still smoking from 
the animal heat, but in that broken country, they could not be 
forced into a battle, although the pursuit was maintained seven 
miles. Still the expedition was highly successful ; 280 beeves, 
besides a large quantity of bacon, rice, crackers, sugar and flour 
belonging to the Confederate commissary department fell into 
Federal hands, and with them a goodly number of horses, mules, 
wagons, arms, and a large quantity of amunition. The march 
covered ninty miles and occupied three days.' Only one Union 
soldier was killed and twelve wounded during the entire expe- 
dition. 

It was Sabbath when the column passed through Palestine, a 
mountain village in which were two churches, located on the 
only street, directly opposite each other. One contained a con- 
gregation engaged in worship. It was a memorable spectacle; 
there an aged pastor, an ambassador of peace, "My Peace" on 
bended knee with outstretched arms seeming to say "He is my 
refuge and fortress; my God, in Him will I trust". Here 
in the dusty highway passed the seried lines of Cavalry with 
gleaming sabers, profoundly silent, marching by twos: next, the 
36th by fours, the brigade commander and staff, the Parrott 
Battery, and the mounted Howitzers, with their caisons, follow- 
ed by the 47th and 44th Ohio, the supply train and the rear gua rd 
Each organization was much impressed by this scene, and passed 
at the marching salute. The silence in the ranks was so deep it 
produced a feeling akin to reverential awe. Through the open 
door was seen the kneeling pastor and congregal ion. with faces 
on which grief, anguish, and pain were strongly written, upturn- 
ed in the marching column. 

June 26th to July 10th 18(52. We remained at Meadow Bluffs 
undisturbed by the enemy. Nothing doing but drill and the 
necessary Camp duties. Colonel Poschner resigned to-day and 
left for Ohio. 

July 13th, 1862. Our Regimenl went out on a scout towards 
Union. Saw nothing of the enemy. Nothing occuring but hard 
marching. 

July 14th, 1862. Regiment returned to Camp today. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 87 

July 15th and 16th, 1862. The Confederate forces after this 
expedition approached closer to the Union lines, and almost 
daily the "picket and patrols of the respective armies would clash. 

There was just enough of spice and zest in this life at this time 
to relieve it of monotony. Short raids by detachments every 
week, and thus the time wore away. On the 12th of July Major 
Parry was ordered to relieve two Companies of the 44th, which 
were in a perilous position beyond the Greenbrier river. After 
crossing the river Captain Taylor was detached with his Company 
and a small Cavalry patrol to hold the road which exposed the 
rear of Parry's column to attack. 

Captain Taylor having divided the Cavalry into reliefs, sent 
the first relief forward to reconnoiter the road over and at the 
base of a mountain not far from which General Williams was 
reported with a Confederate force. Williams had also sent a 
patrol on the same road, These patrols met face to face about 
midway between the forces. The Confederate said "Hello, 
Yank, where are you going?" The Yank replied, "He had 
reached his journey's end," and then asked, "Johnny, w r here 
are you going?" The reply was that he "wasn't going to go 
any further." After exchanging the compliments of the day, 
each party returned to his chief with his report. Each force 
was throughout that anxious day awaiting an attack from the 
other, but they scrupulously observed the limit fixed by them- 
selves in the morning. Major Parry's expedition was a success, 
but when he returned he overlooked Captain Taylor's com- 
mand, which he left wholly unsustained, with the rear exposed, 
until a courier soliciting a detail of fresh Cavalry overtook him 
on his way to Camp. He halted at once and dispatched two 
Companies of Infantry to hold the ford, with Cavalry to cover 
the exposed road, and sent orders to the Captain to withdraw 
at once. In the pressure incident to a military movement oc- 
casionally troops would be overlooked, and while in the posi- 
tion assigned them, in the faithful performance of duty, cap- 
tured by the enemy, to the great astonishment of the command- 
ing officer. Several surprises which at various times surprised 
the country occurred in this manner. 

July 14, 1862. Regiment returned to Camp today. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



July 17, 1862. Regiment moved our Camp one mile in the 

direction of Little Sewell Mountain. 

July 18 to August 3. 1802. No movements of importance. 
Plenty of drill and the usual Camp duties. 

The usual occupations of a garrison in a hostile country con- 
sumed long, weary days during July, and the earlier part of 
August. In the meantime it became evident that the Confed- 
erate forces were more numerous and had become holder. On 
the 6th of August, Major Parry was dispatched with Compan- 
ies A, B, G and I to make a reconnoissance in the northern 
part of Pocahontas county. The expedition wis successful as 
a foraging party, but the Guerrillas of that locality withdrew 
into their mountain fortresses, and laughed at the effort to 
chastise them with an army. 

August 5, 1862. The command returned to Camp this even- 
ing. Was unsuccessful in crossing Greenbrier River, leaving 
the four Companies of the 47th Regiment to guard the rear. 

August 9, 1862. The four Companies of the 47th returned 
this morning, bringing in some contrabands and some horses. 
The former will do our cooking, the latter was turned over to 
the quartermaster. 

August 12, 1862. Everything quiet in this command. One 
of our scouts, Bowie by name, accidentally killed himself this 
morning. 

August 14, 1862. Heard that the enemy are operating in 
our rear on the Kanawha River. 

The demands of the Commander of the Potomac army be- 
came so important that six Regiments were taken away from 
the Kanawha Division to re-enforce that army, and the 44th 
and 47th Ohio were withdrawn August 15th from Meadow 
Bluffs to Osgood's Creek, otherwise known as Camp Ewing, 
seven miles east of Gauley Mountain. On August 19th, the 
old altered Revolutionary muskets were exchanged by the Reg- 
iments for Enfield Rifles, to the great satisfaction of the 
officers and men, and for the first time in its career our Regi- 
ment felt that it was properly equipped for action. 

The March for Camp Ewing. 

August 15, 1862. Our forces broke Camp this morning at 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 89 

daylight, and by hard marching reached Camp Lookout, and 
went into Camp. Distance about twenty-seven miles. 

August 16. 1862. Left Camp Lookout and by hard march- 
ing reached Camp Ewing. one mil" from Camp Anderson, by 
noon today, distance twelve miles. 

Camp Ewing, Va. 

Colonel Frederick Poschner resigned on the 17th of July, 
and from that date until August 22d there had been a vacancy 
in the Colonelcy, during which a sharp struggle was made by 
the friends of Colonel Parry to have him appointed, vice 
Poschner. The strife was demoralizing to the Regiment, and 
great relief was experienced when the the controversy was set- 
tled by promotions in regular line. 

August 18, 1862. Camp Ewing, W. Va. By orders from 
Colonel S. A. Gilbert, Lieutenant-Colonel A. C. Parry was 
dispatched to Camp Lookout with Companies A, B, C and K. 
The march was made to Camp Lookout and we went into Camp 
and formed the outposts for our forces. 



CHAPLAIN'S REPORT. 

To Colonel L. S. Elliott, at Camp Ewing. 

Camp Ewing, W. Va., August 31, 1862. 
Colonel L. S. Elliott. 

Dear Sir: — By an act of Congress it becomes my duty as 
Chaplain of the 47th Regiment Ohio to report to you quarter- 
ly the moral condition of this Regiment, now under your com- 
mand, together with any suggestions that may be necessary for 
the benefit of the men, morally and physically. 

It is gratifying to state that under the excitement of Camp 
life and the constant lookout for the approaching enemy day 
and night, that there is a better state of morals today among 
the men of the 47th Regiment than there was the day we left 
Camp Dennison, just one year ago, for active service in the 
wilds of western Virginia. They are better morally, and bet- 
ter in heart and life. 

Swearing and gambling, so common in the army, is in a 



90 History of the 47th Reufment O. V. V. I. 



great measure suppressed among the men. Drinking and 
drunkenness among the privates is almost entirely suppressed. 
Your efforts, sir, in this respect have been veiy successful. 
There is. as a general thing, a disposition to keep quarters and 
person clean. This no doubt is the reason we hive lost so few 
mei by sickness here. Thei*e is a good attendance and atten- 
tion at our religious services. There is an increased desire for 
good reading. This is also a very favorable indication. My 
observation is that if officers will only exercise their influence 
in the right direction many of the most hurtful evils and vices 
of Camp life may be avoided. 

Permit me to compliment you, sir, on your determined and 
expressed purpose to suppress the vices of Camp life so far as 
in your power, and to relieve the men under your command of 
all duty on the Sabbath, so far as is consistent with your duly 
of a military character, and encourage religious services on 
that day. This, sir, can not but have its beneficial effects, 
both morally and physically, on the Regiment. I know, sir, 
some of the disadvantages under which you have labored the 
past year, but permit me to say that many of those obstruc- 
tions have been removed. I think I can say that as Chaplain. 
I have tried to the best of my ability to co-operate with you 
and the officers to encourage and comfort the men in Camp. 
and instruct them in reference to their moral condition. While 
living and dying I have endeavored to impress upon them the 
necessity of trusting in the God of Nations. 

And now, sir, when I review the past eventful year that we 
have spent in the w r ilds of this almost God-forsaken battle 
ground, the land of death and of graves, and contemplate the 
great results recorded upon every page of our history as a Reg- 
iment, my heart swells with gratitude to the God of Nations, 
whose gracious providence we recognize in our deliverance and 
protection. Yours truly, 

S. D. Shaffer, 
Chaplain 47th Regiment O. V. I. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 91 



About four miles east of Camp E wing there was a Confederate 
Cavalry officer of some merit by the name of Jenkins, who seemed 
to be a veritable nightmare to the Federal Commander, in whose 
belief he was ubiquitous. The Confederates knew of the withdrw- 
al of the six Regiments from the Kanawha, and pressed and 
everywhere threatened, the Federal outposts. 

August 20th, 1862. This morning twenty men of the Regiment 
were detailed to go out scouting. By noon we reached the foot 
of Big Sewell. Got our dinner at the house of a Confederate 
Colonel. Then returned to Camp. Saw nothing of the Con- 
federates. 

A Scout After Confederates. 

August 26th, 1862. A detail of twenty men from this Reg- 
iment were sent out the second time, one scout to the top of Big 
Sewell. Saw nothing suspicious. There are four Companies at 
this fort Three of the Companies are out all the time blockad- 
ing roads on our flanks. Company A holds this post and does 
none of the fatigue work. It looks as though our Commander 
has some intimation of the approach of a Confederate force and 
is fearful of not being able to hold his position. 

August 27th, 1862. Scout to near Sewell. Company A got 
orders to go on a scout to be gone about three days. To conceal 
our movements we started at night and marched in the direc- 
tion of Big Sewell. On this road our Regiment has marched so 
many times, and over which we hope never to go again. After 
traveling 12 miles we encamped. The rain commenced to fall 
soon after and we became "soaking wet.'" We were so used to 
this that it makes no difference whether we are wet or dry. 

Laying in Ambush for the Confederates. 

August 28th, 1862. Some of our Company arose in a bad hu- 
mor this morning. Our contrabands had breakfast ready, and 
after partaking of this we began our march. Three miles of 
marching brought us to the top of Big Sewell, where we stopped 
to gaze around and view the spot w here we had formerly encamp- 
ed. We then took up our line of march down the opposite side. 
Four miles from the top we came upon some Confederate cav- 
alry who fled at our approach. The Captain of company 



92 History of the 47tii Regiment O. V." V. I. 

A now drew his men off the road, and, taking a good position 
to attack the Confederates, should they return, we halted. Till 
midnight we lay on our arms, and no enemy came near. Our 
Captain then thought it best to leave, as he was suspicious that 
the enemy would surround us, as they could easily do so. The 
Company were ordered to fall into line and were cautionedjto 
make no noise, and then we moved into the road where we were 
halted until the pickets were drawn in. This took but aiew min- 
utes ; we then began our retrograde movement. Misfortune 
befell oneof the boys, named Barnard. In bringing his gun from 
a "shoulder" to a "right shoulder shift", the hammer struck 
against his shoulder and caused it to go off. Concealment was no 
longer possible, so the company started off on the double-quick, 
and halted not until eight miles were passed over and the com- 
pany was out of danger. Then we took it moderately to camp, 
where we arrived, tired and hungry. 

Suspicious Reports. 

Reported in Camp that some Confederate Cavalry are hover- 
ing around. We think it must be Jenkins' force. We expect- 
ed an attack last night. He is reported to have a force of 
1500 strong. He must want to make a raid down toward the 
Kanawha Valley. We have four companies on this post, and 
will have so long as such suspicious news keeps coming in. At 
1 P. M. it began to rain and we look for a most uncomfortable 
night. We are on reserve picket post. Although we have a 
house at the post we are afraid we can not sleep when off duty. 
Lieutenant Walters is in command of this picket post. 

September 2, 18(52. Last night the only picket post was 
drawn into the reserve. We had tive men on the post and pass- 
ed a comfortable night. The news this morning is not alarm- 
ing. But the indications are that the enemy are preparing for 
a move of some consequence. 

Indications of a Confederate Advance. 

September 4, 1862. On picket guard today at the out-post. 
Last night the Camp was aroused by some firing at a distance. 
We do not know what caused it. A flag of truce came to the 
picket post last night. Captain S. L. Hunter was out confer- 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 93 

ing with its bearers. The outer guard then brought in three 
men. 4 P. M. The three men who were passed in are deserters 
from the Confederate Army. We are in charge of the outpost. 
We have two men, so I stand a trick of guard myself. I go on 
the first relief, going on at 8 P. M. and coming off at 11 P. M. 
Kline is on the second, from 11 P. M. until 2 A. M., and Joseph 
Leavens from 2 A. M. until 5 A. M., when it will be break of 
day, and we must all be on the alert. We would hate to be 
caught napping. 

September 5. 1862. We were not interrupted last night. 
All passed off as merry as a marriage bell. Captain Ward's 
Company, which has been out obstructing roads, and has been 
expected to arrive ever since yesterday, has not yet appeared 
and we fear that he has been captured. At 6 A. M. was reliev- 
ed and went back to Camp. 

September 6, 1862. Three of our companies left Camp to 
join the Regiment, wherever it is, leaving one Company, A, 
under Captain Hunter, at this place with a squad of Cavalry. 

Disastrous Retreat Down the Great Kanawha Valley. 

September 6, 1862. For some days past every indication of 
the forward movement of the enemy has been noticed on all 
sides, and in order to show that we were not alone in noticing 
that the enemy was preparing to come down upon us soon, we 
insert the following orders : 

War Department, Washington D. C, Sept., 8, 1862. 

Colonel J.A.J. Lightburn, 

Commanding Officer Kanawha Valley, Va. 
It is reported that the enemy is likely to compel you to fall 
back to the Ohio River. If such a movement should be neces- 
sary take position at Point Pleasant. 

Signed, W. H. Halleck, 

Commander-in- Chief. 

The above is taken from the official records, War Depart- 
ment, volume 19, part 2, page 218. It would also seem that 
Colonel Lightburn thought the same, as seen from the follow- 
ing dispatch sent by him to General Halleck. 



94 History of the iTrn Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

Gaule;/, Va., Sept. 9, 1862. 
Major-General Halleck, 
General-in-Chief. 

It is evidently necessary that I should fall back to enable me 
to protect my flanks and rear, and with the General's permis- 
sion I shall take position on the Kanawha River, twelve miles 
above Charleston, embracing the Kanawha Salt Works, and at 
the head of navagation. In this event what shall I do with 
the bridges and such buildings as I can get away? 

Signed, J. A. J. I/i,ghibum, 

Colonel Commanding District Kanawha. 

The above is taken from page 232 of the same report. 

The above dispatches will tend to show that we were not 
alone in thinking we would soon have to face the music of the 
shells and bullets. The historian desires to mention here that 
this portion of the history is of that part of the regiment under 
Lieutenant-Colonel A. C. Parry, as far down as the retreat to 
Camp Piatt, where we were again re-united. The portion of 
the history concerning the command of Colonel L. S. Elliott, 
will be related when we reach Camp Piatt. At present, let us 
follow the movements of Lieutenant-Colonel Parry. 

September 7 to 9, 1862. The situation grows more critical, 
so far as we can see and hear. 

September 10, 1862. Today is the anniversary of the battle 
of Carnifex Ferry, which occurred one year ago. We can hear 
heavy artillery firing in the direction of Fayette C. H., and we 
are told that a fight is raging at that point. We were ordered 
to be vigilant, but there is no use, as we can hear the battle, 
and every one of us is on the alert. At 8 P. M. a courier gal- 
loped into our Camp and we were ordered to retreat to Gauley 
bridge. At 8:30 we started on our march and scarcely had 
left Camp when the Rebel Cavalry came in. Whereupon 
Company A of our regiment threw off their knapsacks and went 
back, and the enemy made haste to retreat, so we had our 
trouble for not hing. 

September 11, 1862. Late last night on our retreat we marched 
paBl Camp Ewing, Mountain Cove, Camp Anderson, and Gauley 
Mountain, and crossed the Gauley River at Gauley Bridge. We 
fcheD marched down to the river, and crossed the Kanawha River. 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 95 

Company A of our Regiment had just crossed over the Gauley 
River when the bridge was immediately destroyed by some of 
our forces, when the Confederate cavalry appeared, By this 
time the bridge was completely destroyed ; the road on the other 
side of the river was alive with Confederates. It will be seen 
that Company A had a very narrow escape from capture by the 
enemy. Four Companies of the 47th, as follows: A, B, E and 
K, under the command of Lieutenent-Colonel Parry, were on the 
top of Cotton Mountain assisting the 34th and 37th Regiments 
Ohio. These Regiments are retreating from Fayettville 
after the battle of yesterday and last night, in which they were 
driven from the place. These Regiments evacuated Fayetteville 
last night after a stubborn fight, the Confederates being about 
three times the number of our men. They had the advantage 
in the fact that they came down the mountain. The commissary 
stores of all descriptions were fired, the ferry boats were stoved 
in. Although our army is small it is sullen in defeat. It re- 
treated down the Kanawha Valley, 

Skirmish at Loop Creek, Va. 

A battery of artillery was placed on the bank of the Kanawha 
River opposite the burning commissary, and in a few minutes 
opened fire upon the Confederate advance. As they came down 
into the valley our army marched in quick time down the valley, 
burning all the bridges, felling trees across the roads, and other- 
wise obstructing them. The 47th Ohio had the post of honor in 
this retreat, the rear of the army. This we say because the army 
is retreating on both roads, one road on either side of the 
Kanawha River. We had a light skirmish with the pursuing 
Confederate forces at Loop Creek late to night. We then 
stopped to get a little rest. 

September 12, '62. We resumed our retreat at8o'clock this 
morning and retreated as far as Camp Piatt, which we reached 
about 11 o'clock, and crossed over to the east side of Kanawha 
River. Here the Regiment was once more re-united, with part 
of our Regiment from Suinmerville Virginia, under Colonel El- 
liott. We now go back to Camp Ewing and go with Colonel El- 
liott to Summerville, West Virginia, and his retreat. 



96 History of the 4Ttii Regiment 0. V. V . I. 



Camp Ewing W. Va. 

September 3rd, 'i')'2. Today we received marching orders. 
Colonel Elliott was ordered with Companies C, D, F, H and I 
as a reinforcement to the garrison at Summerville. Heatonce 
made a forced march to that point, at which place he arrived in 
season, and the Colonel at once assumed the command, inspected 
the works, assigned the forces to their respective posit ions, and 
then awaited the Confederate General Jenkins, who failed to 
make his appearance. Colonel Elliott at once began prepara- 
tions to receive the attack of the enemy, by throwing up breast- 
works of logs and earth on all roads except the one leading to 
Gauley Bridge. 

This work and the hard picket duty occupied the time to Sep- 
tember 10th. 

September 10th, '62. Summerville. Today we can distinctly 
hear the 1 looming of artillery in the direction of Fayetteville. 
and are told that a battle is going on there. We shall have to 
make a hasty retreat. At 2 P. M. our pickets were fired upon, 
but not driven in, and the long roll beats to get ready to give 
the enemy a reception. We hope they will come. Later. They 
did not come, and again we were disappointed. 

Alio ut 5 o'clock this afternoon we received news that our forces 
probably could not drive back or hold the Confederate forces at 
Fayetteville. We were ordered to pile up all our commissary 
stores in a heap and set fire to them. It is said that we had 
enough commissary stores to last us all winter, including clothes. 
All wagons not needed were destroyed, and also destroyed all the 
muskets not needed. We destroyed them over rocks with axes. 
The Camp kettles were turned upside down and their bottoms 
cut with axes. Late at night we received orders to retreat to 
Gauley Bridge, which we did. 

September 11th, '62. We are still on our retreat from Sum- 
merville. After marching about ten miles last night one of out- 
sick men died in the wagon in which he was being hauled. Here 
we stopped, dug a grave at the side of the road and buried him. 
Poor fellow, his friends never will know where he was buried. 
Hut we resumed our retreat on quicker time than ever to make 
up for the time wehadlost. The roads were good in most places 
luit verv mountainous and rough. All the (dear, cold creeks 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 97 

from these mountains we had to wade. When we were yet with- 
in about 25 miles of Gauley Bridge a courier was seen coming 
at full gallop. He went directly to Colonel Elliott with his 
dispatch, and we were ordered to travel still faster or our retreat 
would be cut off at Gauley Bridge. Then just as we were 
nearing Twenty Mile Creek another courier was seen coming at 
break-neck, speed his horse almost foaming. He had ran past 
Gauley Bridge through a storm of bullets. And now we are in- 
formed that our retreat is cut off, and the enemy is in possession 
of Cotton Mountain, with their artillery sweeping all the roads ; 
their infantry in possession of the banks of the river at Gauley 
Bridge and below it. Here at Twenty Mile Creek what few 
wagons we had were brought up and destroyed, together with all 
our knapsacks and the sutler's wagon, and all his goods went 
to the flames. The boys got from him now for the first time 
everything they wanted, and cheap at that. Colonel Elliott's 
trunk was taken to a house near by. These things all done we 
filed right and marched up the creek some distance, then we filed 
left and marched up a mountain road. And now the mountain 
before us seemed the highest mountain we had ever seen. After 
marching up a short distance we were ordered to halt and take 
our position in ambush at the side of^the road, to give Jenkins' 
cavalry a reception with our muskets But agrair wc had nnr 
trouble all for nothing, for they didn't come. The mercury 
stood 96 degrees in the shade, and the march was very toilsome. 
We then resumed our retreat up the rocky and rugged mountain. 
Finally, there was nothing but a mountain path and we were 
compelled to march by single file. The brush was so thick we 
could not go otherwise. Up we go, finally reaching the sum- 
mit, but there is still nothing but a mountain path. By this 
time the men were about worn out, soon we began to march 
slightly on the decline, then down, down through a rocky ra- 
vine, and the farther down the rockier it became, till we made 
quite a clatter marching over the loose rocks. Finally we struck 
a wagon track and found we were nearing the Kanawha Valley. 
In a short time we heard the command, halt, and found we had 
come to a picket post, and were tired and weary, for we had 
marched over forty miles without rest. We did not find out 
for some time whether it was one of our picket posts or one of 



98 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. f. 



the enemies. We waited on our arms, not know inn' [f we were 
to be taken to Richmond as prisoners of war. or to meet our 
friends. You can guess we had no sleep thai night. Finally. 
about 2 o'clock in the morning of September 12th. we 
resumed our march, but filed to the eight, marching on quick 
time. Ahoin daylight we found out we had the post of honor. 
the rear of our army, and not long after daylight the enemi 3, 
advance guard made t heir appearance. They came very>elose to 
our rear guard, and. exchanged a few shots, and kept crowding 
ns frequently. Finally, a battery of artillery was brought hack 
for protect ion of t he rear, and remained with us We dest roved 
all the bridges, and the pioneers felled all the trees they could 
across the road. Notwithstanding all these step* the enemy 
kept close to our rear all the way to Camp Piatt, where we arrived 
about 11 o'clock A. M. We at once formed in battle line across 
the road at Maiden, aboutahalf mile from Camp Piatt, and put 
up a barricade of rails in our front. This was done to cover the 
crossing; of our troops from the west side to the east sideof the 
Kanawha River, which was effected without much interruption 
by t lie enemy. 

Colonel T. T. Taylor says of this Retreat. 

The 47th Howits« j r Battery supported by the 14th Ohio. 
held the Confederates in check, until Colonel Elliott was in 
position, when the retreat was resumed, and was continued 
until "2 A M. Friday, when the column halted and slept until 
I A M. Breakfast over, the march in retreat was resumed 
until Camp Piatt was reached, when the troops arrived at 11 
1'. M.. and halted near Maiden, hastily dug rifle pits, brought 
batteries into position, and engaged the Confede.atea until the 
84th and 87th, tinder their commander*, and the four compan- 
ies of the 47th Ohio, under Lieutenant-Colonel Parry, had cross- 
ed the Kanawha, and also joined the main body in this retreat. 

On the first appearance of the enemy in force on his front. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Parry was ordered with his command across 
the Kanawha River to relieve and re-enforce those Regiments. 
This addition to their numbers was most opportune, and en- 
abled them with sharp skirmishing, rising at times almost to 
the die-nit v of a battle, to prevent the Confederates fromstrik- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 99 

ing the main army in the flank. At Camp Piatt, at 12 o'clock 
at night, when the crossing of the river was completed, the 
47th was united under the command of the Colonel. 



THE BATTLE OF CHARLESTON, W. VA., SEPT. 13, '62. 

At 2 o'clock A. M. we started from Camp Piatt and resumed 
our retreat, marching down the east side of the Kanawha River. 
We passed the Kanawha Salt Works without destroying them, 
but some of our army rolled all the barreled salt down into 
the river, and at 8:15 A. M. we arrived at Charleston. 

The city had been the supply depot of the Kanawha Division, 
and vast quantities of army stores had been accumulated there. 
It was absolutely necessary to make a stand while the trains 
could be loaded, and the remaining stores destroyed. 

We were then drawn up in line of battle about 9 A. M., and 
a skirmish line was sent out, and some skirmishing occurred. 
The balance of our army, commanded by Colonel J. A. J. 
Lightburn of the 4th Virginia Volunteer Infantry was marched 
to the north side of Elk River, which empties into the Kanawha 
just north of Charleston. There we formed in line on each 
side of the Suspension bridge across Elk River, the 47th Ohio 
being left just above Charleston to fight the enemy alone with 
only three small Howitsers, commanded by Lieutenant Fred- 
erick Fischer. There we were formed into line of battle with 
our right on the Kanawha River. One company faced the 
river and our line extended across the different streets and 
vacant lots to a point as near Elk River as possible. The 4th 
Regiment Virginia Volunteer Infantry was placed on the north 
side of the Elk River, opposite the left of the 47th Ohio, to 
protect its Hank. The artillery under Lieutenant Fischer was 
placed near our right wing. In this position we awaited the 
Confederate conflict, which soon came. At 10 A. M. the Con- 
federates made their appearance on both sides of the Kanawha 
River in such force they drove the skirmishers of the 47th, 
who fell back. A few shells were thrown in the direction of 
the enemy, but with no response. Lieutenant-Colonel A. G. 
Parry now rode along the fine on his white charger and was 



100 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

loudly cheered by his regiment. As he rode along towards the 
righl of the regiment he was noticed by the enemy, who called 
out "Shoot that man on the white horse". Lieutenent-Colonel 
Parry called out in a loud voice to the Confederates, "Not this 

load of . by God". One volley from us drove the Johnnies 

back from the river bank. Colonel Parry and Colonel Elliott 
each said to their men, "Fire at the waist belt and load quick," 
as they come along, and we were all on the alert for the charge 
that was expected to be made in order to develop our lines, and 
it soon came. There was a corn field to our left and througn it 
came the Confederates in a single line. With ayell and in a run 
they threw themselves on our line, which opened on them with 
telling effect; still they were apparently undismayed and came 
closer than before. They were again repulsed by our steady 
musketry and Lieutenent Fisher's battery which opened on their 
Hank with grape. This threw them in confusion and drove 
them back out of gun-shot reach and under cover, and followed 
by our regime* t yelling. Lieutenent-Colonel Parry again rode 
along the lines and complimented the men on their bravery and 
ordered them to fire at the waist belt, and if they came closer 
give them steel. In the meantime, Colonel Elliott was doing 
his duty and seeing that our lines were all right. As eager for 
the fray as ever the men returned to their respective places, and 
again the Confederates yell was heard, this time louder than ever 
and more defiant. On they came down through the streets, on 
to our right, center, and left. The 47th reserved their fire un- 
til the lines of grey were with close range. Then we opened 
upon them with volleys of musketry and with telling effect. 
This partially drove them back but they kept up a heavy fire all 
along the front of the regiment. They then made an effort to 
flank the 47th but were repulsed by the 4th V. V. I. with a well- 
directed fire across Elk River. This front fire was kept up till 
about 3 P. M. when the position became quite critical. By this 
time the enemy on the opposite side of the Kanawha River got 
some artillery into position and threw their shot and shells on 
this brave and determined regiment. In the meantime our 
artillery in our rear and on the opposite side of Elk River 
opened on the Confederate guns, and the crossing and re-cross- 
ing of the firing over our lines let us know that others were help- 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 101 

ing the 47th in the fight. About 3 o'clock Colonel Elliott was 
ordered to draw his regiment across Elk River, which was done 
in good order, but under a heavy fire of infantry and a cross fire 
of our own artillery and that of the enemy. 

The Confederates had climbed a low ridge north of the city 
parallel with the approach to the Suspension Bridge, and only a 
short distance from it. The force on the bridge made a strong but 
ineffectual effort to cut the regiment off from the bridge. Com- 
panies F, H, E and I were the last to withdraw. When they 
reached the Suspension Bridge the stays had been cut, matches 
had been applied to the rubbish on the bridge to burn it, and 
men were standing with axes to cut the cables. When they were 
crossing it oscillated like a huge swing, and fell a few seconds 
after they had crossed. 

The 47th Regiment was then marched to a ravine when we 
were allowed a well deserved rest, covered from shot and shell. 
We had been under fire for four hours, and despite the efforts 
of the Confederates we never wavered for an instant. After the 
47th crossed the bridge over Elk River the bridge was destroyed 
to prevent their pursuit of us. An artillery duel was then kept 
up till 10 o'clock P. M., at which time we took up our march 
under a heavy artillery fire, and kept up our retreat towards the 
Ohio River, retreating day and night, with our regiment in 
advance. 

There was no issue of rations after leaving Camp Piatt. The 
quartermaster simply placed at intervals along the highway 
open boxes of crackers, barrels of coffee, and piles of bacon, from 
which each man supplied himself as he had need. 

September 15th, '62. We had two men wounded while on 
picket duty near Ripley, West Va. 

September 16th, '62. We arrived at Ravenswood, West Va., 
on the Ohio River, at 10 A. M., crossed the river, then marched 
7 miles down the river. 

The wagon train forded the river into Ohio just below Burling- 
ton Island, the point where General John Morgan attempted to 
cross, when his raid was iugloriously terminated. The 
47th, after 8 days and nights of consecutive marching, skirmish- 
ing, and fighting, enjoyed a solid night of rest. 

September 17th, '62. We marched to Syracuse Ohio, and 



102 Histohy of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. J. 



there we embarked on steamboats and barges and went down the 
river. 

September 18th, '62. We reached a point in Ohio opposite 
Point Pleasant, West Va. Our boats stuck coming down on 
Eight Mile Island sand liar. We went into camp in Ohio, very 
tired, weary and sleepy, after our long retreat of one hundred 
and forty miles. 

One Famous Retreat not Reconinl in any History of ili< War 
of the Rebellion. 

It is a curious fact that in all the military histories of the late 
war there is no mention made of one of t he most masterly re- 
treats that occured during the rebellion, and that was the one 
conducted by Colonel Lightburn in the fall of '62, from Grauley 
Bridge, Wes1 Va., thence after the Battle of Charleston, thence 
on from Charleston to the Ohio River. 

We had burned everything, except the clothing worn by the 
officers and men, to prevent it falling into the hands of the 
Confederates. The retreat was very disastrous to the Union' 
cause. The men could never tell why it was continued beyond 
Charleston. There were ample supplies at Charleston to have 
enabled the army to withstand a siege of ninety days, and before 
that time sufficient re-enforcements could have been forwarded 
to overwhelm the beseiging army. After a few days spent at 
the camp near Grallipolis Ohio, the Kanawha Division was re- 
organized, ferried up to Point Pleasant at the mouth of the Ka- 
nawha River, and with the entire district of West Virginia, 
placed under the command of Brigadier-General Quincy A. ( ! i I- 
moiv. on September 28th, 1 (52. who afterwards established the 
noted -'Swamp Angel" Battery, near Charleston. South Carolina. 
While at Point Pleasant during the last of September and the 
first two weeks in October, the wives, mothers and sweethearts 
of many of the 47th visited them. The regimenl was camped 
in the \ alley on the Ohio River, and while in t his posit ion. one 
afternoon t he picket s sent in a report that the dare- devilJenkins 
was aboul t<> make an attack upon the camp. At the same time 
firing was heard in the distance, and such was the nervousness 
of t he garrison, t hat wit hout await ing a continual ion of the re- 
port . the Long roll was beaten, regiments were formed in line 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V, V I. 103 



of battle on the double-quick, and the batteries took position 
on the run, and unlimbered for action. Through this fright 
the ladies obtained a realistic picture of the effects of war's alarm 
in the formation of a "line of battle," the drill of stretcher 
bearers, and the preparation of the surgical department for ac- 
tion. They then took their posit ion in the hospital as assistants 
and awaited the attack, but General Jenkins had no disposition 
to mar the pleasure of their visit, and after a period of waiting, 
the battle line dissolved "like the baseless fabric of a vision" 
and anon "eyes looked love to eyes that spake again". 

Colonel J. A. J Light burn in his report of his retreat from the 
Kanawha, says : 

Headquarters Second Prov. Brigade. Dist. uf the Kanawha, 
Camp Opposite Point Pleisant, W. Vu. Sept. 21, 1862. 

Sir — My command was disposed as follows, at the time the 
movement commenced: 44th Regiment Ohio, Major A. (J. 
Mitchell, commanding; a battery of four Mountain Howitsers, 
manned from the 47th Regiment Ohio, commanded by Lieuten- 
ant F. Fischer, and a section of two ten-pounder field pieces, 
manned from the 44t h Regiment Ohio, and commanded by 
Sergeant Hamilton, at Tompkins Farm; three companies of 
the 47th Ohio, Captain Davis commanding; and part of Cap- 
tain Allen's company, Second Virginia Cavalry, at Turkey 
Creek, six miles in advance of Tompkin's Farm, on the Lewis- 
burg Pike; Capt. Hunter's Company, 47th Ohio, and a part of 
Capt. Allen's Company, Second Va. Cavalry, at Camp Look- 
out, eighteen miles in advance on the Lewisburg pike, all under 
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Parry, 47th Regiment Ohio. 
The cavalry was under the command of Major John Hoffman, 
Second Virginia Cavalry, and six companies of the 47th Regi- 
ment Ohio, under command of Colonel L. S. Elliott, at Sum- 
merville, Nicholas county. 

After giving the necessary orders to the troops to fall back 
to Gauley, and the description of the execution of those move- 
ments, he proceeds as follows: 

September 11th. At 8 A. M. 1 ordered j-iieuteuaut-Colonel 
Parry, with four companies of the 47th Regiment Ohio to Cot- 
ton Hill to protect trains from Fayette and to re-enforce Col- 
onel Siber at that point, which duty he performed and remain- 



104 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. 

ed with Colonel Siber's command until he re-crossed the Ka- 
nawha at Camp Piatt on the 12th. * * * * Our column moved 
on down to Smither's Creek and halted, about dark, to await 
the arrival of Colonel Elliott, who, having failed to reach Pau- 
ley as soon as he expected, was ordered to destroy his train and 
cross through the mountains and join the main column at this 
point, which he did at 10 o'clock P. M. * * * On the even- 
ing of the 12th the 47th Regiment Ohio was united. Colo- 
nel Elliott having come in from Summerville and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Parry having crossed the Kanawha at Camp Piatt. 
The 44th and 47th Regiments Ohio took position about half a 
mile above Camp Piatt to cover the crossing of Colonel Siber's 
column to the east of the Kanawha River, which was accomp- 
lished without interruption, and about 2 A. M. of tho 13th we 
moved down to Charleston, where the wholecolumn, except the 
47th Ohio, took position on the north side of the river. I had 
given Colonel Elliott of the 47th Ohio orders to take position 
in the upper part of the town and hold it as long as possible, 
and left with him Lieutenant Fischer, with three Mountain 
Howitsers. About 9:30 A. M. the enemies advance drove in 
the cavalry pickets which had been left a mile above town, and 
on hearing of it went immediately to the upper edge of the 
town and found Colonel Elliott and the cavalry retiring. I 
halted them immediately and after a careful examination of 
the ground I posted them above the thickly settled portion of 
the town, and then returned immediately to the main body, 
and ordered Major Mitchell to take position on the wooded 
slope to the left of the Ripley Road, with one company de- 
ployed along the valley. 
He further says : 

Headquarters District of Kanawha, 
Point Pleasant, W. Va , September 24., 1862. 

Dear Sir — Soon after assuming command I became satisfied 
that the enemy was amassing troops at the narrows of New 
River, Union, and other points for a demonstration upon the 
Kanawha Valley. Finding it impossible to obtain re-enforce- 
ments, and my flanks and rear being unprotected, I ordered 
Colonel Siber at Raleigh to fall back to Fayette Court House, 
and Colonel Gilbert also to fall back to Gauley Mountain, or 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 105 

Tompkin's Farm. A day or two before I gave the order to 
Colonel Gilbert I learned that Jenkins, with a large force of 
cavalry, hid left Union, Monroe County, and fearing he would 
attack Summerville, I ordered Colonel Gilbert to send six com- 
panies of the 47th Ohio, under the command of Colonel Elliott 
to re-enforce that point. * * * * I also ordered Lieutenant- 
Colonel Parry, with five companies of the 47th Ohio to Cotton 
Hill to meet the retreating forces of Colonel Siber, who fell 
back, skirmishing the entire road from Cotton Hill to the 
Kanawha River. I also, upon learning that Fayette was at- 
tacked, ordered Colonel Siber with his command to Gauley, 
and also Colonel Elliott's command from Summerville, which 
command did not reach there until the enemy got possession 
of the opposite side of the Kanawha River, and consequently 
was compelled to destroy three wagons and cross the moun- 
tains, joining the forces near Cannelton. * * * * Skirmish- 
ing was kept up along the entire road till we reached Charles- 
ton, September 13, when I thought to make a stand. I accord- 
ingly ordered the wagons that had been stopped in town, to 
move across the Elk River, which had hardly been done when 
the enemy made the attack upon the 47th Ohio, which had 
been ordered by Colonel Elliott to take a position above town, 
feel the enemy, and bring on the engagement, which was done 
in a spirited manner. As by Colonel Gilbert's report, at 3 P. 
M. the 47th Ohio, not being able to hold the enemy in check, 
fell back below Elk River, and the engagement became gen- 
eral, both with artillery and infantry, and we found the 
enemy two to our one in our front, with Jenkins' force of 1200 
or 1500 strong on our right flank and rear. * * * * I order- 
ed the command to fall back, under cover of the night, and 
took up the line of retreat on the Ripley Road for this point, 
where we arrived on the 16th inst. 

Signed, J. A. J. Lightbum, 

Colonel Commanding. 

The above is taken from official reports to War Department, 
first series, pages 1059 and 1060. The report of Colonel 
Samuel A. Gilbert, in command of the Second Brigade, goes 



106 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

more into detail. We give some extracts from this report, as 
follows : 

My brigade had crossed Elk River to the west side and I 
left the 47th Regiment in Charleston to hold the enemy cast 
of the river, and from the hanks of Elk River from the Sus- 
pension Bridge up, I ordered Lieutenant Russell to form the 
4th Virginia on the left of the 44th Ohio, with two com- 
panies deployed along the hank of the Elk River cover- 
ing his front and extending some distance beyond his left 
flank. I had ordered my field pieces to report to Colonel 
Siber for orders, as the slope on the left was wooded and 
inaccessihle to artillery. They were posted under his 
directions. About this time the firing at Colonel Elliott's 
posit iot had become quite brisk, 11 30 A. M , and I went hack 
there and changed the position of the cavalry support under 
Lieut. -Colonel Curtis, and directed him to throw out videttes 
to watch any attempt of the enemy to turn Colonel Elliott's Left 
and cut him him off from the main body. I found Lieutenent- 
Colonel Parry, who had been placed in charge of the extreme 
rear, now became the front, and was keeping up a spirited skir- 
mish with the enemies advance on the west side of the river, his 
rifles being re-enforced byaHowitser, which was doing good ex- 
ecution. Finding things going on well in this locality, I return- 
ed to the main body, and about 2o'clock was informed that the 
enemy was coming in along the hills in strong force back of 
town. I therefore ordered Colonel Elliott to withdraw and de- 
stroy the Government stores, etc.. as he came through the town. 
This was done by Lieutenent-Colonel Parry, who brought up the 
rear, and they finished the work by destroying Elk River bridge 
after all had crossed. * * * The 47th Ohio being an older 
regiment than the 44th Ohio, or the 4th Virginia, and having 
seen more service in the field, performed its duty with that 
steadiness which is expected of such troops. No commander 
need feel any apprehension of the result when chances are any- 
thing near equal, if he has the ability himself to handle the 
troops in action, or on the march while he has such troops under 
his command. Lieutenent-Colonel Parry deserves particular 
mention, both for his participation in the retreat of Colonel 
Siber's column from Cotton Hill on the 11th inst. and in the 



History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I 107 

battle of Charleston on the 13th. His gallantry and clear-sighted- 
ness and sagacity won him the confidence of officers and men. * * 
Doctor Bonner of the 47th and Doctors Rodgers and Luce of the 
44th were frequently in my sight on the battle-field and appeared 
attentive to their dutie3. ***** Loss .of the 47th Ohio, 
killed 3, missing 10, and wounded 5. Brigade loss, killed ( ,). 
wounded 8, missing 78 — total 95. I have the honor to be, your 
obedient servant. Respectfully, 

Signed, Samuel A. Gilbert, 

Colonel 44th Regiment Ohio, Commanding Second Provisional 
Brigade, District of the Kanawha. 

The above report is taken from the official records War De- 
partment, Volume 19, Part 1st, Series 1st, pages 1063, 1064, 
1065. 1066, 1037, and 1088. 

The Confederate forces were commanded by General W. W . 
Loring, and his Briga ie commanders were Brigader-General J. 
S. Williams. 2nd Brigade, and Colonel G. C. Wharton, 3rd Brig- 
ade, and Colonel J. McCansland, 4th Brigade. The Confeder- 
ate loss was greater than ours. The returns are: officers kill- 
ed 2, enlisted men 16. Officers wounded 3, enlisted men 86 — 
total loss 107. 

Description of Point Plfasant, W. Va. 

Point Pleasant is situated on the east bank of the Ohio River, 
in West Virginia, and on the left hand of the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha River. The Kanawha valley is narrow. The town 
of Point Pleasant is in this valley, and is a small place. Near 
the town is a hill on which is situated an old Indian Port, of 
which history says that the last battle fought there was in 1770. 
The battle was fought between the Indians led by Chief Corn- 
stalk, and the colonies led by General Lewis. In 1772 the writer 
was sent to work on this old Indian fort, when it had good sized 
trees growing on it. These we cutout and rebuilt 1 he fort for 
the protection of the state of Ohio by our troops, if the enemy 
should come down. The valley of the Kanawha above this place 
is described by Boynton. He says "The Kanawha region differ-. 
from the Ohio in that it runs nearer the mountains. Thehigh 
ranges which overlook it are semi-mountainous. They crowd 
close upon it so that the valley between is but a step removed 



108 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

from the cone formation, which comes next to it. These ranges 
present a great variety of outline. They are broken by spurs 
and low peaks at very frequent intervals, and so the semi- 
mountainous panorama which they present changes almost as 
rapidly as the army advance. The river is generally clear, and 
the valley, while narrow, is rich in its soil. Mrs. Colonel H.T. 
Elliott writes her personal experience as follows : 

There were many ladies in camp taking care of their sick 
husbands or sons. They used a large hotel near the river for 
a hospital, afterwards they took a church, thnre deing so many 
sick with typhoid fever. I found Colonel very sick at his 
headquarters, where he remained while the regiment was 
stationed at Point Pleasant. The 47th with others was order- 
ed up the Kanawha October 15th, when the Colonel was taken 
to Captain Ford's, where we remained until he was able to join 
the regiment. The weather was cold and stormy, first rain, 
then snow and unpleasant I remember General Cox with 
staff and body guard were camped near the house and had hard 
work to keep warm. The Colonel left Point Pleasant the 
morning of October 27th, to join the regiment, but when he 
was ready to start he had to be helped on his horse. 

After the Colonel's departure, it being so lonesome, I put in 
my time making beef tea and taking care of the sick boys in 
the hospital. After the regiment left Point Pleasant I dis- 
covered one of our drummer boys very sick with typhoid fever 
in the church, who in his delirium took me for his auntie, and 
would prove it always by asking the boys around him. One 
morning I went through the hotel hospital, I saw one poor fel- 
low sitting on the end of his cot with head against the wall 
looking more like dead than alive, when I inquired how he felt, 
"oh, so bad." He died and was buried before night. His wife 
was telegraphed for the day before and came as soon as possi- 
ble, but did not get there until early the next morning. When 
she asked for her husband the hospital steward told her he was 
dead, and buried the day before. She fell fainting at his feet. 
The next day she had his remains taken up and took them 
back to Cincinnati with her. 

I remained at Point Pleasant until November 13th, when I 
took the steamer Levi to go up the river. Started at 9 A. M. 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 109 

the next day, stopped at Camp Piatt and had to cross the river 
to Brownstown, as the regiment was there. The next morning 
the regiment started up the river. It was raining and looked 
as though it might continue for a week. When we stopped for 
dinner at one o'clock the boys built their fires and made their 
coffee, and had their hard bread and it rained so hard we all 
had to stand while we ate. We arrived at the stream opposite 
Clifton, which we had to ford, making little difference 
after marching in the heavy rain all day. Remained there all 
night, but found houses for all the men to sleep in. Started 
the next morning for the Falls and Tomkin's farm, arriving 
there the following day. 

Our Duties at Point Pleasant. W. Va. 

Our duties at this camp was drilling, guard and picket. We 
also rebuilt the old Indian Fort for fear of being attacked by 
the enemy. Had frequent target practice, and many of our 
friends came to see us. among them were Mrs. Colonel H. T. 
Elliott and Mrs Captain Taylor, and many others, who came 
to see their husband.- or sons. Some of the officers and men 
got furloughs to go homt' for a short time, while some of the 
men took French leave. About October 8th, 1862, we were re- 
enforced by the troops of General J. D. Cox, and on October 
16th broke camp and began our march up the Kanawha Valley 
to drive out the enemy. The march was very slow and un- 
eventful. The army was commanded by General Q. A. Gil- 
more. The advance of the army was on both sides of the 
Kanawha River towards Charleston, where the enemy were said 
to be still encamped, and as we advanced up the valley there 
was some skirmishing, and farther up we began to hear the 
boom of the artillery. But the enemy was sullenly retreating, 
and did not make a stand at any point, but kept on retreating. 

October 25, 1862. At Red House, W. Va. 

It having been reported that the Confederate GeneralJenkins 
was in the neighborhood of Center Point, this morning Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Parry started north with Company E, under Lieut- 
enant Sherwin, and Company F under Captain Taylor, and 
marched to Center Point twenty miles distant, through mud 
and ram. At Center Point we captured a prisoner and 



HO History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

confiscated all he had to eat. We then marched over tc 
Bolden's, ten miles farther, and wenl into camp for the night, 
having failed to find Jenkins. While in camp il became 
colder, and we lay down to sleep. The next morning we were 
covered with snow. Failing in our purpose we started back for 
Red House and arrived there the evening of the 26th, tired and 
very weary, having marched 40 miles. The roads were very bad, 
and we had accomplished nothing, save capturing one prisoner. 
The march thus far up the picturesque Kanawha valley has 
been slow and very tiresome. We camped here a few days, 
then resumed our march slowly up the Kanawha valley to 
Clifton, near the Kanawha River Falls. 

Description of the Great Kanawha River Falls in Va. 

Kanawha Falls is. with a full river, a scene of great grandeur. 
The ledge of rocks over which the waters plunge is about thirty 
feet high. It stretches entirely across the stream, and is irreg- 
ular in outline. With several deep fissures the currents are in 
consequence of varied character, and their tumbling in heavy 
volumes at some points and their rushing through gorges at 
others, making up a striking scene to behold. The roar of the 
waters can he heard for miles from this point. One mile above 
the falls you can see a little town, called Gauley Bridge, also 
you can see the mouths of the Gauley and New Rivers, the 
whole surrounded by steep rocky mountains from 1000 to 1500 
feet high. 

November 10, '62. We left the Falls of the Kanawha and 
marched down the Kanawha River to Camp Piatt again. The 
next day we were at Brownston, on t he opposite side oft he river. 
On the 17th we left camp at Brownston and marched hack up 
the Kanawha again and still on up the river till we arrived at 
Camp Gauley Mountain, on November I'd. '62. 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. C. Parry's Report of a Scout. 

November 20th, '62. South of Kanawha River. This report 
was in 1 he possession of Mrs. Colonel H. T. Elliott, who has 
kindly furnished the author with the original copy of the report . 
which is as follows : 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. Ill 

Headquarters 4-7th Regiment Oh in. 
Gauley Mountain, November 20th, ISO.'. 

Colonel L. S. Elliott, Commanding 4.7th Regiment Ohio. 

Sir — As per verbal orders received from you, I started on Sat- 
urday morning, November 15th, '62, with 35 infantry andnear 
one hundred cavalry, to ascertain if the Confederates were in 
force at or near Boone Court House, and to try to bring to jus- 
tice the parties who had robbed and shot a citizen in the vicinity 
of Pentona in Boone County, and take the left fork of Lous Creek. 
which was done according to your orders. I was joined about 
noon of the same day by Captain Wallace with about 45 men, 
at the junction of Lous Creek with the Road and Coal River. 
We marched this day about 17 miles and camped for the night 
on Laurel Creek. At 6 A. M. of the 16th we pushed forward 
towards Boone Court House at which place we arrived at 12 
M. Here I learned that the enemy was coming down the Chap- 
manville road, 2 miles below. I immediately pushed the cav- 
alry forward to intersect the same road, at which point my com- 
mand halted for dinner. While here Captain McMahon report- 
ed to me with 120 cavalry, fully armed and equipped with two 
day's rations, for orders. I sent Captain McMahon in the di- 
rection of Chapmanville with instruction if he met no resistance 
to feel his way in the direction of Logan Court House, and if 
possible to learn if the enemy were in force, or if Floyd and 
Marshall were combining their forces near that point. I desi n id 
him also to report to me at Pentona, as I was compelled to leave 
for that point for rations, my command being entirely out of 
provisions of all kinds. Many of the horses were also bare- 
footed, and compelled me to return to Pentona to have them 
placed in proper condition, in case they should be needed for 
service. The infantry remained in the rear about 8 miles, where 
they encamped for the night. At 9 30 P. M. I received orders 
to return immediately to camp with my command. Early in 
the morning of the 17th I sent out couriers to the infantry and 
cavalry with orders tor both to return immediately to camp, 
as per order Number 22, received from headquarters of the 47th 
Regiment. The whole command reached l>rownston in the 
evening of the same day. At this point 1 received orders to 



112 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



cr< >ss t he river and join my regiment at Camp Gauley Mountain, 
and I marched for that place on the 17th. The prisoners taken 
by my command, 8 in number, were turned overto Lieutenant- 
( !< done] Bolander of the 28th Ohio. On the morning of the 18th 
I crossed the river with detachment of infantry and marched 
in the direction of Gauley Mountain, which point we reached 
on the 20th about 12 M. Enclosed please find map of the coun- 
try through which my scouting party marched. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Signed, A. C. Parry, 

Lieutenant-Colonel 47th Regiment Ohio, Commanding Scouting 
Party. 
We find upon examination of the papers in possession of Mrs. 
H. T. Elliott that Colonel Elliott was at one time honored as 
commander of our Brigade. The original papers read as fol- 
lows: 

Headquarters First Brigade, 
Gauley Virginia, December 2Jfth, 1862. 

General Orders No. 3. 

The Colonel commanding this Brigade having been detailed 
as President of a Board of Examiners for the District of West 
Virginia, hereby turns over the command of the First Brigade 
to Colonel L. S. Elliott, 47th Regiment Ohio, he being the 
senior officer. 

Signed, E- Siber, 

Colonel 87th Regiment Ohio. 

Headquartets First Brigade, 
Gauley Virginia, December 25th, J 862. 

General Orders No. £. 

First— In pursuance of general orders No. 3 from these head- 
quarters, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the 
First Brigade, Division of the Kanawha. 

S econ d — The staff will remain as heretofore announced in 
orders from these headquarters. 

Third— Attention is called to paragraph, General Orders No. 
1, from Brigade Headquarters. 

Signed, L - S - Elliott, 

Colonel 47th Regiment, Commanding First Brigade. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 113 

We also find the following valuable report among the papers 
furnished the historian. 

Camp Gauley Mountain, 
December 27, 1862. 
Sir — I have the honor to submit to you the following report, 
namely : According to special order Number 43 issued by Colonel 
Elliott, commanding the 47th Regiment Ohio, I left Camp 
Gauley Mountain, Thursday, December 25th, at 4 P. M., with 
eleven men, and proceeded to scout the country up the Chest- 
nutburg Road in the vicinity of Mountain Cove. In passing 
James Hamilton's I inquired where I would be likely to find a 
guide, and was directed to Miles Fox, whom I secured. But of 
inquiries made of him and others we could find no Confederate 
scouts having come in, nor were any expected. We proceed- 
ed to surround the house of one Bill Ellison, said to be one of 
Thurman's men, and now home on a furlough. We did not find 
him at the house. His wife was sick and he was at some neigh- 
boring house for help. We then proceeded to Joshua Colman's, 
where we arrived at 12 o'clock M. and surrounded the house, 
and found no one but the family. We asked for supper, which 
they willingly gave us, and we camped in the house on the floor. 
At daylight we proceeded to Mountain Cove, and met with Cap- 
tain Pugh and his command of about 50 men. He had seen 
nothing to indicate the presence of Confederate scouts or Rang- 
ers. We halted for breakfast, and by examining my order I 
found that I had obeyed its request. Upon consulting with 
Captain Pugh we both felt convinced that it would be useless 
to proceed any further. I then marched the whole command 
directly back to camp, where we arrived at 4 P. M. 
Respectfully yours, 

John Wallace, 
Captain Company D, 47th Reyiment Ohio. 
To Geo. M. Zeiyler. Adj. 4.7th Reyiment Ohio. 

December 28th and 29th, '(32. CampGauley Mountain Wes1 
Va. Nothing of importance. There are rumors of marching 
soon. Colonel L. 8. Elliott received the following order from 
Gener al H. Ewing. 



114 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

Headquarters Camp Udel, 
December 30, 1862. 
To Colonel Elliott, Iflih Regiment Ohio. 

You must make Camp Piatt tomorrow night. Answer im- 
mediately. 

Hugh Ewing, 
Brigadier General. 

The second dispatch says : Bring your Howitsers by all menu-. 
and is signed by General Ewing. Colonel Elliott answered "all 
right, General, we will obey the order 1 '. 

December 31st, '62. Camp Gauley Mountain. \V. Va. We 
left this camp this morning at 3 o'clock, it being very dark and 
rainy. We marched down and crossed the Gauley River at Gau- 
ley bridge, and marched, down the road along the Kawnaha River. 
It was so dark and muddy that one of the boys in trying to get 
out of the muddy road fell down the enbankment near the Falls 
and broke his leg. By daylight we reached a point 5 miles from 
Gauley Bridge, where we halted and had our breakfasts. After 
resting awhile we resumed our march down the Kanawha valley, 
passing through Cannelton, arriving at Camp Piatt at 6 P. M. 
We had marched 35 miles through mud and rain, carrying our 
knapsacks about half the way. Here, tired and weary, we went 
aboard a steamboat for the night. 

January 1st, '63. When we awakened this morning we were 
at Charleston, W, Va. We left Charleston at 8 A. M. and steam- 
ed down the Great Kanawha River, and arrived at Gallipolis, 
Ohio, on the Ohio River, at 7 P. M. Here we were transferred 
to the steamer Delaware. We left tonight and are sailing down 
the Ohio River towards Cincinnati. We learned that we are go- 
ing to re-inl'onv General Rosecrans or General Grant. 

January 2, 1863. We are still going down the Ohio River. 
We passed Maysville, Ky.. this morning at daylight, and arriv- 
ed at a point about four miles above Cincinnati, at 10 o'clock 
and are waiting till the rest of brigades comes up. We were so 
far ahead of the fleet we had to wait for them to come, and it 
was late when they came in sighl : it was nearly dark when 
we reached the City. The bank of the river was lined with peo- 
ple waiting to see their loved ones, if only for a few minutes. 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 115 

The boats were not allowed to land, but lav in the middle of 
the river for two or three hours, when orders were given to pro- 
ceed to Louisville. Many of the boys that came from this city 
wanted to stop and see their families and friends and were sore- 
ly disappointed when they found they could not, as many of 
their friends stood on the shore and could call to the boys, ask- 
ing if they were going to stop. Some loaded their guns and 
swore they would right to stop for a time, but found they could 
not make it that way. Then they cut the tiller ropes and left 
the steamer to float, which we did for several miles before it 
could be repaired. At last our boat was tied to General Swing's 
boat and that seemed to settle the matter. 

January 3rd, '63. Last night we left Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 
same steamer and arrived at Louisville, Ky., this morning at 7 
o'clock, where we landed and marched about 3 miles to a cam]) 
near the L. and N. R. R. Depot. 

January 4th to 6th, '63. We remained here four days, and 
learned that the Battle of Stone River is being fought. 

January 7th, '63. At Louisville Ky. Today we broke camp 
and marched about 4 miles to Portland, Ky., just below the 
canal, and there we went aboard the steamer, West Wind. At 
8 P. M. we steamed down the river. 

January 8th and 9th, '63. Going slowly down the Ohio River. 
At Evansville Ind., we stopped and loaded a barge with 
hay. The boys are getting tired of steamboat riding. 

January 10th, '63. We are still going down the Ohio River 
and at evening we arrived at Smithland, Ky. 

January 11th, '63. We left Smithland, Ky., and arrived at 
Cairo, 111,, at 2 A. M. January 12th. Here we leave the Ohio 
and go down the Mississippi. We passed Columbus Ky., at 4 
o'clock A. M. and Island number 10, at 11 A. M. 

January 13th. '63. We arrived at Memphis, Tenn., about 3 
o'clock this afternoon. Of course, our steamer is not like a 
traveling horse — it runs day and night. 

January 14th, '63. Lying at Memphis all day, cleaning 
tin' steamboat and ourselves, also. 

January 15th, '63. Today we left Memphis, Tenn., going down 
the Mississippi River. The night is very cold. It snowed one 
inch, something unusual for this part of the country. Col- 



Ill) History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

one] L. S. Elliott, who has resigned his commission, left today 
for his home in M ichigan. 

January 16th, '63. We are still going down the Mississippi. 
We passed th<> town of Helena, Ark., about noon today. This 
evening we met three steamboats loaded with Confederate pris- 
oners, captured by Generals McClelland 's and Sherman's armies 
al Arkansas Post. We went down to the mouth of the White 
River and stayed thereabout "2 hours, awaiting orders. Here 
there were two gunboats and ten steamboats. We went down 
to the Arkansas River and there tied up on the Arkansas shore 
for the night We fear the river may he obstructed below by 
the enemy, hesides, there is a heavy fog rising on the river every 
night . 

January, 17th, '63. We are still going down the river. We 
arrived at Napolenn, Arkansas, about two o'clock P. M., and 
our brigade was assigned to the Second Division of the 15th 
Army Corps. General McClellan's forces are coming out on 
steamers from Arkansas Post, and a number of steamboats are 
here loaded with troops. From the looks of this town, it ap- 
pears the inhabitants left it in a hurry. We went off the boal 
today to have it cleaned. 

January 18th, '(38. Sunday we were inspected. We are lying 
at Napoleon, Ark. today. We hear that we are bound for Vicks- 
burg. A great part of this town was burned today. It is sup- 
posed that some one set it on fire. Here it is very level, and 
appears very healthful. The trees as far as the eye can reach 
have upon them a very long moss, from ten to fifteen feet in 
length hanging from every limb. It is very soft and is of a 
grey color, and is pliable. We were assigned here as 3rd Brigade 
of the Second Division, 15th Army Corps, in General Sherman's 
old Division. 

January 19th, '63. We left Napoleon on our steamboat. 
There were in our fleet about 67 steamboats, together with the 
fleet of gunboats and mortar boats. Our fleet is led by gun- 
boats and our rear is protected by them. It is estimated that 
there are in our fleet 75,000 men, calculated for the reduction 
of Yicksburg. The Meet is so long that we can not see the end 
of it in either direction. The smoke and steam from the boats 
make, as it were, a dark storm. We went down the river and 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. 11 ( 

tied up on the Louisiana side for the night. Now, let us see 
what promotions and resignations have taken place 

The regiment entered upon it's new field under an organization 
radically different from that of 1801 . Officers of courage or merit 
seldom resign in the face of an enemy, or during the progress 
of a campaign, but as soon as it would go into winter quarters, 
or between change of stations, if there were any who had de- 
termined to withdraw from service, they would forward their 
4 "unconditional and immediate resignations' 1 in the lines. Cap- 
tain Alexander L. Froelich, who commanded the, second company 
mustered into the regiment, was discharged November 12th, '62. 
Captain John G. Derbeck, who had been promoted to the captain- 
cy October 2nd, resigned November 29th, '62; Captain Valentine 
Rapp resigned December 15th and Captain S. L. Hunter on the 
28th of December; Captain Frederick Hesser had been promot- 
ed August 22nd, '62; Captain John Wallace was promoted Feb- 
ruary 26th, Captain Thomas T. Taylor April I4th, 1868, and 
George M. Zeigler, who had been promoted First Lieutenant, 
and had succeeded Derleck as Adjutant, was promoted Captain 
December 28th, : (52, and made a vancancy in a short time. 
First Sergeant Wood, and Sergt. Ebin Coalwell of Company I 
were likewise promoted to official positions in the 52nd U. S. C. I. 

Of the Lieutenants, William H. Kee resigned his commission 
as second Lieutenant June 16th : Herbert Seyer was discharged 
July 29th : Geo. W. Reeves, also a second Lieutenant, resigned 
December 6th, '62., and first Lieutenant William Derbeck re- 
signed October 22nd, same year. 

These were original officers, and had been trained and educa- 
ted by the Government at an expense of over one hundred dollars 
per month. Companies E, C, and G. had already lost all their 
original commissioned officers. 

In the medical deparment, Dr. Augustus C. Barlow, who had 
been appointed an assistant July 4th, '62, resigned November 
29th, and Dr. Augustus Hoeltge, who had been mustered in with 
the regiment, and whose resignation every member regretted 
exceedingly, withdrew January 18th, '63. 

Dr. Andrew Davidson was appointed 1st Assistant January 
28th, 1863; he volunteered as medical officer on a steamer 
which attempted <o run the batteries on the night of the 23rd 



llcS History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

of April, was captured in the dark waters of the Mississippi 
through the sinking of the steamer by the Confederates, was 
exchanged and returned to his regiment on the morning of the 
1th of July, and resigned at once. Dr. Jacob Huber was ap- 
pointed 2nd assistant SurgeoD March Llth, '63. Every soldier 
of the 47th liked him. and even the "Camphorated pills" he 
gave tor His sake. The doctor lasted during the remainder 
of the war, winning high eneoniums from his respective chiefs. 

The numerous promotions to the field, together with the res- 
ignal ions of the old captains, advanced several meritorious men 
to that rank. From 1st Lieutenant Henry A. Sinclair was ap- 
pointed captain Dec 15th ; also first Lieutenant Jos. L. Pink- 
erton, Dec 30th; Louis D. Graves and Charles Haltenhof,Dec. 
31st, '62; Henry W. King, Jan. 1st, '63, and Geo. M. Zeigler. 
Colonel L. S. Elliott resigned Jan. 17th, '63, and certain influ- 
ential parties in Ohio recommended the appointment of a reg- 
ular army officer to succeed him. Captain Taylor, "dm enjoyed 
a personal acquaintance with Govenor Todd, opposed bringing 
an outsider into the regiment, and on Fel>. 26th secured the 
appointment of Lieutenant-Colonel Pany to that office. Major 
Hesser having declined promotion, Major John Wallace was 
promoted Lieutenant-Colonel, and the resignation of Major 
Hesser having been accepted, Colonel Parry recommended Cap- 
tain W. H. Ward to succeed him. 

Captain Taylor was at this time absent on recruiting sarvice 
in Ohio, and according to the orders of the Adjutant General's 
office of that State, out of the line of promotion ; but while re- 
cruiting, he obtained important information relative to the 
preparations being made at that time in certain parts of Ohio, 
by the Knights of the Golden Circle to resist the draft, which 
he communicated promptly to the Governor, and was thanked I >y 
him in a personal letter. When Hesser's resignation reached 
the .Governor, without solicitation on the part of Captain 
Taylor, he at once appointed him Major, regardless of Colonel 
Parry's recommendation. 

Captain Henry H. Sinclair was detailed, together with a part)' 
of sergeants, to relieve Major Taylor and the Lieutenants on 
recruiting service under him, and after much delay, and six 
months' absence, they returned to the regiment, but too late 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 119 

to participate in the preliminary campaign against Vicksburg. 

A great incentive to volunteers to acquire skill and proficiency 
in military affairs lies in the hope of promotion for superiority 
in soldierly qualities and efficiency. It inspires both gallantry 
and steadfastness, sobriety and discipline, vigilance and prompt- 
ness. It required considerable effort to convince the Governor 
of its good effects. 

The first promotion from the ranks was John R. Craig, Nov. 
25th, '61 ; the second was Charles P. Dennis to be 2nd Lieuten- 
ant Dec. 21st, 1861 from the office of Sergeant Major. Also, 
from the ranks of 1st Sergeant to Second Lieutenant, respective- 
ly, Obed G. Sherwin, and Samuel Campbell, Feb. 17th ; Philip 
Schwerer, March 17th : Jacob Weterer, June 16th ; William H. 
Kimball, July 29th. Also, when on recruiting service, at the 
request of Captain Taylor, Govenor Todd appointed Alexander 
Naysmith from the ranks of Sergeant Major, Nov, 1st ; from the 
ranks of first Sergeants, Jonathan Casto, Nov. 1st ; he was se- 
verely wounded, was captured in a ditch in front of the works 
at Vicksburg May 19th, '63, and died in a Confederate hospital 
in that city. Adolph Amlers to rank from Nov. 12th ; he lo9t 
his left arm July 22nd, '64, in the battle of Atlanta; Edward 
Bernard to rank from December 15th ; he was killed at the bat- 
tle of Atlanta ; 2nd Sergeant John W. Wilber, Dec. 6th; also 
William Edward Brachman, to rank from Nov. 29th, and on 
the recommendation of the late Colonel Poschner, Frederick 
Poschner Jr., to rank from December 28th; he resigned August 
21st, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Charles P. Dennis, was promoted 1st Lieut- 
enant on the 15th of December, '62; also Samuel Campbell, 
December 28th, and Alexander Campbell, December 31st, '62. 
Lieutenant Dennis was soon selected for staff duty by the brigade 
commander, and having developed and displayed a high order 
of ability in the arm of the service, he was kept almost constantly 
on staff duty, 



1:20 History of the 47tii Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



IN FRONT OF VICKSBURG, MISS. 

The 47th arrived at Young's Point, the new theater of its 
operations, January 21. and engaged in the construction of a 

canal for the passage of the gunboats and transports south of 
Vicksburg. We came on duty every fourth day. Its camp 
was in the bottom and levee. In the lowest corner of the camp 
was a reservoir, into which the surface water drained. The 
punishment for tardiness at roll call was hailing the water from 
this reservoir. 

January 22, 1868. Our ileet proceeded down the Mississippi 
River, passed Yazoo River during the day and arrived at 
Young's Point, La., above Vicksburg. We disembarked and 
formed the regiment and stacked arms on the levee, and at 
night we marched down the levee a short distance. Then we 
inarched off at right angles to the road, passing through a burr 
field, then through a piece of woods or cypress swamp. We 
then crossed a railroad and marched on down what appeared 
to be a ditch. After marching some distance we were halted 
in a Louisiana swamp, and stacked arms. We were ordered 
not to build any fires nor do any hallowing, but were ordered 
to keep very quiet. We were camped at the lower end of what 
had been intended to become a canal. We were about two and 
a half miles from the lower Confederate batteries, defending 
tie' Confederate position at Vicksburg, and about three and a 
half miles below Young's Point, and three and a half miles in 
a direct line from the landing at Vicksburg, Miss. Our 
camp is in Louisiana, and we are about the same distance from 
the Confederates batteries, at Warrenton, below Vicksburg. 
We at once commenced on the canal. The distances above 
mentioned are said to have been determined by General Sher- 
man's chief of staff. Our camp, as already stated, is situated 
near the mouth of the canal, which may be said to be nothing 
l-ut a large ditch, cut about one year ago by General Williams. 
We must go to work to widen this ditch to a canal of about 
sixty feet wide, and six feet deep for the purpose of changing 
the course of the Mississippi and leave Vicksburg an inland 
town in the future. We also want to make a passage for our 
gunboats, which are here commanded by Rear Admiral Porter, 



\ 

History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 121 

and for the passage of transports south of Vicksburg. Our 
camp is in Louisiana, in front of the city. 

January 23, 1863. This morning after daylight the Confed- 
erates across the Mississippi River discovered our camp. They 
fired some shells at us while we were, working on the canal. 
Their range was bad, for their shells did not reach us. This 
work on the canal is hard and muddy work, as well as very un- 
healthy. It is said that the water in the ground here is poison- 
ous. A battery of artillery, thirty pounders and rifles, were 
bruught down here today. By great exertions corduroy roads 
had to be made for them, and all the horses that could lie 
hitched to them had all they could do to haul them. They 
were placed in position on the levee of the river near our regi- 
ment. We have now become to be knights of the spade and 
"'Irish Buggy," the wheel-barrow, for all the dirt out of the new 
canal must be wheeled out on the west side, thus form- 
ing a new and high levee. A gill of whisky is given the 
boys once each day. This work is continued daily, night as 
well as day, by relief, as though we were on guard, so the work 
goes on regardless of rain or any kind of weather. 

January 24, 1863. Still working on the canal, as usual. This 
morning the Confederate steamboat, Vicksburg, came up the 
Mississippi River and our battery fired upon it, but the firing 
disabled it but little. It went on up the river to Vicksburg 
and remained there. The steamboat appeared to be a very 
fine one, and was of a good size. 

January 25, 1863. Rained this morning, but still we worked 
at the canal. The Confederates continued to shell our camp 
while we worked. 

January 26, 1863. We are working in the canal in mud and 
water. Many of our men are getting sick because of it. At 
daylight a Confederate boat came down the river. Our battery 
fired into it, and it turned around and went back to Vicksburg. 

January 27, 1863. We are still working in the canal in mud 
and water. It rained again today. 

January 28, 1863. We are still acting as knights of the 
spade, in mud, water and through the rain. The terrible ex- 
posure begins to tell sorrowfully by the increased numbers in 
our hospitals. The Johnnies sent us some 120 pounders and 



122 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 



some mort ir shells. Our battery rifle guns soon silenced them, 
with no one hurt on our side 

January 29, 1863. Confederates again fired at our batteries 
today. The river is rising and the canal is still unfinished. 

January 30, 1868. We had to move today upon higher 
ground, on account of a heavy rise in the Mississippi 

January 81, 1863. It rained all night and part of today. 
Things begin to look serious. The Mississippi is nearly up to 
the top of the levee. We removed to Young's Point, and encamp- 
ed on the levee. This place. Young's Point, at this time of the 
year presents a dark and gloomy aspect. In our front is the 
"Father of Waters," the Mississippi River, and in our rear is a 
dreary swamp, covered with water from some inches to two feet 
deep, thus leaving us but a narrow strip of dry land along the 
levee for our camp. If the river keeps on rising we shall soon 
have to change our camp. The winter winds and the 
almost daily heavy rains will soon cause our camps to look 
like hospitals. 

February 1, 1868. We went up the Mississippi River six or 
eight miles to work in a new canal, and returned at 8 P. M., 
running the gunboats past the Vicksburg batteries. The read- 
er ought now to understand the line of the Mississippi River, 
and especially the position of the Confederates at Vicksburg 
in the year 1868. Vicksburg, Miss., is about 400 miles south 
of Memphis, Tenn., and 400 miles above Baton Rouge, La. 
This city is situated on the only hill between, seen from Mem- 
phis, Tenn, to Natchez, Miss., a distance of over 600 miles. 
This hill or bluff is known as Walnut Hills, extending from 
Warrenton, four miles below Vicksburg, to Haines Bluff, eight 
miles above. The city is on the east bank of the river, and 
the hill upon which it is situated is almost covered with Con- 
federate batteries, In front of the city across the Mississippi 
River is the State of Louisiana. In front of Vicksburg the 
river makes a remarkable bend, in the shape of a horse-shoe. 
The canal we cut runs across this bend, the canal being nearly 
two miles, extending from the river above Vicksburg to the 
river below it. The canal was dug straight across the bend, 
while to follow the river around the bend would be about twelve 
miles. Vicksburg is situated on the hills beyond this bend, 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 128 

and is fortified with forts so built that their batteries com- 
mand the river above and below and clear around this bend. 
The Confederate General regarded the position impregnable, or 
the Gibraltar of America. The gunboat fleet commanded by 
Admiral Porter considered the place as impregnable from the 
front to either the army or navy. We will now take a look at 
the "Ram Queen of the West" as she runs around this bend in 
the river under the storm of shot and shell sailing past 
Vicksburg, the impregnable Confederate position. 

February 2, 1868. The "Ram Queen of the West" ran the 
blockade past the Vicksburg Confederate batteries. This morn- 
ing, the writer of Company A, was on picket post at Brinley's 
about one and a half mile above the lower end of the canal, 
and had a good view of the passage. Some gunboat officers 
came to the post to see the attempt made. The "Ram Queen 
of the West" was to destroy the steamboat called "Vicksburg," 
which lay tied at the landing of Vicksburg, by ramming the 
the steamer as she came down the river. Our picket post had 
been notified of this and we were on the lookout, and at a few 
minutes past 6 o'clock in the morning, we could hear her with a 
full head of steam, coming down. At 6:15 A. M. the Con- 
federate Pickets gave the alarm, then their artillery opened on 
her, only a few shots at first, then others quickly followed. At 
this time the Confederate "long roll" was beaten, and soon, 
half of the Confederate batteries above and below Vicksburg 
were opened on the Queen of the West. At 6:81 the ram struck 
the Confederate steamer. We had a full view of the attack 
from our picket post, in fact, all the army at Young's Point 
saw it, but our picket post had the best opportunity, being 
nearest. The Queen struck the Confederate steamer's bow one 
blow, and fired one shot, and backing out, came in full speed 
down the river. Battery after battery of the enemy opened on 
the ventursome craft as she passed, and continued to fire 
long after she was out of their range. The Queen of the West 
went below and tied up near General Steel's Division. She was 
commanded by Colonel Charles R. Elliott. In this venture 
she was struck several times, yet not materially damaged. S. 
J. Johnston says: "The Queen ran quite close to our picket 
post and we gave her three cheers as she swept along." 



124 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 



OPERATION IN FRONT OF VICKSBURG, MISS 

February 3, '63. Major General U. S Grant took charge of 
the army operating against Vicksbarg, Miss., on January 30, 
in general orders No. 13. This interferes with General J. A. 
McClellan, who was expected to command the expedition. Our 
brigade at this time is as follows: 

The 30th, 37th, 47th, Regiments Ohio, and the 4th Regiment 
West Va. V. I., known as the Third Brigade and Second Divi- 
sion of the Fifteenth Army Corps. Our brigade is command- 
ed by Brigadier General Ewing, and the Division is command- 
ed by Brigadier General David Stewart. Our corps is com- 
manded by Major General W. T. Sherman. The above is taken 
from the official records War Department, Volume &£, part .'. 

February 4 and 5, '63. Very rainy, and our cam]) is quite 
muddy. Sickness is on the increase. We are working in the 
new canal. Received two months' pay. Our men are dying 
fast from exposure and bad water. 

February 6, '63. Regiment moved to Young's Point and 
erected tents. 

February 7 to 21, '63. Nearly every day since the 7th we 
have had more or less rain, and our camps are full of sickness. 

February 22, '63 Today the army and navy fired salutes in 
honor of the birthday of the Father of our Country, General 
George Washington, and to remind the enemy whom we honor. 
and also to remind them that we are not all dead, although we 
are dying very fast in this Louisiana swamp. 

Steel's Bayou Expedition, 1863. 

On his arrival at Young's Point toward the latter part of 
January, General Grant found the Fifteenth Corps stretched 
across the peninsula working hard at the canal, with its right 
flank resting on the river below Vicksburg. Admiral Porter 
was present with a fleet of gunboats. Upon examining the line 
of the canal General Grant lost hope of its ever leading to 
practical results. He therefore ordered other routes to be pros- 
pected, although the troops were still kept employed on the 
canal, not being deemed advisable to abandon it entirely. 
The work on the canal was still carried on, therefore, but main- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 125 

ly by the Fifteenth Army Corps. After the failure in carry- 
ing out our plans in regard to the canal we went on the Bayou 
Expedition, which is about as follows: 

The Regiment with the Fifteenth Army Corps, Second Divi- 
sion, under Brigadier General Stuart, moved on the 16th day 
of March to the relief of Admiral Porter, who had taken a 
fleet of five gun boats with five mortar boats, via Steel's Bayou 
Black Bayou, Deer Creek and Rolling Fork, to within a few 
hundred yards of the Big Sunflower, where the navigation 
would have been comparatively easy. These water ways had 
had been cleared of obstructions at an immense expense of 
labor. 

March 16, '63. We received marching orders with one day's 
cooked rations. We left camp about 7 o'clock A. M. and 
marched to the upper landing. From there we embarked on 
board the steamer "Swallow." and that night we arrived at 
Eagle Bend. 

March 17, '63. We were detailed to build bridges and pon- 
toons across the streams, and' constructing corduroy roads for 
the passage of troops. The object is to transport our army 
from Eagle Bend to Steel's Bayou, then our transports up that 
Bayou to Black Bayou and Deer Creek, up that to Rolling 
Fork, and through the Little Sunflower into the Big Sunflower, 
and then by it into the Yazoo River, about 32 miles north of 
Haine's Bluff. Should we succeed in gaining a footing on the 
YazooRiver at that point the whole army under General Grant 
will follow. Then the Confederate General commanding the 
forces at Vicksburg will have to come out of his stronghold 
and give us battle or retreat. 

March 18, '63. We worked all day building the bridges^ 
wading in water waist deep. General Stewart and our officers 
are wading into it, too, some of them going in first. 

March 19, '63. We are still hard at work in the black Mis- 
sissippi swamps, having to wade into water at times waist deep ? 
and to work in the rain. But no grumbling is heard, as our 
officers, including General Stewart, are wading in, too, and 
working with a good will. Having finished the first bridge we 
commenced on the second, and by noon we had it finished. 
Then the First and Second Brigades crossed over ready to go 



126 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

up Steel's Bayou. The 116th Illinois V. I. helped us today. 

March 20, '63. Having finished the bridges we were set to 
work by Colonel A. C. Parry, who worked all the time with us, 
to construct an artillery road from Muddy Bayou to Steel's 
Bayou. We were assisted by the 30th Regimen! Ohio. This 
road was about one mile long, through water and cane-brakes 
so thick it would seem almost impossible for a snake to crawl 
through. The water is black, and so unhealthy that no one 
can live here. 

March 21st to the 23rd, '63. The last two days we have been 
working on the artillery road assisted by the 80th Regimeni 
Ohio. It is raining hard nearly all the time, but we work on as 
though it did not rain. A part of our regiment has been up t he 
Bayou and returned. Therefore about noon of the 23rd we em- 
barked on the steamer "Silver Wave," and went up Steel's 
Bayou, then turned into Black Bayou, up which we sailed to 
within ten miles of Deer Creek, and disembarked and took 
possession of an old cotton-gin house, where we remained for a 
short time'. We there received orders to march over to the 
steamer "Eagle ■ We went aboard and sailed up farther, where 
we found two gunboats and transports. We went on to the 
next landing, where we disembarked and marched one and a 
half mile through water and mud nearly knee deep. We camp- 
ed for the night on the Hill farm at a cotton-gin. Near here 
the Confederates had fallen timber into and across the Bayou 
and Admiral Porter's retreat was cut off. The march last night 
was intensely dark. There was only a narrow strip of land 
above water, and that was covered with a heavy undergrowth of 
brush and cane. Our regiment was compelled to march in mud 
and water some times knee deep, and through cane-brakes. We 
finally found a little dry land on which we encamped, 

March 24th, '63. By orders we threw bales of cotton into the 
Bayou, which will be taken on the steamer "Silver Wave." 
Two companies of our regiment have gone aboard the steamer 
to haul in the cotton bales as they float along. Two other com- 
panies of our regiment have been detailed to support a battery. 
The companies ld support of our battery, or we should say the 
skirmish line, had quite a skirmish wit h the Confederate cavalry 
We captured agreat many cattle, sheep, nudes, etc. After some 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 127 

skirmishing the enemy broke away precipitately, and the rescue 
was complete. The Admiral backed out, or as the boys term it, 
"crawfished" to the Mississippi, and General Grant was foiled 
in the effort to reach the rear of Vicksburg through this channel. 
The expedition lasted twelve days and was indescribably toil- 
some and exhausting. 

March 25th, '63. The retreat from the Bayou expedition. 
On the 19th smoke was seen through the woods in the direction 
of "Sunflower," and soon afterwards shells began to fall in the 
same direction. Porter landed a force of seamen to prevent an 
advance against him, but they were not strong enough for the 
ptrpose. The enemy having learned of the expedition the day 
after its departure, had dispatched a brigade of infantry and 
several pieces of artillery up the Sunflower. Upon the arrival 
at the junction of the Sunflower and Rolling Fork they erected 
a battery and were preparing to pass in the rear of Porter's fleet, 
obstruct the channel in his rear, and capture the entire force. 
Admiral Porter fully realized his critical situation and sent a 
negro back through the swamps to inform General Sherman and 
ask the assistance of his troops at the earliest possible moment 
This message reached General Sherman in the night and he im- 
mediately sent forward the men with him, about 800 in number, 
and went back alone in a canoe to hasten the remainder of his 
troops forward. He met the latter on boats, crashed forwards 
through the trees, heedless of damages; some of the steamers 
lost their smoke stacks and part of the hurricane roofs. They 
hastened on until their progress was arrested in Black Bayou. 
Here the men were disembarked and pushed forward by hand, 
picking their way through water and cane brakes. The men 
suffered a severe exposure to the weather and water and mud. 
Porter was in retreat soon after the advance column came to 
his relief. General Sherman, with the second column, was but 
a few miles in the rear when he encountered a force of the enemy, 
with whom his forces had a skirmish. The opportune arrival 
of General Sherman prevented the execution of the plan of the 
enemy, and, after conference with Admiral Porter, finding that 
farther efforts were hopeless, both the army and navy turned 
back. The gunboats had to back out stern foremost all the 
way to Steel's Bayou, 30 miles distant, and were about three 



128 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

days in making fhe trip. General Sherman's troops regained 
their old camps by the 27th of March. 

March 26th, '63. The retreat down the Bayou. We marched 
to the lower landing and by 2 P. M. embarked on the steamer 
"Champion"' and moved down the bayou a few miles where we 
anchored and remained for the night. A part of our regiment 
have the post of honor, the rear of the retreating expedition. 

March 27th, V>;}. This morning we left anchorage and moved 
down Steel's Bayou to the Yazoo River, then down to the 
Mississippi River, and then down to Young's Point, La. We 
arrived at our old camp late in the evening of the same day. 
Tims ended the effort to flank the impregnable position of Vicks- 
burg on the Confederate right wing. This failure was caused 
by our being blockaded by the enemy at the lunction of the 
Rolling Fork and the Rig Sunflower. The gunboats under 
Admiral Porter could not force the passage, and the country 
was too swampy for the infantry to support them. However, 
a great amount of Confederate property was destroyed by the 
expedition, and its presence caused the destruction it is said, 
of 20,000 bales of cotton by the Confederates themselves. 



REPORTS OF THE BAYOU EXPEDITION. 

The following is Col. Parry's report of this expedition: 

Headquarters 4-7th Reg., 0. V. I., Camp in front 

Vicksburg, Miss., March 29, 1863. 

Sir — In compliance with the orders I have the honor to make 
the following report of the operations of the 47th Regiment Ohio 
in the late expedition through the muddy Steel's and Black 
Bayous. At 2:30 o'clock in the morning of March 17th, 1 re- 
ceived orders to have the 47th Regiment Ohio in- readiness to 
march at 7 A. M. of the same day. with one day's cooked rat ions 
in the haversacks and five day's rations, with all the necessary 
camp equipage, on board the steamer "Silver Wave". At the 
time reported and by orders, my regiment marched to the upper 
landing, where I was ordered to send all the horses and the 12 
pounder Howitser battery back to camp, which order 1 obey- 
ed. My regiment then embarked od board the steamer "Swal- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 129 

low". We proceeded up the Mississippi River to Eagle Bend, 
and on March 18th, at 10 A. M. was ordered to construct bridges 
across two impassable crevices in Muddy Bayou, that the troops 
might cross. Having received tools and help also, from the 
116th Illinois V. I., we proceeded to execute the order and fin- 
ished the bridge across the first deep water. Early in the morn- 
ing of the 19th we commenced the bridge over the second crev- 
ice By noon of the same day we had it completed so the troops 
could pass over, and the First and Second Brigades crossed for 
embarkation up Steel's Bayou. 

On the morning of the 20th received orders from Brigadier- 
General Hugh Ewing to construct a wagon artillery road from 
Muddy Bayou to Steel's Bayou, and to call on the 30th Regime' t 
Ohio, and the pioneers under command of Lieutenant Samuel 
W. Ashmead for assistance, which was cheerfully given by both 
officers and men. The work commenced with energy on the part 
of officers and men. On. the morning of the 21st we were still 
working on the artillery road, assisted by the 30th Ohio and the 
Pioneers, and on the same evening we received orders that the 
whole brigade would move at 5 A. M. the next day, and that I 
should remain and finish the road. On the morning of the 22nd 
inst. I put the 47th Regiment Ohio to work on the road. They 
made fine progress, considering the inclemency of the weather, 
as it rained hard all day. On the morning of the 23rd it was 
still raining hard. Having put my regiment to work to complete 
the road, I received orders from Brigadier-General Hugh Ewing 
at 9:30 A. M. the same day to embark and proceed up Steel's 
Bayou, and join the body of the division. We had only about 
200 yards of the road to finish, which was accomplished about 
noon of the same day ; we embarked and arrived at our destina- 
tion about dusk the same evening. By order, the assistant 
surgeon was left at Eagle Bend to take care of the sick. About 
noon of the 24th inst. I received orders to have all the cotton 
in the neighborhood thrown into the Bayou, and on reaching 
boats have it taken out on the "Silver Wave". I immediately 
set my regiment to work throwing bales of cotton into the Bayou, 
and on reaching the steamer "Silver Wave" had them pull it on 
deck. Having detailed two companies of my regiment for this 
purpose, I was ordered to detail two more companies of my reg- 



ISO History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. 

i iiu lit for the support of a section of a battery of Illinois 
Ait tilery. On the morning of the 25th at 11 o'clock I received 
orders to inspect arms and examine amunition also, and to or- 
der companies which had been detailed, back to the regiment. 
and to keep my men together for action. The four companies 
reported to me for duty during the afternoon of the 25th inst. 

On the morning of the 26th at 8:30 1 received orders to march 
my regiment to the lower landing and embark on a coal barge, 
and take the steamer "Champion," which order was complied 
with. We moved down Steel's Bayou some ten miles where we 
anchored for the night. Early on the morning of the 27th the 
boat started upon its way. On reaching Muddy Bayou I sent to 
Gen. Stewart to know if we should disembark from that point. 
I received orders to the contrary, hut to continue down Steel's 
Bayou, which we did. On reaching the Yazoo River we contin- 
ued down this stream until we reached the Mississippi River. 
Thence, we sailed to Young's Point, arriving here at 5 P. M. 
same day. 

I would beg leave to mention the names of Capt. George M. 
Zeigler, of company C, Lieutenants Samuel F. Campbell, Co. G, 
and William H. Kimball of Co. I, for the faithful and untiring 
energy with which they worked on the artillery bridges and roads, 
being most of the time up to their waists in mud and water, 
assisting the men, who also deserve the highest praise. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. C. Parry, 
Col. Commanding £7th Reg., 0. V. I. 
Capt. Lafland, Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 

The above is taken from Official Records, War Department. 
VoL 24, Part 1, 1st Series, pages 452, 453 and 454. 

Brigadier-General David Stuart, commanding 2nd Division 
15th Army Corps, in his report of this expedition, says of the 
47th Regiment Ohio as follows: "Col. Parry, with his 47th Ohio 
Regiment, built the roads, rafts, and bridges across the planta- 
tion at Muddy Bayou. I never knew a regiment to do so much 
and so good a work in such short t ime. They are the best set 
of men I have had to do with in the army, and Col. Parry one 
of the most energetic of officers". From official records, War 
Department, Vol. 24th, Part 1st, Page 438, of 1st Series. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 131 

As Gen. Stuart was with the 47th Regiment at that time, and 
speaks from personal knowledge, his words are very gratifying 
to all of us. 

March 28th, '63. In camp at Young's Point, in front of 
Vicksburg. It is raining today — the weather very bad. We 
have some rest after our late fatiguing exertions, wading the 
deadly Yazoo Swamps. 

March 29th, '63. In camp at Young's Point, in front of Vicks- 
burg. There is a good deal of sickness here, contracted on 
Steamers and in the Bayous of the Yazoo Swamps. This word 
■"Yazoo" is Indian in its origin, and means "death". The 
water here is poisonous, and the fatal effects of it began to 
appear some time since, and who knows when it will cease? We 
think it will be no better till we move to some higher camping 
ground. The muffled drums and the parting volleys are heard 
every day on the slope of the Mississippi levees, which is the 
only place we can lay our comrades in their last resting place 
far from the dear ones at home. 

"Soldier, rest, thy warfare o'er, 
Dream of battle fields no more, 
Sleep the sleep that knows no waking, 
Morn of toil, nor night of waking". 

March 30th, to April 5th, '63. Now, that every possible rout* 1 
by bayous and creeks in the whole bottomland between Vicks- 
burg and Memphis had been tried unsuccessfully in our efforts 
to reach solid ground on the flanks of the Vicksburg position, 
the next and final plan determined upon by Gen. Grant was to 
find a way through the swamps opposite Vicksburg, cross the 
Mississippi near Grand Gulf , and operate against the rear of 
Vicksburg, trusting to victory for supplies. The details of this 
plan included the cutting of a canal from Duckport, above 
Young's Point, and orders had accordingly been given to work 
•on the canal at Duckport, and to open the Bayous, reconnoiter. 
repair the roads, and make the necessary bridges. Accordingly, 
we worked on the new canal for some time, for the weather 
was very stormy with heavy rains. We worked in rain and 
mud and water, as we did in the first canal in front of Vicks- 
burg. Disease and death were increasing among us all th« 
time. 



182 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

\ In ut t his time Gen. Frank P. Blair was assigned to command 
our Division, relieving Gen. Stewart. 

April 5th to Huh, '63. We are at Young's Point, resting. 
While we were <>n our way in the Yazoo Swamps, thegunboat«, 
"Hartford," "Monongahela," ran by the Confederate batteries 
at Vicksburg, and on the 23rd attacked the Warrenton Confeder- 
ate batteries. They did not succeed in doing the enemy's bat- 
teries much damage, judging from appearances. On the 25th 
two more boats tried to run past the Confederate batteries at 
Vickburg, but were unsuccessful. We are now about rested up 
from wading and working in the Yazoo Swamps — we mean those 
who survived that trying ordeal. 

Running Past the Vicksburg Batteries. 

Young's Point, in front of Vicksburg, 

April 16, J 863. 
In full view of our regiment, volunteers went from our arm y, 
and some went from our regiment, to run the Confederate bat- 
teries. Numerous steamers were manned, protected by cotton 
bales and wet hay, each having in tow a line of transports and 
barges, while seven of Porter's Ironclads engaged the Vicksburg 
in beries rii3S3 steatnsrs were to ran the gauntlet of the en- 
emies' heavy guns, which commanded the river for a distance of 
fifteen miles. Admiral Porter led the way, and at 11 P. M. 
his first gunboat was discovered opposite the first battery, 
which instantly opened a terrific fire. The steamers, with their 
long tows, hugged the Louisiana shore and steamed ahead with 
all their force. The night was dark and the Confederates set 
lire to houses in Vicksburg to illuminate the river. This 
hrought the steamers into view as they passed, and each became 
a target for the enemies' guns. There was a terrific wreckage of 
vessels and their tows. Those that caught fire were cut loose 
and let float away with the current. Every steamer was struck, 
and those which were entirely disabled and which could be 
reached by boats below, were taken in tow and drawn out of 
reach of the destructive shots. One transport, the "Henry- 
Clay," having in tow a large barge filled with soldiers, caught 
fire and burned to the water's edge, as she floated helplessly 
with the current. The enemies' fire became more intense as they 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 138 

saw that the desperate undertaking was about to prove in part 
a success. The commingled smoke and flame on the river, the 
glare of the burning buildings on the bluff, the belching of 
heavy guns from the batteries, the bursting of the shells over 
the water and crafts, and the terriffic responses from Porter's 
gunboats, made up a scene of appalling grandeur, and one with- 
out parallel in the annals of warfare. This terriffic bombard- 
ment lasted for over two hours and a half, when the vessels 
passed, one by one, beyond the range of the Confederate batteries 
on the shore. Admiral Porter came out of the fire with all his 
gunboats, and but few of the steamers weie damaged beyond 
repair. The loss of life, too, was very small. 

April 14th to May 9th, '63. We went to Millikin's Bend to 
work on the roads, load steamers, etc., where we remained about 
a week. We returned to camp here at Young's Point, where we 
remained till April 30th. On April 21st three more of Admiral 
Porter's fleet ran the Vicksburg batteries, and joined those be- 
low who had previously gone by. The cannonade was terriffic 
and grand to view, which we will not attempt to describe because 
of its similarity to that described above. On the 27th of April 
we received marching orders. We left the morning of the 28th 
aboard of steamers with two divisions of the 15th Army Corps, 
and accompanied by some of our ironclads. We went up the 
Mississippi to the mouth of the Yazoo River, thence up that, 
where we made a demonstration on Haines Bluff. It seemed 
to be only to call the attention of the Confederate army awav 
from the real point of attack, as we did not attack Haines Bluff, 
but returned to our camp at Young's Point, where we can hear 
heavy artillery firing towards Grand Gulf, Miss. The Col. says: 

On the morning of the 27th General Grant ordered Sherman 
to create a diversion by moving his corps up the Yazoo, and 
threatening an attack on Haines' Bluff. The 47th Ohio formed 
a part of the Second Division, 15th Army Corps, then under 
Gen. Frank P. Blair, which was ordered once more to Chickasaw 
Bayou, where Gen. M. L. Smith, one of its former commanders, 
had been severely wounded, and where it had suffered a bloody 
repulse only four months before. There were some flinching 
and misgivings, but faith in the great leader overcame the doubts 
and there was no demoralization. The embarkation was made 



lot History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I 



on the 29th with great ostentation, on ten steamboat*, eight 
gunboats, including the flag-ship Black Hawk, accompanied 
the force up the Yazoo. During the night following this fleet 
lay off the mouth of the Bayou, and early next morning moved 
within reach of the Confederate batteries. After a few trial 
shots were fired, a vigorous bombardment was begun, and 
maintained during four hours, to which the Confederate bat- 
teries replied with energy. Towards evening the division em- 
barked in full view of the enemy, as though hisold tactics were 
about to be re-tried. The ruse succeeded beyond the expecta- 
tions of the most sanguine; because, although there was no road 
across the submerged field lying between the river and the bluff 
it seemed to the enemy from his experience with Sherman be- 
fore more than probable that a real attack would be ventured. 
After the landing of the troops, both the field batteries and the 
gunboats resumed the bombardment. The next day was com- 
menced by similar movements, and by shifting the position of 
the troops as though to secure a better footing, these maneuvers 
were kept up. The following night the troops quietly re-mbark- 
ed and the fleet silently dropped down the river to Young's 
Point. There was not a casualty of any description connected 
with the expedition so far as the Union forces were concerned. 
From Young's Point numerous other expeditions were dis- 
patched to annoy and detract the attention of the Confederates, 
in all of which the 47th participated. 

Volunteers were solicited on the afternoon of the 3rd day of 
May to take charge as crews and guards of a fleet of steameas 
about to run the fourteen miles of batteries on the bluffs of 
Vicksburg. Capt. W. H. Ward, Surgeon Davidson, and twelve 
men from the 47th Ohio, and a lieutenant and eight men from 
the 27th Missouri responded, and at 9'P. M. reported to the tug 
for duty. She was banked and protected with baled hay, and 
pulled two loaded barges. The upper batteries were passed in 
safety, but as the steamer came around the bend, a random shot 
penetrated the boiler, throwing the fire all over the barges, set- 
ting the hay with which they were loaded, on fire. One pri- 
vate of Company B 47th and the lieutenant and two men of the 
27th Missouri, made their escape. The tug sank at once, while 
the burning barges floated down to Carthage, and were taken 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 135 

in and sunk. The remainder of the party were captured, finally 
exchanged and returned to their respective regiments at Vicks- 
burg on the night of July 3rd. The story of the running of the 
batteries and the sinking of the tug has been very graphically 
told by a correspondent who was on the tug. It is as follows : 

On the 3rd day of May, '63, the tug George Sturgess ran the 
Vicksburg batteries. We will give an account of it in the words 
of Albert D. Richardson, correspondent of the New York Tribune, 
who was one of the number on the bales of hay with the tug- 
He says: "At ten o'clock our expedition started. It consisted 
of two great barges of forage and provision, propelled by a little 
tug between them. For some days Gen. Grant had been receiv- 
ing supplies in this manner, cheaper and easier than by trans- 
portation over Louisiana roads. 

The lives of the men who fitted out the squadron being as 
valuable to them as mine to me, I suppose that all needful] 
precaution for safety had been adopted. But when under way 
we learned that they were altogether inadequate. Indeed, we 
were scarcely on board when we discovered that the expedition 
was so carelessly organized as almost to invite capture. The 
night was light and we had but two buckets and not a single 
skiff. There were 35 persons on board — all volunteers. They 
consisted of the tug's crew, Capt. Ward and Assistant Surgeon 
Davidson of the 47th Ohio, with 14 enlisted men, designed to 
repel possible boarders, and other officers and citizens enroute 
for the army. At one o'clock in the morning on the Mississippi 
shore a rocket shot up and pierced the sky, signaling the Con- 
federates of our approach. Ten minutes later we saw the flash 
and heard the boom of their first gun. Much practice on similar 
expeditions had given the enemy excellent range. The shell 
struck one of our barges and exploded upon it. 

We were soon under a heavy fire. The range of the batteries 
covered the river for over seven miles, and at some points we 
passed within 200 yards of ten-inch guns, with point blank 
range upon us, and as we moved around the bend shots came at 
us at once from right and left, front and rear. Inclination had 
joined with duty in impelling us to join the expedition. We 
wanted to learn how one would feel looking into the craters of 
volcanoes as they poured forth sheets of flames and volleys of 



186 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

sheila. I ascertained to my fullest satisfaction. As we lay 
among the hay bales, slowly gliding past them, 1 thoughl ii 
might be a good thing to do once, but that, if we survived it I 
should never feel the least desire to repeat the experiment. 

We embraced the hay hales in the bottom, but two or three 
t Lines we could not resist the momentary temptation to rise and 
look about us. How the great sheets of flame leaped up and 
spread <>ut from the mouths of the guns. How the shells came 
screaming and shrieking through the air. How they rattled 
and crashed, penetrating the sides of the barges or exploding 
on hoard in great fountains offire, and each time, after being 
struck for the re-assuring "puff, puff puff" of our littleengine 
and hearing it, said, "Thus far at least we are all right." Now 
we were below the town, having run five miles of batteries. 
Ten minutes more meant safety. Already we begun to felicitate 
each other on our good fortnne, when the scene suddenly changed 

A terrifnc report, like the explosion of some vast magazine, 
left us breathless and seemed to shake the earth to its very 
center. It was accompanied with a shriek which I shall never 
forget, though it seemed to occupy less than a quarter of the 
time consumed by one tick of the watch. It was the death cry 
wrung from our captain, killed as he stood at the wheel ; for his 
heedlessness in fitting out the expedition, his life was the pen- 
alty We listened, hut the friendly voice from the tug was 
hushed. We were disabled and drifting helplessly in front of 
the enemies' guns. For a moment all was silent, then there 
arose from the shore the shrill, ragged yell, so familiar to the 
ears of every man who had been in the front, and clearly dis- 
tinguishable from the deep full chest tones in which our men 
were wont to give their cheers. Many times had I heard that 
Confederate yell, but never was it so exultant as now. 

That shot had done wonderfull execution. It had killed the 
Captain, exploded the boiler, then passed into the furnace, where 
the shell itself exploded, throwing up great sheets of glowing 
coals on both barges. At some stage in its progress it had cut 
the tug in twain, which went down like a plummet. We looked 
for it, but it had disappeared altogether. There were some de- 
bris, chairs, stools, and parts of machinery buoyed up by tim- 
bers, floating upon the surface, but there was no tug. 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 137 

The barges, covered with bales of dry hay, had caught fire 
like tinder, and now, at the stern of each a great sheet of flame 
rose far towards the sky, filling the night with more than a 
noonday glare. The enemy redoubled their fire, boarded our 
bales of hay, and captured us as prisoners of war. We were 
landed on the Mississippi shore and guarded by Confederate 
bayonets. We counted the rescued and found that just sixteen, 
less than half our number, were alive. All the rest were killed, 
scalded, wounded, or drowned. Some of the scalded were pit- 
eous spectacles. The raw flesh almost ready to drop from their 
faces, and they ran hither and thither, half wild from pain. 

One of the rescued men, coatless and hatless, with his face 
blackened until he looked like a native of Timbuctoo, addressed 
me familiarly. Unable torecgonize him, I asked" Who are you?" 
He replied, "I am Captain Ward," commander of the soldiers 
guarding the barges. When the explosion occurred Capt. Ward 
was sitting on the hurricane roof of the tug. It was more exposed 
than any other position, but the officers of the boat had shown 
symptoms of fear and he determined to be where his revolver 
would enable him to control them if they attempted to desert us. 

Some missile struck the Captain's head and stunned him. 
When he recovered consciousness, the tug had gone to the bot- 
tom, and he was struggling in the nver. He had enough 
strength to clutch a rope hanging over the side of a barge, and 
keep his head above water. Permitting his sword and revolver, 
which greatly weighed him down, to sink, he called to his men 
on the blazing wreck. Under the hot fire of cannon and mus- 
ketry they formed a rope of their belts and let it down to him. 
He fastened it under his arms. They lifted him up to the 
barge, whence he escaped by the hay bale line to a Confederate 
prison." 



138 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 



RUNNING THE VICKSBURG BATTERIES 



As Seen by one of the Survivors. 



About 9 P. M. of May 2d, 1863, Captain \V. H. Ward said 
'Get up, Company B, I want volunteers to run the blockade." 
Then he said "I only want ten men," (there were already 
twelve of us up) and added "if the Colonel did not care they 
might all go," and the Colonel let all go. Went to the river 
hank, and there were there two tugs and two barges to run the 
batteries. One of the barges was not loaded; had to wait 
until the night of May 3d. On the morning of the 3d one of our 
men, A. J. Hodges, sold his chance; when the Captain learned 
this he made him go, too, so there were thirteen of us beside 
the Captain from the 47th Ohio. They were: Captain W. H. 
Ward, Henry Buck, Leonard Brooks, A. J. Hodges, Peter Sype, 
Henry Lewis, myself and Alex Vanriper and five others, whose 
names I have forgotten ; there were also a Sergeant of Company 
A and our Assistant Regiment Surgeon, Davidson. 

When we reached the landing one barge had sunk in the river, 
so only one tug ran the blockade, and when nearing the city of 
Vicksburg, Captain Ward stationed the men on the corners of 
the barges to keep off the borders of the enemy, he 
then told (writer) to stay with him in center of the barge. 
When opposite to Vicksburg the enemy redoubled the bom- 
bardment of our fleet, Captain then went onto the tug to give 
orders and we never saw him again until July 1863. When we 
passed the last Confederate Battery they put a shell through 
the tug's boiler and blew it up, and the hay was set on fire. 
Sergeant Buck and myself started for the tug; hearing the 
shell coming we dropped down and I think it did not miss our 
backs six inches. We then jumped on the tug. The engineer 
was calling for assistance, but seeing that I could not help 
him, I stepped to the stern of the tug which was nearly under 
water, and there stood Peter Sype and a man by name of 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 139 



Smith. Shoving a plank in the river. Smith asked m^ to help 
them; this done I jumped on the front end of the plank and 
Smith on the other. Sype thinking it would not carry more 
than two of us did not come on the plank; when Smith and 
myself reached the shore we started up stream. We soon met 
the engineer, he said the tug held him until the water began 
to run in his mouth, then let him loose and he swam ashoiv. 
"We then made our way up the river until we came to the gun- 
boat on picket, and went aboard of it. The doctor then paint- 
ed Smith and the engineer with white lead, as they were both 
so badly scalded, and helped to take care of them for two days, 
when both died. I returned to my regiment. A Lieutenant, 
of the 27th Missouri, escaped by floating down the river on a 
plank. Only four escaped. A. Vanriper, who was wounded 
and captured, informed me that the Confederate Ordinance 
Officer told him the next morning that they had shot 354 shot 
and shells at us during the past night. 

J. C. Gonkling, 
Late Sergeant Company B 47th Ohio. 

May 9, '63. We left Millikin's Bend for Young's Point, 
where we put up tents. Went down on the steamer "Lancas- 
ter," after having been there protecting military stores, 
and loading steamboats, until we were relieved by troops from 
the north. There are rumors of march. We can hear firing 
south of us. 



VICKSBURG CAMPAIGN AND SIEGE OF VICKSBURG, '63 

May 7 to 12, '63. Young's Point, La., in front of Vicks- 
burg. We received orders to be ready to march at lOo'clock A. 
M., but the orders had been countermanded and we did not go. 
\V" suppose we are to march to the rear of Vicksburg, as in the 
past few days we have heard heavy artillery firing in the di- 
rection of Grand Gulf. We are ready for the fray. 

May 13, '63. We were to march at 5:30 A. M. We are at 
Young's Point, ready to march at a moment's notice. We can 
still hear heavy artillery firing in the direction of Grand Gulf. 
11:30 A. M. We started on a heavy and wearisome march 



140 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. T. 



across the bend in front of Vicksburg, over wet, sandy roads 
We are then to march on down the Mississippi River ten or 
twelve miles to the landing below Warrenton, which it is said 
our men burned last night. Later — Warrenton is still smok- 
ing. Wo arrived here late in the evening and were ordered to 
go aboard a steamer the moment it arrived. There was a great 
deal of straggling yesterday on account of the great heat and 
the wet and sandy roads. 

May 14, '63. We are yet at the landing. The old 47th is 
always ready for battle. The '"Forest Queen" left here last 
night taking the 37th Regiment Ohio, and five companies of 
the 4th Regiment Virginia V. I., and also the battery of our 
brigade. We have no tents — we left them at Young's Point, 
except one for each regiment. 

Asa sample of the reports that we are invariably hear previ- 
ous to an important campaign or movement of the army, we 
will give the following one that has just commenced to buzz 
around among the boys in the camps: 

We have just heard that our flag floats over Richmond, Va.. 
and that Jeff. Davis and his Cabinet escaped in confusion into 
North Carolina; also that Joe Hooker had whipped Lee and 
put him into such a position that it was likely he would have 
to surrender his whole army. Also, that Stonewall Jackson 
had been killed, and we hope now confidently that Vicksburg 
must soon fall, then Charleston, and then the Confederates will 
soon be exterminated and the war will be over in six months. 

The above was undoubtedly put into circulation to brace up 
the boys in this campaign. It rained about all day. 

May 15, '63. We lay at this landing all night The Tus- 
cumbia with Gen. Price came to the landing last night. We 
are told that the Tuscumbia was hit in the late fight at Grand 
Gulf with solid shot 80 times, and with shells and shell frag- 
ments 300 times. She had only 5 killed and 20 wounded, four 
of whom have since died. Later, our regiment embarked on 
the steamboat Moderator, and we were conveyed to Grand Gulf, 
Miss., where we disembarked and stacked arms. We went 
around and viewed the place. It is a small town at the mouth 
of the Big Black River, and on the east bank of the Miss. River 
We saw the ruins of the old Confederate forts lately captured 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 141 

by Admiral Porter. They had been well battered down by our 
navy. Here we also saw what was said to be the ruins of the 
Indianola, one of our gunboats that had been captured by the 
enemy. About four o'clock we marched out towards the rear 
of Vicksburg on the Raymond road. We marched out about 4 
or 5 miles and camped for the night. We saw a band of about 
75 guerillas on the Louisiana side, just before dark. Let us see 
what the Colonel has to say about our brigade thus far. He 
says : 

"From Young's Point, it followed the Corps to Warrenton, 
and thence marched rapidly to New Auburn, where, by Gen. 
Grant's orders it joined McCleanard's 4th Division under Gen. 
A. J. Smith, on the 15th. It assisted in bringing to this place 
two hundred wagons loaded with commissary stores." 

May 16' '68. Left camp on the Raymond road at 6 A. M., 
and marched towards the rear of Vicksburg, about six miles. 
A courier there met us ; then we had to march back about one 
and a half miles and turn back on another road leading more 
directly for the rear of Vicksburg. We are t.ying to join our 
corps somewhere at the front, having preceded us about a week. 
Water is very scarce, thus causing our men to give out badly. 
The weather is extremely hot and the roads are very dusty and 
sandy. We marched about twenty miles today. Gen. McClear- 
nard was directed to move our Division, Gen. Blair's, with 
Smith's Division, which was the first to strike the enemies' 
pickets, who were quickly driven in to-night. Gen. A. J . Smith 
was north of Raymond, still supported by Gen. Blair and his 
Second Division. 

May 17, '63. We started on our march early this morning 
and marched like all fury. The weather is very hot, and water 
very scarce. We captured about 200 Confederate prisoners. 
We heard that our corps is only nine miles ahead of us. Quite 
a number of our m^n gave out on account of the heat and lack 
of water, both yesterday and t^-day, but all came in this evening. 
One of our stragglers brought in 11 prisoners, or, more properly 
speaking, it looked like they brought, him in. While on our 
march to-day we passed a bouse in which there were a number 
of wounded men, probably 50. The house and yard were cov- 
ered with them. We marched nearly 25 miles. The prisoners 



142 HisToih OF the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 



« r e captured were Loring's Confederate forces. The Col. says 
of t his movemenl : 

"Tlir flight of the 17th the 17th. with the remainder of Blair's 
Division, was about three miles south-east of Ed wards' Station. 
Ou the morning of the 18th with Rlair's Division it was ordered 
to report to its own corps at Bridgeport, and pushed forward to 
Black R.iver where it arrived aboul an hour in advance of Gen. 
Sherman with his other Divisions. The bridge across the river 
had been destroyed. The crossing \\a> protected by a strong, 
picket on the opposite side which was demolished by a few 
shells from a section of artillery, and the entire picket promptly 
crawled out of the rifle pit, came down to the river bank, and 
surrendered." 

May 18, '03. We encamped last night near Champion Hills, 
and marched over the battle field to-day and saw a good many 
of the dead of both the Union and Confederate armies. We 
then marched across the Big Black River. The weather is very 
hot. We marched till ten o'clock to-night, when we arrived in. 
the rear of Vicksburg We have scarcely any thing to eat. The 
march was a very hard one, being over 25 miles. We encamped 
within a half mile of the Confederate outside breast works, tired 
and weary and hungry, for a night's rest. The Col. says of 
this movement : 

"Grant, by his masterful tactics, had turned the flank of Pein- 
berton; Haines' Bluff fell without another shot, and the way to 
Vicksburg was clear. The pontoon train belonging to the 
Division Was brought up, the bridge was finished by dark and 
the troops began to move at once. Lights were made with 
pitch pine, and almost all night, it seemed, the heavy tramp, 
tramp, across the bridge was kept up, and as the men passed 
Gen. Grant, who had joined Sherman and with him sat near 
thecrossing, lusty cheers of good will rangouton the night wind 

Commencement of The Seige ok Yuksburg Miss, 

May 18, '68. "Gen. Blair's Division was now leading the 
advance of the general movement. At daybreak it again moved 
forward, and with little opposition secured the ridge dividing 
the Yazoo from the Big Black River. Of course, there were no 
laggards among the regiments in that race which won for Gen. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 143 



Grant the rear of Vicksburg an imperishable renown. 

Gen. Grant in person directed Gen. Sherman with his 15th 
Army Corps to take the right hand road, and the advance of 
the 2nd Division drove the Confederates behind their paraphets 
at Vicksburg. During the night the whole division closed up 
against the fortifications which were found to be strong and 
well garrisoned. 1 ' 

Gen. Grant had now formed his lines for an advance on 
Vicksburg witb Gen. Sherman on the right and Gen. McPherson 
in the center and Gen. McClernard on the left, Gen. Sherman 
with his 15th Army Corps pushed his right clear to the Miss- 
issippi River in view of the Union fleet. All the 18th Union 
skirmishes kept forcing the enemy ahead andpicking up pris- 
oners. To-night the various corps came into place and in the 
morning the seige of Vicksburg will begin. Communications 
were opened with our fleet at Haines' Bluff. Let us now see 
what Gen. Grant says about it thus far. Says he : "A twenty 
day campaign, two hundred miles traversed, five battles fought 
and five victories won, 27 heavy guns and 61 field pieces cap- 
tured, 6500 prisoners captured, 6000 Confederates killed and 
wounded, a State capital taken, a strong hold on the Mississippi 
in our possession, two Confederate armies forced apart, with 
a total loss to ourselves of 4,335 killed and wounded, but with 
a new supply line opened and an enemy environed." 

May 19, '63. The assault upon the Confederate forces at 
Vicksburg, Miss. The 47th Ohio with the remainder of Gen, 
Hugh Ewing's Third Brigade occupied "Walnut Hills," near 
the "Old Graveyard Road," and right in front of Cemetery Fort, 
At daylight this morning heavy skirmishing commenced all 
along the lines. The enemy will have to fight or surrender, 
but we believe they will fight, although demoralized at Cham- 
pion Hills and Big Black River. Things make it appear that 
they will give us a heavy fight in order to save their strong hold. 
Our division deployed out in line of battle as follows : Third 
Brigade, Gen. Hugh Ewing, on the right: First Brigade. Col. 
G. A. Smith, in the center; Second Brigade, Colonel Thomas 
K. Smith on the left, with General Steel's Division Fifteenth 
Army Corps, on the extreme eight. Our Brigade, the3rd of the 
2nd Division, was in line of battle as follows: With the 37th 



144 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



Ohio on the right, the 1th Va. in the center, with the47th Ohio 
on the left, and the 30th Ohio in reserve. The artillery had 
been moved into position and a heavy cannonade was kepi 
up. The skirmishing continued to We very heavy until 2o'clook 
P. M., when an assault was made with great impetuosity all 
along the entire line. The column advanced along the inter- 
vening hollows, filled with standing and fallen timber, into the 
trenches in front of the fort We moved forward to the attack. 
The course of our regiment was down a steep hill for a distance, 
then the left wing had an open field to pass over to reach the 
foot of the hill, on which the Confederate works were located. 
Our right wing had to cross another hill and go down a slope 
and cross a valley to. arrive at the same place. The word was 
given "Forward," with Col. A. C. Parry in the lead, saying, 
"Follow me," and forward we marched. We at once drew the 
enemies' fire from our right, left and front, but our line faltered 
not, but faced the furious storm of musketry and shotand shell 
and grape that greeted us. The deadly iron and lead thinned 
our ranks, hut we kept on dashing forward, and when we gained 
the foot of the hill we sprang up its sides with a wild Yankee 
yell and gained the crest of the hill, where we charged the 
enemies' works. Our fiag was planted on the outside of the 
enemies' works — we could do no more. A large partof the 47th 
occupied the ditch, but could not effect an entrance into the 
fort. The enemy, secure in its fortifications, lighted the fuses 
of large bomb shells, and threw or rolled them down into the 
ditch upon the men. If the fuse could not be extinguished, 
and was long enough, it would be thrown out to roll down the 
hillside. Otherwise, everyone who could do so would lie prone 
till it would explode, and if not killed would thank God. Hand 
grenades were also thrown into the ditch, and frequently caught 
and hurled back by our brave men. Adam Freebonn, of Co. G, 
caught and threw one back and saw it explode. Safety was 
found in the incessant vigilance and careless activity of our 
forces. 

The enemies' fire at close range was terriffic, and, had no 
enemy been near, it would have been hard work for us to get 
through the stockade in our front. After a few minutes of this 
firing at such close range, we drew back to the shelter of the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 145 

hill and lay down on our faces. Here we had some protection 
from the withering fire of the enemy. Now the crying of the 
wounded for water was heard. We lay under the hill, and 
could not withdraw from our perilous position near the ditch 
until after dark, when the mountain howitser battery, com- 
manded by Lieutenant W. E. Brachman, was carried up the 
side of the ridge and opened on the fort. Under the cover of 
its rapid and well-directed fire the troops withdrew. Lieutenant 
Fisher was severely wounded in the assault and captured by the 
enemy. His leg was amputated in their hospital. Col. Parry 
was caught and suspended on the point of a bayonet while in 
the ditch, which wound left a triangular scar on one of his 
ribs. The list of caualities was heavy, 

By orders we fell back under a heavy fire. One regimental 
Mag was riddled completely. We moved back to a level piece 
of ground and stacked arms to rest for the night, but our dead 
and wounded were left on the field. 

The writer would mention here that his company had only 
four men in this charge, the company having been left at Mil- 
liken 's Bend on fatigue duty. It came into the regiment just 
in time for the assault of May 22nd. Of the four men who were 
in the assault of the 19th William O'Brien was killed and John 
Heaton was mortally wounded, and was burned to ashes near 
the Confederate works. Sergeant Bicket was shot in the right 
breast, and the man who carried the banner was shot in the 
hand, and by this shot lost the banner near the Confederate 
works. He said he could not bring it out again because of the 
dead men lying on it. 

Col. Parry cursed him, called him a coward, and threatened 
to cut his head off with his sword. Perhaps the Colonel would 
have done right in doing so, but we are glad to say that this 
was the first and the last flag ever lost by the 47th Ohio during 
its term of over four years, and we know that no one deplored 
the loss of that flag more than the members of the regiment. 
The writer would have brought out that flag or he would 
have left his bones bleaching on Southern soil. 

May 20, '63. The siege of Vicksburg continues. This morn- 
ing early a deafening cannonading and a brisk skirmishing 
commenced. The Confederates strengthened their works some- 



I Hi History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

time during the night. The 30th Ohio drew up in line about I 
o'clock P. M. and opened a furious fire on the enemies' rifle 
pits and stockade. This they kept up until dark. They were 
then relieved by us and we remained there all night. The 
signal gun was fired at intervals during the night to let the enemy 
know that we still have them surrounded. Admiral Porter has 
been bombarding the city from the front along the river all 
day, and at times his shot and shells came clear over the city 
to our lines. 

Capt. Henry Broemfoerder says: "On the night of the 20th 
of May 1 and a few others, while looking for some of our dead 
comrades, to carry them into our lines- for burial, were taken in 
by the Confederates, marched around inside of their fortifica- 
tions for a few hours to find a competent officer to judge of our 
case. We were then again sent back to our lines, after we had 
explained our business in a strait forward manner." 

May 21, '63. The seige of Vicksburg continues. This morn- 
ing at barely daylight the navy commenced the bombardment 
of Vicksburg, and a brisk skirmish by the army was kept up all 
day. Sergeant Albert Lann's body was brought in from where 
it fell near the Confederate lines. He was properly buried near 
our lines, and his grave was marked. The bombardment of Ad- 
miral Porter's fleet continued till dark, dismounting many of 
the enemies' guns and causing a panic among the people in 
the city of Vicksburg. 

May 22, '63. The second assault on the stronghold of Vick- 
burg was made to-day. Cannonading and skirmishing com- 
menced at daylight. Our Brigade was marched across the 
Cemetery Road by the left flank about one-fourth mile, and from 
there formed an assault on the left face of Cemetery fort. Gen, 
Sherman had re-connoitered all his front, in person, and had 
determined upon the points for t he second attack. All his bat- 
teries were placed in g >od positions, and orders for the second 
assault had been given, to be carried out at 10 o'clock. Gen. 
Sherman was well pleased with our charge of the 191 h. 

A. company was detailed as flankers. Some called them sharp 
shootersand from where they were they could see all that was 
goingbn. As the assault was about to be made, our brigade 
was drawn in Line of battle as follows: The 30th Ohio on the 



History op the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 147 

right of first line ; the 37th on the left of the first line ; the 4th 
West Va. in second line on the right; the 47th Ohio on the left 
in second line. The assault was led by a Forlorn Hope of fifty 
volunteers from each brigade in the Division. The Forlorn Hope 
was commanded by six officers; they had in all 150 men. The 
division was commanded by Gen. F. P. Blair. The part selected 
by our commander to be assaulted was a fort in the enemies' 
line, situated on a bridge on the Graveyard Road. This fort 
was flanked on the right and left by long rifle pits, with a deep 
ditch next to our lines. The enemies' fire was nearly all con- 
centrated on this road along a narrow ridge, ove 1 * which the 
forlorn hope charged. The distance over which the charge was 
to be made was about four hundred yards, three hundred of 
which was exposed to a full fire of the enemy from the front, 
and on our left by the enemies' artillery. Besides this, the 
way was obstructed by fallen timber and palisades and every 
obstruction obtainable by a fierce enemy. Proudly at 10 o'clock 
A.M. the Forlorn Hope were in line and when the signal sounded 
they started on a full run, led by Oapt. Groce. They carried 
planks and ladders and other necessary scaling apparatus to 
bridge the ditch at the Confederate Fort. A part of them w^re 
armed, and on they went in a storm of musketry, grape and 
canister, but they faltered not, although their ranks were 
thinned at every step. They kept going forward on the run 
and gained the ditch at the enemies' fort which was nearly ten 
feet wide, and seven feet deep. They planted the brigade flag 
on the side of the fort ; here, on account of the shape of the 
fort they were slightly sheltered above the Confederate works. 
< )ur Hag floated not a rod from the Confederate lines drawn up 
to receive them and none of the Confederates dared to take it. 
A line of skirmishers had been placed in position to keep them 
down. Five batteries at short range also commanded their fire 
upon the bastion which swept the approach leading up to it. 
But no enemy appeared, although the assailing party as it came 
upon the crest of the hill was fully exposed. Unmolested the 
assailing party had reached the salient of the bastion and passed 
towards the Sally Port. 

As soon as the word was given to charge, Col. Parry drew his 
sword and said, "Every man of the 47th Regiment follow me," 



1 18 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

and he further said, "If you see any officer behind a tree 01' a 
stump, shool him on the spot." Then he said to the officers, 
"If you see any privates behind t rees or stumps, shoot I hem on 
the spot. Forward, double-quick, march," and we were soon 
going in a full run and we went as far as il was possible for 
men to go. The 47th Ohio became entangled with the 37th 
Ohio. CoL Parry then moved the regiment by the left flank, 
then down into a ravine, then up the hill as far as men could 
go. There we lay under shelter until night, when we began to 
throw up breastworks. 

One company of our regiment was posted on the right of the 
assaulting column and had orders to cover the "Forlorn Hope" 
by a fire upon the objective point, to be stormed by the brigade. 
As fast as we could load we fired upon the fori . When the 
"Forlorn Hope" reached the fort they began to dig into its sides 
with their bayonets, and in an hour they had dug so far into the 
bank that we could see only the flag. The Confederates tried 
in every way to dislodge them, both by their rifle firing and by 
rolling lighted shells down on them, but they held their ground 
and remained at the fort until night, when they escaped, one 
at a time. Company A did good firing at this time, A com- 
rade says he shot 240 rounds during this time, and his musket 
got so hot he could hardly hold it in his hands. Nearly all 
the regiment did about the same. About three o'clock another 
baigade again charged, but made more of a failure than 
we did, for they came with their lines broken. The Confederates 
poured upon our column a murderous fire, staggering and sweep- 
ing it backwards, but to no avail, as we shifted to the left, 
crossed the ditch, climbed up the other face of the bastion, and 
plant t'd our colors on the slope. Eli Chapman of Company F, 
47th Ohio, the color bearer of the "Forlorn Hope." sat down by 
the flag-staff, and steadied the colors with his hands. He was 
killed at the battle of Atlanta on the 22nd of July, '64. The 
assault lasted almost two hours, the repulse having been very 
disastrous. 

The official report of our brigade movements since leaving 
Young's Point, opposite Vicksburg, is as follows: 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 149 



Headquarters Third Brigade, 2d Division, 15th Army Corps, 
Battle- Field near Vicksbwrg, Miss., May 27th. 

Sir: I have the honor fco submit the following report of the 
march of my brigade from Milliken'a Bend to this field, together 
with the part taken by it in the late actions. 

We moved to Sherman's landing on the ninth and assisted 
in making a road from thence to Bower's landing. We finished 
it within t^o days, and on the 13th, being relieved by fresh 
troops, we inarched to the lower landing. Reached Grand Gulf 
the evening of the 15th, and encamped on the Raymond Road. 
On the 17th at noon at the of the Junction Road we took 200 
prisoners. They were stragglers of Loring's Division, which 
had taken the Gibson Road during the night Here receiving 
orders from Gen. Sherman we took Cross Roads for Bolton, 
and again on falling into the track of our army, changed our 
course for Edwards' Station, camping at night on the battle- 
field of the day before. During the night of the 18th, we re- 
joined our division. 

On the morning of the 19th we took our position on the right 
of the division resting on Gen. Steel's left, and at the signal 
at 2 P. M., we charged the works of the enemy in line of battle, 
the 37th Ohio on the right, the 47th Ohio on the left, the 4th 
West Va in the center, and the 30th Ohio in reserve. The left 
of our line under Cols. Parry and Dayton reached the enemies' 
entrenchments, and the colors of the regiment waved near them 
until evening. The right, on account of obstacles, were unable 
to cross the ravine, but covered the left in its advance position 
by a heavy fire, Later the remaining regiments were moved 
to the left brow of the hill. Prepared on the agreed signal 
from the brigade on our left to move over the track of the 
preceding portion of the brigade, and, joining them, renew the 
assault. I instructed the artillery to open on the works when 
our line began to ascend the opposite hill. They, however, 
opened heavily before the signal was given and the troops, al- 
ready over, supposed the firing was to enable them to retire under 
cover, moved back, and the signal not being given, the charge 
was not renewed. From this to the 22nd my front skirmished 
along the enemies' entrenchments. At 10:04 A. M. of this date 



150 History of the 47tii Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

n storming party composed of 50 volunteers from each brigade 
of the division, bearing the colors of my headquarters and 

followed by my troops in column, charged down a narrow cut 
road upon a bastion of the enemies' works. They were instruct- 
ed to bear to the left and cross the curtain of the ditch at the 
salient. Here it could not be bridged, and they made a fool 
path by which Capt. John H. Grroce, Commander Lieutenant 
o'Xeal. Private Troyden, the color bearer, and others crossed. 
They climbed half way up the exterior slope and planted the 
flag upon it unfurled. The 80th Ohio next in order, moved 
close upon the storming party, until their progress was arrested 
by a double flank and frdnt fire, and the dead and wounded 
thai blocked the defile. The second company forced its way 
over the remains of the first, and a third over those of the 
preceding. But their perseverance served only to further en- 
cumber the impassable way. The 87th Ohio came nexi , its left 
breaking the column where the road first debauched, and under 
a deadlv fire. After a check a few passed on but most of them 
were shot. They fell back, and with the remainder of the brig- 
ade and division, came over a better road. 

I formed my troops as they came up on a brow of a hill 
running from the road, to the left and parallel to and 7»> yards 
from the intrenchments. Here we protected our advance men 
and wounded until they were gradually withdrawn, and with a 
heavy and well directed fire covered the after attempt to charge 
over the intrenchments, made down the same road by the brig- 
ade of Gen. Mower. At night the wounded, dead, and colors 
were brought back 70 yards to the hill, where the brigade re- 
mained intrenching and skirmishing with the enemy. 

I have the honor to call your attention to the accompanying 
reports of regimental commanders, and hear testimony to 
the bravery of the following officers in addition to those men- 
tioned therein : Colonels Parry and Dayton, of the 47th Ohio 
aud 4th West Virginia; Lieutenant-Colonels Von Blessingh 
and Hredt of the 37th Ohio and 80th Ohio, and Major Hipp 
of the 87th Ohio. * * * * The brigade reached the field from 
Grand Gulf by a forced march of eighty-five miles in three 
days, reaching the scene of conflict the midnight before the 
battle. The troops bore themselves throughout with gallantry 



Wounded. 


Missing. 


Total. 


190 


(5 


24t> 


110 





140 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 151 

and spirit. Their General commanding believes that nothing 
but the broken and entangled nature of the grounds over 
which they charged, with a want of a previous knowledge of 
its conditions, prevented them from successfully entering the 
enemies' works. 

Our loss in killed, wounded and missing is as follows: 

Engagements. Killed. 

Battle of May 19th, 50 

Battle of 22d, 24 

Total, both days, 74 306 5 380 

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant. 

Very respectfully, Hugh Ewing, 

Brigadier General. 
Major W. D. Green, 

Assistant Adjutant General, Second Division Fifteenth 
Army Corps. 

The above report is taken from Official Records, War De- 
partment, Series 1st, Part 2, Volume 24, Pages 281, 282 and 
283. 

The official reported loss of the 47th Ohio in the two battles 
is as follows : 

Killed. Wounded. Captured or Missing. 

Officers. Enlisted Men. Officers. Enlisted Men. Officers. Enlisted Men. 

May 19. 1 12 3 37 2 5 

May 22. 6 2 24 1 

Totals, 1 is 5 (>l a 6 

Total loss on the 19th, 59; killed in both battles, 19; total 
loss on the 22d, 33; wounded in both battles, 66. Total loss 
both days, 92; captured or missing, 8. 

The above is taken from official records, War Department, 
Vol. 24, 1st Series, pages 159 and 163. 

Let us now see what Gen. Sherman thought concerning 
those battles on the 19th and 22nd, as participated in by us. 
Under date of June 6th, '63, he says: "In reviewing and sub- 
mitting the report of Gen. Blair I can only say the facts are so 
fully and fairly stated that nothing can be added. I take great 
pleasure in indorsing all he says concerning the conduct of the 
men and officers during both assaults, May 19th and 22nd, 



152 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

for from my position on both days I had this division in full 
view. If any troops could have carried and held the intrench- 
imiits of Vicksburg, they would/' From official reports, War 
Department, Vol. 24, Part 2, page 2(31. 

Tin 1 spade, impelled by the skill of the engineers and the 
strength of the men, became the arbiter of the fate of Vicks- 
burg. Day and night the digging was continued by details. 
The Forlorn Hope at Vicksburg have received medals of honor 
similar to the following. 

Record and Pension Office, War Department. 
Washington City, August 24, 189(5. 

Captain John H. Brown, late of Company A, 4.7th Ohio Volun- 
teers, Logan, Dearborn County, Indiana. 

Sir. — I have the honor to inform you that, by direction of 
the President and in accordance with the act of Congress appri «v- 
ed March 3rd, '63, providing for the presentation of medals of 
honor to such officers, non-commissioned officers and privates 
as have most distinguished themselves in action, the acting 
Secretary of War has awarded you a medal of honor for most 
distinguished gallantry in action at Vicksburg, Miss., May 19th, 
'63, in voluntarily carrying a verbal message from Col. A. C. 
Parry to Gen. Hugh Ewing, through a terriffic fire in plain view 
of the enemy. The medal has been forwarded to you to-day by 
registered mail. Upon receipt of it please advise this office 
thereof. Yours respectfully, 

F. C. Ainsworth, 
Colonel U. S. Army, Chief of Record and Pension Office. 

The following is an extract from the official record now on 
file in the War Department at Washington, D. C , detailing 
the Captain's heroic venture under a terriffic fire of the enemy. 

In making the charge on the Confederate works at Vicksburg, 
Miss., May 22nd, '63, the 47th Ohio formed part of the fronl 
line of the charging column. They passed down a steep hill 
across a narrow dell and up a steep hill to the Confederate works 
on the crest. They gained the works in splendid order, but 
were unable to take them, but held their grounds hoping for 
reinforcements. While in this position the Federal troops in 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 158 

the rear kept up a continual fire over the heads of the men 
that had made the assault, but were firing too low, so that they 
were doing more harm to their friends than to their enemies. 
At this juncture Gol. A. G. Parry of the 47th called for some 
one to volunteer to carry a verbal message to Gen. Hugh Ewing, 
telling him of the state of affairs and asking for instructions. 
Two or three volunteered, but fell before the awful fire upon 
them. The Colonel repeating the call, Capt. Brown then Order- 
ly Sergeant, said he would try. And he successfully carried the 
message that brought relief to the men. The distance was about 
two hundred yards, the greater part of which was swept by the 
terriffic fire of the enemy. It was literally running a gauntlet 
of fire through a hail storm of leaden bullets. 

May 23, '63. A brisk skirmish. Fire was kept up all day. 
and our dead lay scattered between the two lines, a distance 
of about 70 yards. Orders were issued for the pick and shovel, 
and soon there were about 40,000 men throwing up breastworks. 
The mode of doing this in our front was by making large rol- 
lers of cane, which we rolled in front of us while we worked be- 
hind them. 

Colonel Malmsburg of the 55th Illinois was in charge of the 
construction of both the offensive and the defensive works in 
front of the Second Division, and most truly did "day unto day 
utter speech and night unto night show knowledge'' under his 
broad experience. Neither the sound of the pick or the spade 
was heard, nor was there any pounding in the work of mining 
permitted by him, as the earth is a good conductor of sound 
and would reveal the secret the army commanders were so 
carefully guarding. But grindstones and files were used to 
make keen edges to the tools and implements which were used 
in cutting and shaving, lifting and throwing the earth when 
running underneath or near the Confederate fortifications. At 
that time the Third Brigade remained intact, and each regiment 
came upon duty once in four days to man the works, watch the 
enemy, and do battle, as became necessary. The Confederate 
sharp-shooters shot down every man who dared expose himself 
in the least. The weather was extremely hot and the character 
of the ground presented great obstacles to digging. Our artil- 
lery every now and then gave the enemy a salute. All day every 



154 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



man in the Union Army was brimful of the cheerfulness which 
always flows from a well-grounded hope and trust. Each one 
knew it was his garrison,, and waited patiently. Between the 

lines uf tl ie enemy and the camp of the Second Division, the 
ridges were broken and irregular, and afforded fairly good 
cover for working parties. It had always been a point with 
this division never to surrender ground occupied by it. unless 
tinder the orders of the commanding officers. Therefore it held 
what it had secured by the first and second assaults, and as a 
matter, of fact its lines were closer to the Confederate works 
than at any other point on the entire line of investment. The 
daily occurences of the seige of Vicksburg Miss., are about as 
follows from this time to the surrender. 

May 24, '63. Skirmishing all day and some artillery firing 
at intervals during the night. Details were made to open roads. 
cut out fallen timber, and to construct regular approaches for 
the seige. 

The line of rifle pits was within fifty yards — only a 150 feet 
of Cemetery Fort, near the old Graveyard Road, from a trench 
or sap extended almost at right angles with the line of rifle pits, 
up to the ditch in front of the fort. In digging this trench a 
"sap-roller" has been used. This article consists of two large 
concentric gaboons, six feet in length, the outer one having a 
diameter of four feet, the inner one a diameter of two feet eighl 
inches the space between them being stuffed with sticks about 
the size of ordinary round hoop poles, to make them musket shot 
proof. It was rolled in front of a squad of soldiers to protect 
t hem in t heir approach from the fire of the place they were oper- 
ating against. When the tren h had been advanced almost to the 
ditch, work on it had been suspended, and the roller left on 
the surface between the trench and ditch, which was just wide 
enough to hold it. Batteries are placed in advantageous position 
to keep down the Confederate fire. We constructed our lines 
of parapets and trenches to connect with our batteries, and the 
enemy dare not show themselves. It is a signal for a sharp 
artillery fire and our sharp-shooters. 

May 26,'68. Skirmishing as usual. Company A of our reg- 
iment returned to-day from acting as sharp-shooters on the right 
of the brigade. Part of our regiment are at work makingroads 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 155 

so we can get water from the -pring in the ravine The Con- 
federates tired a shot at them from their artillery, and killed 
one man and took the leg off of another man from Company H . 
They worked until 3 o'clock A. M. and finished the road. 

May 26, '03. Skirmishing as usual and doing work in the 
trenches. Our artillery done some tiring last night at a fire 
inside the Confederate fort. Heavy rains last night, making it 
frightfully muddy in our intrench ments. The Confederates 
called out last night, "Oh yanks, we are going to see if our pow- 
der is dry," then they tired a volley and we did the same; and 
put in dry loads, for we hear there is some danger of .lor 
Johnston raising the seige, and the Confederates in our front 
might make a sortie on us any time. 

May 28, '68. Still skirmishing and pushing our works nearer 
the enemies' works. Our regiment was moved back farther 
eas*- to another ravine in support of our artillery. This is the 
first we are relieved since we made the assault on the 22nd. 
We had another hard rain in the afternoon, and extreme heat 
through the day. We are nearly cooked in the trenches. The 
Confederates believe we were mining under their fort, ami 
countermined to destroy the mine and they caused the earth to 
settle under it so that it finally constituted the only division 
l»etween the opposing forces. Either side could bayonet the men 
of the other across it. 

May 29, '63. Seige continued. Our regiment moved out to 
the front skirmish line. Our line is about 30 yards from the 
Confederate Fort in our front. We are also exposed to the fire 
of Fort Hill on our left, and about 5 or G P. M. our batteries 
opened a furious cannonade on the Confederate works, which 
continued one hour. It seemed to nearly demolish their works 
and kept the Johnnies seeking shelter. Generals Grant and 
Sherman occasionally sought this point and took observations 
of the progress of the seige; and almost always brought or sent 
their distinguished visitors to this pari of the line to view the 
prospects. 

May 30, '63. Rifle firing commenced a1 daylighl very brisk. 
This seige of Vicksburg has now lasted eleven days, and we know 
not how much longer it will take' it. Looks like we will have to 
starve them out, as we have them completely surrounded, and 



L56 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

we can't take the place by storm. There were some Confedera tes 
captured to-day trying to gel ini<> the enemies' lines with gun 
caps. It is said they had 40,000 caps; by this time it was report- 
ed that we had in possession 22' > u'iius \vithou1 thoseof the navy 
in tin' river in front of Vicksburg. The guns art' mostly light : 
one battery of heavy guns on the right, commanded by naval 
officers, and each day the artillery tire of the Con federates 
slackened, and by this time it was hardly employed at ail: it 
is also said 1 hat t he length of our trenches are about twelve 
miles long, with 89 batteries. 

May 31, '63. Seige continued. Heavy skirmishing all day. 
At 3 l\ M. our batteries opened up a furious bombardment of 
t he Confederate works. Some of our great shell seemed to throw 
the logs in their forts all to splinters. Our works are continualy 
being pushed nearer to the enemies' works. The enemies' 
artillery kept their silence. One reason for this, our sharp- 
shooters will not let them load. Last night the enemy made 
a sortie on our working parties. They were badly repulsed 
and driven bark at the point of bayonet. 

June 1, '63. Seige continued. The cannonading and rifle 
fire continued brisk all day. The enemy occasionally threw 
tire balls and hand grenades at our working parties, which work 
every night rolling our trenches nearer to the enemies' forts 
and bast ions. 

June 2, '63. Seige continued. Skirmishing and artillery 
tiring on our side all day. Sergeant Frederick Hoff of company 
G was killed by a piece of shell from one of >ur guns. The 
-hell exploded soon after leaving the gun. 

June 3-6, '68. Cannonading and brisk skirmishing continued 
each day. Let us now see what General Sherman says of our 
division commander's operations about this time. He says : "On 
Blair's front were four batteries of six guns, and his approach 
started from the left of the principal battery near the Grave- 
yard Road, and was directed against the salient of the work. 
commanding this road — the same which he had assaulted on 
the 2$nd of May. This approach was carried forward until it 
reached a large oak tree, subsequently known as "the lone tree," 
\\ hie h gave its name to the battery erected there. From the 
right of this approach other approaches were started, following 






History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 157 

around the hillside just outside of the enemies' lines. Work 
upon these approaches was generally suspended daring the day, 
though the position of the sharp-shooters on the different ridges 
afforded the best protection to the working parties to the left 
of the lone tree. Another parallel was constructed to the foot 
of the hill in front. This allowed us to construct another par- 
aphet on the brow of the hill near the enemies 1 works. 

June 7, '63. The siege still continued. Our regiment is on 
the skirmish line to-day near the enemies' lines. We had on" 
man killed and two wounded. 

June 8 and 9, '63. Admiral Porter's mortar fleet are shelling 
Vicksburg vigorously. The skirmishing is going on all the time. 
We are working on the approach leading to the Confederate fort 
in our front. The weather is extremely hot in the trenches, 
and the nights are cold, making it very unheal thf ill. There is 
a good deal of sickness among us. 

June 10 to 13, '63. The siege is being carried by skirmishing 
and cannonading of daily occurence. We work one day in the 
approaches near the Confederate intrenchments and fort . Next 
day on the skirmish with the Confederates in the outer works. 

June 14 to 15, '63. Our regiment is on the skirmish line, or 
sharp-shooting, and we are still working on the approaches, 
getting nearer the Confederate Fort. Cannonading is going on 
as usual by the army and the navy. 

June 16 to 17, '63. Cannonading began at 4 o'clock A. M. 
from the 30-pounder guns posted on the left of our regiment. 
The Confederates opened on our brigade with one cannon, but 
our artillery soon caused it to cease. 

June 18 to 19, '63. Cannonading and skirmishing continue 
as usual. Our regiment is on duty to-day in the trenches near 
the Confederate Fort. We were visited by Gen. W. T. Sherman 
to-day. He told us to shelter ourselves well for it is not safe for 
the Confederates, or us, to even show our finger above the works ; 
if you do it will be shot off. We had another rain yesterday 
making our trenches very muddy and bad to occupy, and 
it is impossible to stay out of them, for if we do it is death 
immediately with a Con federate bullet. We have been now 
in the trenches one month. 

June 20, '63. This morning at roll call we received orders 



[58 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

to march atsix A. M., with guns and forty rounds. We fell 
into line at seven and lay in a ravine, where we are camped 
while tin' artillery fired on the Confederates from four to ten 
A. M We were preparing to resist a charge or a sortie from 
the enemy, which did not come. En the afternoon the pay- 
master commenced paying off the troops. 

June '21 to 24, '63. The siege is being carried on very brisk 
with canonading and a constant skirmishing, and the work in 
the approaches are getting nearer the Confederate Fort. Our 
works are so made with sand bags that our firing is done 
through port hides. The only way we can tell there is an en- 
emy behind their works is when we see the port hole darkened. 
for their works are similar to ours. 

Blowing up of Fort Hill. 

June 25, '63. To-day General J. B. Mcpherson's forces blevi 
a breach into the Confederate Fort Hill, which is in plain view 
on our left, and the fort was immediately charged by General 
John A. Logan's division . 

At 12 o'clock M. we received orders to be ready at 2 P. M. to 
fall into line of battle, which we did, and then stacked arms. 
Then nearly all of us went to a position where we could view 
the expected explosion, for we had notice of it at 2:30. All 
of our artillery opened on Fort Hill at once and it made the 
greatest bombardment we had yet been in, and one must im- 
agine the severe roar occasioned by the two lines of heavy guns 
extending along our front, and besides that, the navy. The 
roar of the guns, the screaming of the balls, the bursting of the 
shells, at and around the Confederate lines, madeagrand sight. 
In the midst of this, at half past four P. M., with a sound 
scarcely louder than the crack of a thirty-pounder, we saw the 
end of the Confederate port blown up. About one half the 
body of it was thrown high into the air and separating came 
down a cloud of dust, filling up the Confederate ditch. The 
next moment our men charged into and gained the fort. It was 
a magnificent sight to see the boys go in over the ruins of what 
had a few moments before been a line fort, and the key to the 
Confederate position. Now the star spangled banner waved 
over it. Just as the ruins of the fort were coming down the 4th 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 159 

Regiment West Virginia. <>f our brigade, who were in the rifle 
pits in front raised a most tremendous cheer. The Confeder- 
ates in our front thinking we were about to charge on them, 
popped their heads up over their works, and the Fourth West 
Virginia Infantry, being ready and close, poured into them a 
volley that made them di=appear quick. It was said that a 
colored man was (down up with the Confederate Fort and in 
coming down he was thrown on our side, and he said "Oh, Lawd, 
massa, I thought I was gwan to heaven," and he thanked the 
Lord he had come down on our side. About 30 minutes after 
the explosion a Confederate Brigade was observed going on the 
double-quick to reinforce the Confederate line at Fort Hill. 
Our artillery opened heavily on them and they scattered. The 
mortar fleet threw shells into the city all night, and our artillery 
I loomed also, and our men held their advance, and musketry 
firing continued about all night at close range, but could not 
take the port. 

June 26 to 30, '63. Heavy cannonading and skirmishing 
continued every day. Our approaches are within a rod or two 
from the enemies' works, to such an extent that we can march 
onto the enemies works without being seen, until we get near 
the Confederate Ditch at their Fort. Some of our men have 
commenced to mine towards the Confederate Fort in our front. 

June 30, '63. The 47th, at 10 A. M., began its regular muster 
for pay, and completed it on the line between 50 and 60 yards 
of the Confederate works, under a heavy cannonade. Field 
and staff were mustered at noon. 

The Union batteries were constructed on the ridge behind the 
line of defences occupied by the infantry, and shot over them. 
The camps were on the slopes to the rear of the batteries. The 
infantry were protected by strong "field works," which were 
partly formed by excavating the earth from the slope directly 
into the crest of the ridge. The interior slope, or the revetment 
of the parapet was made by planting cylindrical baskets, open at 
the top and bottom, called gabions, and made three or four feet 
high and two feet in diameter, filled with earth, side by side, 
on the top of which bags filled with sand were placed upright, 
so as to leave a small loophole through which to thrust a rifle, 
and on top of them a course of sand bags were placed horizon- 



lfiO History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 

tally. At the bottom was a banquette or step, high enough to 
permit the men, when standing on it, to fire through the loop- 
hole without inconvenience Such was the style and finish of the 
work which protected the 47th when on the line. Usually it 
was high enough to protect the tallest men, but in one locality 
it had been reduced in height by the abrasion of bullets. One 
morning. Company G of the 47th, in which was the tallest man 
in the regiment, a giant in stature, was directly in the rear of 
this place, and he, as well as his comrades, perceived 
that his hnad was partly exposed It was suggested that he dig 
a hole and stand in it. He said "No: the steel blade of the 
spade will turn a bullet, and I will use two of them." Sticking 
their blades' up, one back of the other, he felt secure behind 
his steel spade blades, but in a few minutes a bullet penetrated 
his steel spade blades, crashed through his brain, and the tall- 
est man in the regiment had been "'gathered to his fathers." 

We are preparing to blow the fort in our front. We are 
now under the enemies works. We have heard we would be 
ready to blow the works in our front about July 5th, and the 
enemy must soon surrender or starve, for we find from an inter- 
cepted dispatch from the Confederate General, Peinberton (who 
is in command of Vicksburg) to General J E. Johnston, that: 
"The enemy keeps bombarding the city day and night, 
from seven mortars, and keep up a continuous fire on our lines 
with artillery and musketry, and we subsist on greatly reduced 
rations." The enemy, at some points, have their works within 
twenty feet of our intrenchmeuts. The men have been in the 
trenches thirty-four days without relief. The price of food in 
the town has risen enormously. Flour is $5 a pound, or $1,000 
a barrel, in confederate money ; meal is $140 a bushel ; molasses 
$10 to $12 a gallon : and -beef sells as high as $2.50 a pound ; 
mule meat sells at $1 a pound and is in great demand. Many 
families, even of wealth, have eaten the last mouthful. This 
dispatch was intercepted between June 15th and the 20th. 

The 47th went on duty. At this time it was understood that 
the train leading to the three chambers under Cemetery fort 
would be fired and the fort blown up on the 4th. Sand bags 
had been prepared to repair the loopholes. 

July 1, '63. Fort Hill, the key to the Confederate position 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 161 

of Vicksburg, was again blown up to-day Our men who have 
held possession of it, on the outside, since June 25th did not 
charge, but the Confederate fort is about all gone. The ene- 
my have built new works farther inward. The work of mining 
the enemies' works on the fort is going on day and night in 
our front. 

July 2, '68. Skirmishing is going on as usual. Some artil- 
lery firing. We are undermining Fort Pemberton as fast as we 
can. The writer worked in the mine, and would say it is very 
close work, and an extremely hot place. By this time our ap- 
proaches were to the Confederate ditch at the fort, and we could 
march our whole division under cover within a few feet of the 
Confederate works. If we have to assault the works again we 
will, to a certainty, take the fort and Vicksburg also. 

July 3, '63. Skirmishing commenced at daylight, and some 
artillery firing, and work on the mine is going on as usual. For 
the last forty-six days and nights until 10 A. M., when a white 
flag was raised at or near Fort Hill. Some Confederate officers 
came over about half way. Our officers met them, and our boys 
almost became wild with joy, in anticipation of the enemy go- 
ing to surrender, but in about one hour the white flag went down 
and hostilities were resumed, when another white flag went up 
at Fort Hill, at about 3 o'clock P. M., and from that time 
there was no more firing. All our boys are wild with joy. We 
received orders not to fire, but keep a very strict watch of the 
enemy in our front, and to have our muskets well loaded, and 
be ready for any emergency, for we don't know what the foe 
might do. We will see what the Major says: 

On the preceding night, the Confederates had made an attempt 
to spike the batteries of Logan's Division, and had lost 200 
killed in his front, and the truce was to permit them to bury 
their dead. Firing was resumed at 2 :25 by the watch. In a 
short time the firing was again suspended, and the Major men- 
tioning the fact, went out to ascertain the cause. Standing on 
the parapet in the rear of his tent, he saw parties approach each 
other under the historic oak tree and engage in parley which 
led up to the surrender. 

July 4, '63. The surrender of Vicksburg. Early this morn- 
ing we received orders to be ready for any emergency. That 



162 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. 1. 

the Confederates would surrender Vicksburg at 10 A. M. 
Promptly at 10 o'clock A. M. the Confederate Army marched 
over their works and stacked their arms between the two lines, 
and took off their accoutrements, and put them on the stacks, 
and also their flags, ami marched back over their works as 
prisoners of war. Threecheersl three cheers! for the Union 
and our glorious stars and st ripes. The number 1 hat surrendered 
was 31,560, including 15 Generals and 2.1£H officers, and arms 
and amunitions of war for an army of 60,000 men. There were 
220 cannons, of which 40 were gunsofheavy calibre, and 70.000 
muskets, 50,000 of which were Enfield Rifles in the original 
English packages, besides, a large amount of other property, 
consisting of railroad locomotives, cars, steamboats, cotton, etc. 
and much was destroyed to prevent our capturing it. The re- 
t urn of I lie ( lonfederate garrison as prisoners within their works 
was followed by the entry of our troops. General Logan's Di- 
vision was the first to enter the town, but we of the 15th Army 
Corps received orders to be ready to march ata moment's notice. 
This was the greatesl surrender and the greatest victory of the 
war thus far. On the day of our national jubilee amid the 
enthusiastic shouts and cheers of the brave and gallant troops, 
the stars and stripes waved in triumph on the city and fortifica- 
tions of Vicksburg, and the Gibraltar is in our possession and. 
the Father of Waters so called, which divides the Confederate 
States, opened into two parts. Major Taylor took down the 
white flag in our front, and he had this to say of the surrender: 
The captured garrison had marched to the appointed rendez- 
vous. Permission was given to visit the works. The only article 
within them of which there was a good supply unconsumed 
was water, which bubbled up most invitingly from a spring in 
the rear. On the glacis in front of the irregular works opposing, 
our regiment, was a network of wire extending from the 
counterscarp, as an entanglement, about ten feet wide and two 
f ei from, the ground, the whole length of the works. It was 
stoutly constructed" Alone- t he exterior wall was a row of rifle 
pits connect ing the bastions. In one of the bastions one piece 
of artillery was dismounted, and only a 12-pounder field how- 
itzer remained. In the rear of the bastion containing the can- 
non, was a traverse surmounted by a chevaux-de-frize, or 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 163 

pickets securely fastened on the earth, and sharpened at the 
projecting end. They stood at an angle of about forty-five de- 
grees. This was designed as an interior line of work, and was 
connected with a line of breastworks constructed of cotton in 
bales, which were covered with earth to protect them from fire, 
and beyond these was a line of heavy palisades. These showed 
the effect of the heavy cannonading they had experienced, and 
when evacuated, the whole work looked quite dilapidated, but 
they revealed the fact that had an entrance been effected by 
either assault the ground secured would have been only what 
the men actually stood upon. In the rear of the lines were their 
quarters — holes dug in the earth covered with boards, over which 
mounds of earth were placed to render them secure against shell 
fire. These are what gave rise to the expression "hunt your 
hole." That day and night there was great manifestation of 
joy by the Union troops, when the display of fire-works was 
magnificent. 



THE SECOND CAMPAIGN AGAINST JACKSON MISS. 



Commanded By General W. T. Sherman. 

July 5, '63. Vicksburg. We have been in the siege of 
Vicksburg forty-seven days and nights, and have endured all 
kinds of privations, lying in the trendies in rain and hot weather 
and burning sun, and have stood all kinds of hardships imagi- 
nable, together with the continual skismish and cannonade, and 
have toiled early and late, and part of the time, all night, as 
knights of the spade. We were there with a determination that 
knows no such word as fail and we have kept to our purpose un- 
til it was accomplished, and Vicksburg fell; and now after cap- 
turing the city we turn our backs upon it. We go seek a new 
enemy. 

Accordingly camp was broken, and baggage was loaded, and 
we marched to brigade headquarters. The dust between Vicks- 
burg and Black River was from five to six inches deep on the 
road over which the column marched ; the heat was apparently 



]t')\ History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

that of tin 1 hottest mid-summer day, and the water was scarce 

and of very poor quality. In addition to these unfavorable 
conditions the march upon which it had entered was broken by 
numerous short halts, which invariably exhausted the patience 
of the soldiers and added to the fatigue. The straggling was 
fearful. Almost three-fourths of the army was at one time ly- 
ing under the shade bordering the line of march. At 5 P. M. 
we camped on Fox's Creek. The roll call at tattoo, however, 
showed all present who were not on duty or in hospital or sent 
out on skirmish line. 

July 6, '63. We remained here until 4 P. M. of the next day, 
when the march was resumed. Big Black River was crossed at 
7 P. M., but in consequence of the road being literally choked 
with artillery, ammunition and supply trains belonging to troop* 
in front, the regiment could not move more than 200 yards at 
a time, and at midnight when it went into camp it had gained 
only four miles. Our artillery threw shells in front, and to 
the right and left of the road, as the advance marched on to 
near the late battle field of Champion Hills. And in a short 
distance the sharp crack of the riMes, with an occasional cannon 
accompaniment betokened that the advance guard had come up 
with the enemy, whose retreat was stubborn. The tactics were 
to delay our army as much as possible without loss to them- 
selves. No commander knew better how to do this than Gen. 
•lor Johnston. At 5 P. M. the regiment bivouacked on the west 
side of a dry creek at Bolton. Several of our men were sun- 
struck to-day. 

The following is a copy of a real gem of Confederate poetry 
of war times, cut from The Daily Mississippian of June 20, '63, 
which was taken from a Confederate mail, captured at Bolton 
Station, July 5, '63, before the ink was scarcely dry on the pa- 
per in which it was published. 

Siege oe Vicksburg. 

Many a Yankee shot and shell, 
And musket-ball and grape, pell-mell, 
Has swept o'er Vicksburg, yet she stands, 
"A fortress formed to Freedom's hand." 
That motley crew of soulless dust, 
Who only in their numbers trust — 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V 1. 105 

Who came for plunder and for spoil, 

And would be rich by others' toil, 

Are taught at Vicksburg how the brave 

Of every land their country save. 

The cowards see one effort made, 

Then swap the musket for the spade; 

And now as crawfish delve in mud, 

They toil to change the river's flood. 

Degraded fools ! Ye quail to meet 

A human foe, yet dare compete 

With God; but vain your impious blow. 

To change the river in its liow. 

Go, stop the planets in their flight, 

Arrest the moon, make darkness bright ; 

Find honest men with Yankee sires ; 

Freeze thickest ice in hottest fires, 

And then I grant you may do more. 

And change the Mississippi's flow ! 

Back, cowards! to your frigid zone, 

This land is for the brave alone, 

Bequeathed to us by noble sires, 

Why come ye here, where Freedom's fires 

Most brightly burn? By nature slaves, 

Our earth belits not for your graves ; 

Nor can your blood enrich the soil 

You come to plunder and despoil. 

All Southern flowers refuse to grow 

Where Yankee blood is made to flow ; 

The Southern rose would cease to bloom, 

If planted near a Yankee's tomb; 

The sweet magnolia, in its pride, 

When touched by Yankee hands has died. 

Back, plunderers, back! 'tis God's decree — 

This land was never made for thee ; 

Her free born sons, with hearts to feel 

Their country's wrong, will never yield 

While one is left to bear on high 

The glorious flag of liberty! 

Her matrons and her maidens fair, 

Who wrought the flag her soldiers bear, 

Will form in line-of- battle when 

Her hopes grow dim for want of men ! 

And rather than see Freedom's horn 

.Surrendered up to Yankeedom, 

Will perish one by one in strife, 

All reckless of the dastard's knife. 

Barbarians, yui strive in vain 



166 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

To fix on us your hated chain ; 

Think not because so lightly worn 

By you, it can by us be borne. 

Not so ; the eagle spurns the cell 

Wherein the Jackdaw loves to dwell — 

Will perish on his native rock, 

Of hunger die, rather than flock 

With meaner birds of base descent, 

That nibble in their cage content. 

If so the eagle, why not we 

Have right to choose our company? 

And rather die in battle's shock 

Then mingle with the Yankee flock 

Of hypocrits and galley-slaves, 

Of vulgar snobs and publi • knaves. 

What, call the eagle from his flight. 

To nestle with the geese at night. 

And bid him quit his mountain-peak. 

With barn-yard birds a mate to seek? 

'Twere better far to lay him low 

In death than thus degrade him so. 

To force a Christian soul to dwell 

In common with the fiends of hell , 

Constrained to taste each bitter cup. 

Intended for the damned to sup, 

Would seem as much like Heaven's decree 

As Yankee's rule among the free. 

The above shows how the Southern leaders deceived then- 
army. 



J 

Bolton Station, Mississippi, July 8th and 9th, 1868. 

Soon after going in camp last night, the traditional cloud. 
Qot larger than a hand, assumed mammoth proportions, and 
at once proceeded to deluge Bolton, and by morning the 
creek was filled to overflowing, so that although orders had 
been issued to move at 4 A. M., it was impossible to do so be- 
fore 5 P. M., from which hour it was continued until 2 A. M. 
of the 9th. During the night of the 9th, Comrade Regan died 
of typhoid fever in the Regimental Ambulance, and was buried 
before breakfast. The troops suffered greatly on this march 
for water. There were no water courses on our road, the cis- 
terns were not large, and the supply of the plantations had 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 167 

been accumulated in ponds. As the forces of General John- 
ston retreated they threw the offal of the slaughtered cattle 
and dead hogs into the ponds, and in some instances had 
driven cattle into them and shot them to contaminate the 
water and make it undrinkable. In the hot sun and water 
decomposition b c, gan quickly, and when the Union Army reach- 
ed the polluted ponds they would he covered with green scum 
and alive with maggots. Where it was possible to do so. the 
corpses were drawn out, and the water used ; at other places 
the troops suffered, but abstained from drinking. At one 
place, .in a small grove were some springs, in which men. 
horses and dogs all drank, regardless of position, or rank, or 
mud, or vessel. Tim horses and mules appeared to suffer evrm 
more than the men. as was apparent from the cases of sun- 
stroke, blind staggers and exhaustion among them. In the 
vicinity of the train camp the plain was almost covered with 
their dead carcasses. The writer was sunstruck here. But 
Sherman was not to lie diverted from the advance in this 
manner. 

July 9, '63. We discovered the enemy was retreating to- 
ward Jackson, leaving behind their cattle, hogs and sheep, 
which were first killed and then thrown into the stagnant 
pools, wherever there was any water to putrify, and if pos- 
sible make the Yankees sick. The weather was intensely hot 
and there were several men, horses and mules sunstruck. We 
Skirmished with the enemy a good part of the day. 

On the morning of the 10th, the brigade moved at 7 A. M., 
the 47th in the advance, on the road leading directly from 
Clinton to Jackson. When within about one and one-half 
miles from Jackson, it was compelled to form in line of battle, 
and Gompany K, under .Captain Haltenhof, was deployed for- 
ward as skirmishers. Commanding the road was an excellent 
earthwork garrisoned by the Confederates, in which was a 
sixty-four pounder rifled gun, which was well served and open- 
ed as our troops came into sight. Almost the first shot from 
it killed Lieutenant Adams of the Parrot battery, then attach- 
ed to the Third Brigade. The 4th West Virginia went into line 
to the left of the 47th, and 80th and 37th Ohio formed the 
second line about one-quarter of a mile to the rear. The line 



168 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 



of battle was advanced to within 800 to 1200 yards of the Con- 
federate works, halted, and laid down behind the crown of a 
very slight ridge, which the heavy shower of shells thrown at 
the line never failed to strike, and from which they ricocheted 
in the most harmless manner over the troops We built breast 
works last night and got the artillery in position. We lav all 
day in the scorching heat of the sun with very little water. 

General Sherman in command of the entire army realized 
the importance of establishing a reputation as a careful and 
cautious commander, and consequently, no bayonet charges 
were ordered, nor were rapid advances permitted. It looked as 
though he had determined on long range firing and siege oper- 
ations; the line of investment was extended on either side of 
the city to Pearl River. 



BATTLE OF JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI. 

July 11, '63. There is some artillery firing in our front to- 
day. There was no infantry engagements. Only slight skir- 
mishing. It was extremely hot throughout the day and rained 
in the evening. Water very scarce and hardly fit to use. 

July 11 and 12, '63. At 10 A. M. on the 11th in pursuance 
of orders, with a detail, Major Taylor finished digging a rifle pit 
for the regiment. It was 300 feet long, and four feet deep; five 
feet wide at the bottom, and six at the top. The excavated 
earth formed an ample and secure parapet. An outbuilding 
in front was torn down, and the material used as far as neces- 
sary in a banquette for the pit. The whole work was completed 
by 3:30 P. M. During the work Sergeant Kelly of Company 1 
was mortally wounded. The quarters for officers and men were 
constructed so as to be bomb proof. 

At 8:20 A. M. of the 12th. Sunday, a terrifnc artillery duel 
opened and maintained with great fury for an hour. Unexplod- 
ed shells and pieces of shells exploded in the sky ; also spherical 
case and solid shot struck the works almost like hailstones, 
throwing the earth in clouds, while other missiles, shrieking to 
every conceivable key of the gamut, went out into the country 
to find lodgment. One of them cut off an oak sappling about 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 169 

six inches in diameter, to which the horses of the field officers 
of the 47th were tied, and as it toppled over, they quickly spread 
apart for it. and then browsed on its houghs One large gun 
from some cause, upset a great many of its shells, which then 
started on their erratic course with an indescribable scream, 
and another sent its shafts of death abroad with a locomotive 
'Choo-choo-choo, Choo-choo-choo." During this roaring enter- 
tainment, which was kept up an hour, one man, a member of 
Company C, the only man of the entire regiment who was struck, 
ami he was not disabled. Throughout the remainder of the day 
scarcely a shot was fired by the Confederates, although working 
details were engaged in plain view, finishing our redoubts. This 
artillery practice was renewed and continued daily by the 
Confederates about oif hour, Their guns were well served, 
but sheltered as the Union army were, the result was very few 
wviv injured by them. The weather was extremely hot in the 
trenches during the day. 

July 15, '63. Our artillery is shelling the city of Jackson to- 
day heavily. 

The Union batteries under orders, fired from each gun alter- 
nately every five minutes. This made the cannonade incessant 
on our part, and most galling to the enemy. 

Our provisions are getting very scarce. One of our wagons 
was sent out to-day to get a load of roasting ears, which were 
issued out to the regiment. The extreme heat still continues. 



SIEGE OF JAGKSON, MISSISSIPPI. 

July 14, '63. This morning a brisk skirmish firing was com- 
menced in our front, and about noon made its appearance on 
Fort Johnston This is the largest fort on the whole Confed- 
erate lin°, and is immediately in our front and commands the 
road that our corps came in on. When this white Hag was 
hoisted the firing ceased for some time, for the purpose of 
burying the dead that was killed on our right, on Sunday last 
in a charge made by our men. There was brisk tiring of mus- 
ketry and artillery after the Hag was taken down. The extreme 
heat continues, and the water scarce and bad. We are as 



170 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

T — " 

close to the enemies' works, as we can get unless we charge or dig 
approaches. 

Under orders. Major Taylor with General Hugh Ewing, in- 
spected the correspondence of Jefferson Davis, made selections 
therefrom on the required lines, and forwarded it to the War 
Department, that the complicity of Northern men with him in 
t lie great treason might be ascertained. 

Life in our camp had once more settled down to the daily 
routine of the siege. Everybody adapted himself to it. Our 
dispositions as they developed themselves, made the wary 
Johnston believe that he had tarried in Jackson as long as pru- 
dence would permit. 

Siege of Jackson Mississippi. 

July 15, '63. Our artillery kept up a steady fire all of lasl 
night, and to-day also on the Confederate Capital of Mississippi 
and their works in our front. The Confederate artillery opened 
on us about 10 o'clock A. M. and threw some 30 pound shells 
but did us no damage as we are behind our strong earth works. 
Our batteries under orders fired from each gun alternately every 
five minutes. This made the cannonade incessant on our side 
but most galling to the Confederates. Life in our camp had 
once more settled down to the daily routine of the siege. 

July 16, '63. The Confederate General, Johnston, was hoping 
that scarcity of water would induce Sherman to exhaust himself 
in assaults, but he soon found that Sherman had other intentions 
and one of Johnston's intercepted telegrams w r as (if the enemy 
will not attack, we must at the last moment withdraw, we can- 
not attack seriously without risking our entire army.) All 
this time we were getting closer to theConfederate intrenchments 
using sharp-shooters and artillery with good effect, and on 
this date received a fresh supply of ammunition. 

The Retreat of the Confederate Army under Joe Joanston. 

July 17, '63. This morning at the break of day a white flag 
was seen floating on Fort Johnston in our front. We were im- 
mediately ordered to fall into ranks, and we marched into 
Jackson. The Confederate Army under Joseph E. Johnston 
having evacuated the place sometime last night. They fired 



History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 171 

the finest square in the town, which was nearly all burned 
by the time of our arrival, which was shortly after sun rise. 

Our regiment passed Fort Johnston, within three- 
quarters of a mile from the State House. We marched up 
main street to within a hundred yards of the State House, 
where we stacked arms, and was soon again called, and fell in 
line and marched into the State House yards, (so Captain H. 0. 
Pugh says,) and by orders of General Ewing was accorded the 
honor of placing the flag of the division on the State Capitol 
building of Mississippi. 

The Major says. On the night of the 16th about 11 P. M., 
there was much cheering and whistling of locomotives, and 
playing of bands in the city. The music, the "Bonnie Blue 
Flag' 1 and "Dixie" were well rendered and much enjoyed even 
by our troops. Soon the number of camp-fires began to in- 
crease. It was the same old ruse, and did not decieveany one. 
In a little while a fire began in the city. That confirmed the 
story of the evacuation, although they worked it well and 
caused the fire alarm to be sounded at 3 A. M. The skirmish 
line was pressed forward by the Major, who had command in 
front of the Third Brigade. The fort on the Clinton road was 
cautiously approached and found to be evacuated. The color 
of the 47th were placed upon it, but without delay the advance 
was continued on the double-quick into the city. There were 
enough Confederate troops on the street along which the Major 
passed with his color guard and a few troops to have cap- 
tured the entire force, but they simply wore a surprised look as 
though they had been left by the subsidence of a wave, or the 
retreat of the main body. It was then a test of speed between 
the .respective commands of the Union army to be the first to 
hang its colors from the dome of the State House ; but as the 
Major reached the square, he beheld a flag of the 9th Army 
Corps floaingfrom the dome, and the "Yankee Corps," as it was 
called, had won the race. It made no difference at that time 
that they had had a shorter space to cover; there was their fiag, 
and the chagrin of our little squad was bitter. However, Gen. 
Sherman took the start and the distance into consideration, as 
well as the closeness of the race, and the Third Brigade, 2nd 
Division, 15th Army Corps was ordered to cam]) in the State 



172 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

House yard, and have immediate charge of the city. Colonel 
Parry of the 47th was appointed Provost Marshal, and Major 
Taylor, Assistant, which was ample recognition. 

Company K of the 47th was at once detailed as a patrol, 
with instructions to prevent pillaging and the destruction of 
property. When the Union Army entered the city, the fire 
was raging furiously, and an old Irishwoman standing on a 
pile of rescued household goods, said, as the 47th passed by her: 

"Yez done it before, but they done it this time." The wind 
blew almost a gale, and the cinders were carried by it a long 
distance. The heat became so great that at one time the 
danger of explosions of fixed ammunition was imminent, and 
our efforts were concentrated to prevent it. The entire brig- 
ade was called to work, but the fire was not under control 
until after dinner. 

On July 17, '63, the headquarters of the 47th occupied the 
offices of the Treasurer and Auditor of State. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Wallace in command of the regiment. Colonel A. C. 
Parry was the Provost-Marshal, and so remained during the 
occupancy of the city of Jackson by the Union Army, and 
Captain H. D Pugh, of Company I, was in charge of the State 
Library. About this time a part of the regiment was sent to 
guard the Confederate prisioners. About noon the prisoners 
were taken away by other guards, we suppose to Vicks- 
burg, Miss. The Confederates have burned a good many build- 
ings, some of which, obstructed the range of their guns, and 
some contained supplies which they could not move. There 
were several men killed and wounded by the explosion of tor- 
pedoes, which the enemy had planted in the roads and streets 
of the city. The fire in the city is so great that it is 
almost entirely destroyed. There was so much sugar destroy- 
ed that molasses or melted sugar ran down the gutters and 
alleys nearly shoe top deep. 

July 18, '63 Jackson, Miss. The Confederate Capitol of 
the State of Mississippi is in ruins. We are destroying every- 
thing that might be of any use to the enemy, and many of the 
people who remained here, and whose homes have been destroy- 
ed are being assisted in the way of provisions, by order of Gen- 
eral Sherman. 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 178 

July 19, '63. We are still at Jackson, Mississippi, destroy- 
ing the Confederate Forts and Fortifications, and we received 
orders to get dinner and bn ready to go on fatigue duty 
at 12 M. We went to Fort Johnston to destroy it. We cut 
open all the cotton bales we could find and set them on fire 
in and around the Fort. There was a sixty-four pound gun 
left there by the enemy, that had been disabled soon after our 
arrival in their front, and as they could not move it, they left 
it here. It seems we can't move the gun. We built a large fire 
around it and burned the carriage. 

While here destroying Fort Johnston there came near being 
several accidents. Some of our mem were scattered around 
at work, and the Confederates had powder strewn over a 
large space of ground the fire caught in the leaves and in this 
powder and burned one man in Company I nearly to death. 
We had just thrown away some loaded shells which saved 
many lives. 

On Sunday we were ordered to destroy the fortifications, to- 
gether with everything which could be used by the enemy. 
Under this order at least 800 bales of cotton were burned. 
When used in the construction of embrasures they were cover- 
ed with green hides, and if in the parapets of rifle pits and other 
works were covered with earth. To burn the bales thus bur- 
ied a very small portion of the top was uncovered and a coal 
of fire dropped upon the bale ; once started, the fire continued 
until the covering of earth over it was a mere shell. Several 
freight cars were also burned, gun carriages were destroyed, and 
cannons rendered unservicable, and the command also battered 
down the piers of the railroad bridge across Pearl River. 

Incident of the Seige and Capture of Jackson, Mississippi. 

Comrade William Bakhouse, Company C relates the following r 
After the surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, '03, the troops, which 
had duty there during the siege, immediately took up their line 
of march toward Jackson, the capitol of the State. It did not 
take but a few days for the boys to induce Johnston to evacuate 
the town, and early one July morning the Yankees marched 
in over the breastworks, which had been so lately filled with a 
relentless foe. There was not much left in the city forthe boya 



171 History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 



bo scramble over, for this was its second capture, and between 
the two jinnies which had occupied it alternately, during the 
previous three months, there was but little left which would 
tempt the cupidity of even a hungry soldier; Among the first 
troops to enter the city on the morning after its evacuation by 
the Confederates, was the Second Brigade. Second Division. 
Fifteenth Army Corps, commanded then by General hit-lit hum. 
The first thing the boys went for was something to eat. and it 
is needless to say that every nook and corner was looked into 
for this purpose. 

As Gen. Lightburn was passing along one of the main streets 
he saw a large crowd of soldiers around the front door of a frame 
building, which had apparently been nsad asastore. Recogniz- 
ing at a glance that they belonged to the same command as 
himself, mixed in with them and made his way to the inside 
of the building there found several of his own mess busily en- 
gaged in filling haversacks, buckets, tincups, rubber blankets, 
in fact, everything that could be utilized for the purpose, with 
something they had found in a back room in barrels 

Hello! Boys, what have you found? was the query. "Why 
here is three or four barrels of buckwheat flour, and we are 
going t<> have some buckwheat cakes for dinner." "All right, I 
will he there t<» help you eat them." And the waiter, knowing 
that his mess was well represented in the crowd went his way in 
search of camp. Not long after getting to camp the boys began 
to come in with their buckwheat flour ; many of them had thrown 
away what little hardtack they had for the purpose of making 
room for the flour, and soon a busy scene presented itself in 
that camp. All manner of vessels were pressed into use to mix 
the batter; some few were fortunate enough to own a frying 
pan, while many had to devise other means, which was done 
by using flat rocks, pieces of tin or sheet iron. The hoys 
in their haste to get their buckwheat cakes ready for dinner 
(the writer will not deny that he was among the number) 
who puzzled their brains for some means by which the slapjacks 
could be quickly fixed, for a buckwheat cake was a delicacy of 
which he had not partaken since '61. Being well acquainted 
.it headquarters he soon had possession of a frying pan by 
promising the colored cook enough buckwheat flour for a mess 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 175 

of cakes. The batter was soon mixed up in the lower half of a 
gallon jug, the top of which had been broken off for convenience 
and for further reason that there was nothing to put in the jug. 
All of the boys were happy in the expectation of a royal feast. 
One of the boys volunteered to do the cooking, the frying pan 
was greased and a goodly supply of batter poured in. We all 
waited patiently for the pile of buckwheat cakes, which we im- 
agined we should have. Presently, an expression which sounded 
like "d — n it, "came from the cook. "What is the matter, "some 
one asked. "Oh, nothing, only the d — d stuff don't get brown 
like mother's used to, and don't seem to want to bake at all. 
"Never mind; it will be all right as soon as it gets hot 
enough. Give it time." In vain the hottest part of the fire 
was sought after and used. The stuff would not bake. Each 
one in turn took the frying pan and tried their hand, but it 
was no use. About this time an old Jackson darkey sauntered 
up to the hungry group, and the boys, having an idea that all 
darkies knew how to cook, said : 

"Here, uncle, come and show us how to bake slapjacks out 
of your d— d Southern buckwheat flour,for we can't bake them." 
The old darkey took the pan, looked at it for a full minute, and 
then asked: "Whar you all git datar flour from." "Downtown 
in a store house," was the answer. A broad grin began to 
spread over his countenance as he looked from one to the other, 
and he finally said : 

"I 'spect you all done got fooled if you thought dat ar stuff 
was flour, it tain't nothin' but some plaster of paris dat some 
Italians was a makin' pictures of Jeff Davis and all dem oder 
big fellers out of fer to sell to de ladies. No, no, honey, don't 
you tink dat the Confederates would go away and leab so much 
good stuff behind, kase dey hain't got more'n dey want dem- 
selvep. yah; yah; I guess you yankees got fooled dis time." 
The truth then began to dawn upon the boys and as they looked 
at one another the expression of their countenance seemed to 
•say: "If you ever tell this it will be the death of you." 

The joke was too good to keep, and it was not long until it 
was common property. But none of that mess has aver had 
the nerve to write it up. 

There is no doubt similar scenes were enacted in other parts 



£76 History or the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

of the camp, for the writer knows that at least two barrels of 
that plaster of pariswas carried off for buckwheat flour in the 
47th. 

July 20 to 22, "<>3. Jackson Miss. Issolating^ Jackson. We 
have been busy dismantling the town, and we have destroyed 
all we cannot move, or everything that would be of use to the 
enemy. We have torn up all the railroads completely and bat- 
tered dm\ n I he bridge piers across Pearl River, and we have done 
everything we could do to cut off the city of Jackson from the 
rest of the so-called Confederacy, and we think we have been 
successful in isolating the place. Badeau says that General 
Sherman indicted a loss on Johnston of 71 killed. 504 wounded 
and nearly 21000 prisoners, and in the entire series of battles 
culminat tng in the capture of Vicksburg the losses were : 

Union forces killed. l,24S. 
Wounded 7.<> ( .)5. 

Missing 535 

8,873 
Confederate forces — surrender of Vicksburg, 32,000 

Captured at Champion Hills- 3,000 

Captured at Big Black River 2,000 

Captured at Port Gibson 2,000 

Killed and wounded 10.000 

Stragglers 3,000 

Grand total 52.000 

We have helped to split the Confederacy in two parts, and have 
opened the Mississippi River or the Fat her of Waters. Add to 
this the immense destruction to railroad property, steamers, 
cotton. etc.. besides arms and amunition for an a r my of 100,000 
men. and some idea can be formed of the extent of the material 
loss to the enemy, but to accomplish this we have labored hard 
andsuffered many hardships incident to the long sieges we have 
just passed through, from January to the present time. There 
are rumors of marching orders in camp. 

Leaving Jackson, Mississippi. 

The work of destruction having been completed, on the morn- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 177 

ing of the 23rd, at 3 A. M., the army started on the return 
march, presumably to Vicksburg, over the road by which the 
division had advanced. 

We marched to Clinton Station, about ten miles, and went in- 
to camp early in the day, and remained there all night. The 
heat and dusty roads was severe. Water very scarce. Some of our 
men who were badly wounded at Jackson we carried on stretch- 
ers, and if we carry them to Vicksburg it will be forty-six miles. 
We went in camp for the night near Clinton Station, Miss. 

July 24, '63. There was roll call this morning at 3 A. M., and 
we started on our march towards Vicksburg shortly after day- 
light, and marched a short distance and came to a halt. We 
were delayed there about one hour by the train. About this 
time our pickets were run in some Confederate Cavalry, but the 
rear guards soon made the Confederates retreat. 

Companies H and K formed the rear guard under the command 
of Major Taylor, and learned from actual experience that in 
midsummer when each army is moving rearward the principal 
work of the rear guard is to pick up stragglers, and put the men 
overcome with heat in wagons. 

We marched through Bolton about noon and went into camp 
at the same place that we camped coming from Vicksburg 
to capture Jackson. In this camp we had plenty of roasting 
ears and peaches from the plantation of Joseph Davis. This 
man is a brother of Jeff Davis, the arch traitor. Their planta, 
tions joins here, near Bolton Station, Mississippi. 

July 25, '63. Near Bolton Station, Miss. This morning we 
had roll call 20 minutes after 12 o'clock in the night and left 
camp on our march towards Vicksburg soon after 2 o'clock and 
marched six miles before daylight. We then marched on to 
the Big Black River, near Messenger's Ferry. We then crossed 
the river and rested a half hour, then marched some four or five 
miles farther towards Vicksburg, and went into camp in a piece 
of woods near the roadside. 

Our march back to this place has been a comparatively light 
one and the boys stood it well ; the loss of life in the Jackson 
campaign has been small, especially in our division; the Con- 
federates seem to have lost their grit. This camp is on Fox's 
plantation. 



17s History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

July 26, '63. To-day we were ordered to put up our tents 
and informed that we would remain here for a rest. Our com- 
manding General, W. T. Sherman, says we have earned a recrea- 
tion and we shall have it. This place is to be called Camp Slur- 
man, and looks liki\s it is well chosen for health and comfort 
and supplies can easily be obtained by railroads from Vicksburg. 
Hear that we will remain here a month or more during the hot 
weather. 

Our Corps (the Fifteenth) has been under the command of 
Major-General Frederick Steele. Our Division (the Second) un- 
der the command of Major-General Frank P. Blair, Jr., and our - 
Brigade under the command of Brigadier-General Hugh Ewing 
Our regiment lost only one man during the Jackson campaign 
The Brigade lost one killed and four wounded. Our Division 
lost a total in killed and wounded and missing of twenty-three 
men The loss of the Fifteenth Army Corps was eighty men. 
The total loss of the army in the Jackson campaign is 1,123. 

If the Confederates had fought us as stubbornly at Jackson 
as they did at Vicksburg, our loss would have been greater. The 
figures given are from official reports, War Department in Vol. 
24, Part 2, Pages 549 and 550. 

July 27 to 29 '63. At Camp Sherman, Miss. We are busy 
cleaning and arranging our camp and trying to make things 
look neat and as comfortable and healthful as possible, as we 
learn we are to remain here for some time. The First Division 
of our Corps is encamped with us here, and the Third Division is 
at Bear Creek . The Fourth Division is at Messengers Ford oir Big 
Black River. Our camping ground is a delightful one. We 
have plenty of shade, and the rolling nature of the 
grounds make the question of drab-age a trifling one. We are 
scarce of water and will be unless we dig wells. We have to 
carry water from a large spring. Colonel Taylor says of this 
canp as follows; 

Between the 47th regiment and its headquarters was a marshy 
jungle, almost impenetrable at the time we went into camp, 
which was cleared out and thoroughly drained, and the side slopes 
evenly graded. Broad avenues with rustic bridges were built 
across this, and it was transformed into a highly ornamental 
spot of ground. To the right of the headquarters, on a ridge 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 179 



bounded l>y an open field on the south, the hospital was placed 
under some magnificent live oaks festooned with moss. Ovens 
were also constructed, the bakers were detailed, flour was drawn, 
and soon the 47th was increasing its hospital fund through the 
earnings of its bakery. It sold fresh bread, pies and cakes to 
the whole division besides furnishing soft bread for the 
regiment. Captain Helmrich was placed in charge of the bakery 
department, and Mr. Ackerman, of Company D was chief baker, 
assisted by John Harding, Company D. 

The 47th through its Council of Administration, assessed the 
sutler five per cent per month on his average business to June 
30th, and received from this source $222.70. It checked up the 
Quartermaster and Commissary Departments by the actual 
requisitions, and compelled the officer in charge to pay cash for 
l.he rations undrawn, and this with the income from the bakery 
and the daily savings of the companies from their rations, con- 
stituted the company regimental and hospital fund. This 
fund was used to purchase vegetables and fruit for the hospital 
and the respective companies. 

Mrs General Sherman spent the month of August in camp, 
and almost daily visited the hospitals of the army corps. Her 
visits were an inspiration to the sick, and her words were "like 
apples of gold in pictures of silver," and were treasured up by 
the men who heard them as benedictions. Every sick soldier 
thought her jellies were finer, and the fruit she brought better 
than that which came from any other source. 

July 30, '63. Camp Sherman, Mississippi. This afternoon 
our regiment was formed into line, and marched over to reg- 
imental headquarters to witness the presentation of a sword by 
the officials of our regiment to Colonel A. C. Parry. 

Organszation of the Fifteenth Army Corps was as follows : 
Our Corps was constituted December 22, '62, but known January 
4 to 12. '63, as the Second Army Corps of the Mississippi. 

General W. T. Sherman assumed command January 5, 63. 
It consisted of two Divisions. The First Division formerly 
known as the Eleventh Division Army of the Tennesse 
under Brigadier-General Frederick Steele. Of three brigades 
under the command of Brigadier-General Frank P. Blair, Jr. 
Brigadier-General Charles E. Hovey and Brigadier-General 



180 HrsroRy op tub 47th REGKMExr, O. V. V. I. 

John M. Thayer. The artillery of the division was First Iowa 
Battery, Second Missouri Battery, Fourth Ohio Battery, and 
cavalry Third Illinois (Kane County Company) and Tenth 
Missouri Company C. The Second Division commanded by 
Brigadier-General David Stewart (of three brigades) command- 
ed by Colonel Giles A. Smith and Colonel T. Kirby Smith and 
Brigadier- General Hugh Ewing. Artillery Companies A, B and 
H, First Illinois and Eighth Ohio Battery Cavalry, Thielemans. 
Illinois. These two divisions contained in aggregate present 
and absent 23,477 men and 36 pieces of artillery. 

Our Corps, the Fifteenth, now consists of four divisions, and 
are commanded by Brigadier-General Elias S. Denis and Brig- 
adier-General J. A. J. Lightburn and Brigadier General J. M. 
Tattle anb Brigadier-General Hugh Ewing. The Third Division 
was formerly the Eighth Division, Army of the Tennessee; the 
Fourth Division was First Division Sixteenth Army Corps. 
Each division consists of three brigades and its complement of 
artillery and cavalry, and our total number present and absent 
is 36,748 men with 58 pieces of artillery. Our brigade (the 
Third Second Division) commanded by Brigadier-General J. 
A. J. Lightburn consists of the following regiments. 

Thirtieth Ohio, commanded by Colonel Theodore Jones. 

Thirty-seventh Ohio, commanded by Colonel Edward Siber. 

Fourty-seventh Ohio, by Colonel Augustis C. Parry. 

Fourth Virginia commanded by Colonel James H. Dayton. 

Cavalry Thielemans (Illinois Battalion) Companies A and B 
commanded by Captain Miles Thielman. 

Tenth Missouri Company C, Captain Daniel \V. Ballon. 

Artillery, First Illinois Light Battery A, Captain Peter P. 
Wood. 

First Illinois Light Battery B, Captain Samuel F. Barrett, 

First Illinois Light Battery H, Lieutenant Levi W. Hart. 

Eighth Ohio Battery, Captain James F. Putnam. 

The above corrected by referring to Official Reports War De- 
partment in Volume 24, Part 3, Page 568 and Volume 24 Pages 
152 and 153, Part 2 and Volume 17, Part 2 Pages 432, 461, 534 
and 564. 

July 31 to August 9, '63. Camp Sherman, Mississippi. Com- 
rade William Bakhaus, Company C,says this of Camp Sherman, 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 181 

after the capture of Vicksburg and Jackson in '03 while Genera) 
Grant and his victorious army were resting in their laurels and 
bunks made of cane poles and barrel staves. Reviews were held 
day after day in Camp Sherman, on the Big Black River, some 
twelve mil^s in the rear of Vicksburg, Mississippi. He says. 

Every day some other General wanted a review. Most of the 
officers had their wives and children comedown from the North 
for a visit, and for the benefit of these poeple, especially the 
children, we were trotted around an 800 acre field frequently for 
the amusement of these visitors, who enjoyed the magnificent, 
sight of 80,000 men of all branches of the service, marching with 
bands playing and colors flying. But the actors on this Great 
Stage did some tall grumbling and did not ask them to come 
again. The usual camp duties, such as drilling, Camp Police or 
Camp Guard, Picket Duty, etc. Weather very hot and frequent, 
rains. 

The trouble with this camp was the water supply. Finally 
a mule was given to two companies, and barrels were issued, and 
carts improvised and the water was hauled. This oc- 
cupied ten men in each regiment daily. The water was always 
very warm. The regiments began to dig wells. Two companies 
would unite and dig a well about forty feet deep, butthew r ater 
was not good, neither was the supply adequate. Major Taylor, 
then commanding the regiment, concluded to concentrate its 
entire labor upon one well, and sink it to the level of the river. 
The details were made, and the work began on the 18th of August, 
and was completed on the 8th of September. This proved the 
grandest improvement of the camp. It at once dispensed with 
the purchase of ice at ten cents per pomid, as the water was not 
only most excellent, but cold. The well was 100 feet deep, and 
the supply of water was ample for the division and highly ap- 
preciated by it. 

Another improvement which made the 47th conspicuous, was 
a "Camp Meeting Ground," where regular old-fashioned Camp 
Meeting services were held. Old Peter Cartwright never presided 
over more spiritual Camp Meetings than were held at that place. 
Day and night, the old woods rang with the "anthems of the 
free" or the blessed. Some striking conversions were enjoyed, 
among which were two brothers in Company A who lived con- 



182 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



sistent Christian lives throughout the remainder of the service. 
Occasionally when the assembled chaplains would seem dispos- 
ed to run all night, about midnight, the Major would send the 
officer of the guard with a patrol to them to shut them off. 
This was a grand feature. It prevented homesickness; it con- 
sumed the leisure, and produced contentment and subordination. 
The soldiers who attended Camp Meeting never occupied the at- 
tention of Court Martials. 

August 10 to 11, '63. Camp Sherman, Mississippi. To-day 
the regiment by general order marched to Black River to have 
a general wash of the men and their clothing. All had to go 
unless they were excused by the Regimental Surgeon. Orders 
were also read to the regiment that hereafter there will be 
daily squad drill and skirmish drill from time to time, as also 
brigade drill. 

August 12 to September21, '63. We remained at Camp Sher- 
man, Mississippi, inactive, nothing of importance happening. 
The usual monotony of camp life and duties, such as drilling 
and reviews and inspection from time to time to see after the 
cleanliness of the men. Camp police and camp guard we have 
very little to do and if it was not so very hot we could enjoy 
ourselves, that is those who are w> 11, but our hospital is quite 
full with the sick, and many of those are being sent to their 
homes in the north on furloughs. 

During the summer camp, General Hugh Ewing passed from 
the Third Brigade to the command of the Fourth Division of 
15th Army Corps. This was not otily in recognition of his 
bravery, but on account of the gallantry of the brigade. Col- 
onel Seibert, of the 37th Ohio having returned, assumed com- 
mand of the brigade. He was a very strict disciplinarian, and 
approached very closely to the martinet. He issued a barbarous 
order in regard to servants. The officers of the 47th did not 
observe it, and at one time, only four officers, including Major 
Taylor, who was in command, remained for duty, the others, 
not on leave of absence, being under arrest. Major Taylor re- 
fused to concede the point. The officers could not be convicted 
because of the grammatical construction placed upon the order. 
After two weeks of solid rest for the officers un der arrest, the 
order was modified, the brigade commander reconciled, the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 18H 

swords returned to their owners, and the officers restored to 
duty 

During this season of rest from battle, drilling in every form 
from the school of the soldier to the drill by divisions, and week- 
ly reviews by the Army Corps, were held. Work began with 
guard mounting at 8 \. M., and it closed with dress parade at 
6 P. M. The dicipline was very strict. No memberof the 47th 
appeared on brigade drill without his blouse and his cap. No 
hats were permitted. On review as on dress parade, shoes were 
polished, and collars and gloves were worn, and°very man looked 
as though he had ' 'just come out of a bandbox. ' ' The regimental 
standard was likewise of the usual pattern. The United States 
Coat of arms was worked in chenille in the natural colors, and 
the legend, "E Pluribus Unum" in orange, and the number of 
the regiment, and the place of enlistment in a scroll of white, 
underneath. They were richly trimmed with gold bullion 
fringe, and superbly mounted Upon each staff was a silver 
plate upon which was engraved the legend "Presented to the 
47th Ohio Volunteer Infantry by C. F. Wilstach," who was 
the progenitor and patron of the regiment, and in its early life 
in Ohio, it had been called the "Wilstach Regiment." 

The regiment was formed in an open square under the grand 
old giants in front of the headquarters to receive the colors. 
The Colonel made a brief speech of presentation, which was re- 
plied to by Major Taylor, chairman of the committee on resnlu- 
tions, accepting the same on the proposed conditions, viz : "That 
they should be carried by the regiment in all its subsequent 
marches and battles, and at the end of its service returned to 
the donor with the evidence of its devotion to the Union em- 
blazoned thereon." The proper authorities having consented 
to this contract, it was entered into by the regiment on that 
day. It was a most solemn and impressive scene when the drum 
corps beat the ruffles, and the color bearers, Seargeants Henry 
Berk man of Company K and Joseph Sudborough of Company I 
stepped to the front to receive the standards from the hand of 
the Major, and every volunteer with uncovered head, pledged 
his sacred honor to "follow them, to defend them, if necessary 
bo die for them, and that the survivors would return them with 
an honorable record to their donor," and then it went to every 



184 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



heart, oh, so deeply, when even the monarchs of that old foresl . 
which until then had seemed to stand as silent and unconscious 
witnesses of the scene, registered that strong pledge of honor, 
through its long leafy arches, by re-echoing in almost thunder 
tones, their unanimous vote upon the adoption of the resolution, 

in exact words, 

"WE WILL." 
The Major was very proud of his command. He never went 
on brigade drill but that he won a compliment for his regiment, 
the same was ttf-ue as to the drill of division. At the Corps in- 
spection on September 2nd, after all the evolutions had been 
performed, General Sherman in his brief address, said : "Colonel 
Seibert, these are indeed regiments. You have the best brigade, 
in the Second Division. The best in the Fifteenth Army Corps, 
The best in the army. The men present a neat and clean ap- 
pearance and bear themselves as soldiers." Colonel Seibert, in 
his turn, complimented Major Taylor on "the splendid appear- 
ance of his men, their neatness, their uniformity in dress, their 
good behavior and soldierly bearing, and that it was the finest 
regiment in his brigade and as such entitled to hold its place 
on the right, although only commanded by a Major " Of course 
when the regimental commanders returned to their respective 
regiments, almost bursting with joy, they reported the compli- 
ments paid to their command, and as the march to camp was 
resumed, through pride every man stepped high. 

While in command, Major Taylor took up the question of 
the detail to the Mountain Howitser battery. After the em- 
ployment of the battery to cover the retreat from the ditches 
around the Vicksburg fort, the howitsers under orders, of Gen- 
eral Sherman had been turned in to the Ordinance Depart- 
ment, but the men had been placed in the twenty-pounder 
Parrott battery, then under Captain Hall, afterwards the cele- 
brated DeGross battery. The Major insisted that "it was not 
right that the efficiency of an Illinois battery should be main- 
tained at the expense of an Ohio organization, that it was not 
just to employ Ohio's contingent to fill or maintain Illinois 
commands, and that their services were needed in their respec- 
tive companies to relieve their comrades from extra duty in 
their behalf." 



History of the 47th Regimext, 0. V. V. I. 185 

General Sherman said in reply that "this was a struggle 
for nationality ; not for Ohio or Illinois ; that when a volun- 
teer took the oath of a soldier, the State as to him was merged 
in the nation, and so long as he was attached to an organiza- 
tion in the National Army, the regiment was maintained, in 
which he had enlisted and he was in the performance of his 
sworn duty; that men should serve in the positions they were 
the best qualified to fill, and that as these were trained artil- 
lerists he would keep them in that battery during their respec- 
tive terms of service." This ended the correspondence, and 
thenceforth, the distinction and fame won by the DeGross Bat- 
tery, was in part earned and won by the 47th, because some, if 
not all of the most accurate and skillful gunners of that bat- 
tery belonged to the detail contributed by that regiment. 

Colonel Parry returned to duty from his leave of absence, 
and resumed command of the regiment on the 11th of September 
and Major Taylor and Captain Pugh were detailed upon a gen- 
eral Court Martial on the same day. 

Before Colonel Parry started away upon his ''leave, "he was 
presented by the officers of the regiment with an elegant sword. 
Captain W. H. Ward made the presentation speech. The 
speeches incident to the occasion cannot be given, but the jour- 
nal of that date, says "They were quite felicitious, and that with- 
out the aid of enlivening spirits, as there were none in camp." 

Another presentation of great moment occured on the 13th 
of September. The mayor of Cincinnati, C. F. Wilstach, sent 
a magnificent stand of colors by Colonel Parry to be presented 
to the regiment. The national flag was made of the regulation 
pattern and size, of heavy silk. 

September 22 to 26, '63. Camp Sherman, Mississippi. Our 
regiment was detailed on the 21st and on the 22nd we marched 
to Big Black River, where we remained until September 27th, on 
picket duty. We relieved the 83rd Indiana volunteers from that 
duty. Our duty was a strict picket duty to watch the Confed- 
erates. Relief came at last in the shape of marching orders 
We had received news of the disaster to our army at Chickamauga 
General Rosecrans, like Sheriden afterwards at Winchester, had 
made his famous ride, but General Rosecrans had not at 
Chickamauga. 



186 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. 1. 

September 27, '63. Last night Colonel A. C. Par**y received 
marching orders. We left Big Mack River at 2 A. M. and 
marched t<> ('amp Sherman, which we reached at daylight, and 
joined our brigade. We left Camp Sherman with the rest of 
the brigade at 7 A. M., arrived at Vicksburg at 5 P. M. and 
encamped below the town. The inarch of 20 miles was a hard 
one, 1 he day being very hot, the roads shoe-mouth deep in dust. 
Through it all we went and night found us a tired set of nun. 
A bath in the Mississippi River did us much good. Our sick 
were brought in' by railroad trains. Rumor says we go to 
Memphis, perhaps to help out Pap Thomas. 

September 28, '63. Vicksburg, Mississippi. We are on fa- 
tigue duty loading boats. Broke camp this morning and march- 
ed to the city of Vicksburg, and down to the levee where our 
regiment was set to work loading a steamboat (the Benjamin J. 
Adams) with provisions, camp equipage, wagons etc. Finished 
loading at dusk, and we then embarked on the steamer Benjamin 
J. Adams, and started up the Mississippi River. Rumer 
still says we go to Memphis, Tennessee, thence to re-enforce 
the army of tin' Cumberland. 

Incident Related by E. Delaney Company B. 

While at Vicksburg, Mississippi, after we were on the steam- 
boat to go to Memphis, Tennessee, I, with John Hall, of Com- 
pany I, and Fred Carper, of Company I, done the town up nice 
the night before we sailed. We had all the canteens we could 
carry full of commissaries. I had lived in Vicksburg before the 
war of '61, and knew how to get along. I was reported to Colonel 
Parry by some one in the city, but the Colonel laughed and said 
if his men were smart enough to fool those on duty he would 
not punish them. 

Hurricane Deck. Sutlers stores were coming in as fast as a 
bag of oats left the hold. Well, we had a good time by the smoke 
stack. The next morning when the Colonel arose he called 
for the snt Lei', Herman. When Herman came the Colonel told 
him to go and get some catawba. Heriman started for the hold 
or hatchway. Pretty soon he came back and said Oh, Colonel, 
1 am robbed of every thing I got. Why, how is that inquired 
Colonel Parry? Was the hatcliway broken open? No, no, says 



History of the 47th Kegiment O. V. V. I. 187 

Herman. Well, did you let anyone have the key? No, said 
Herman, but I unlocked it last night and let Lee Alguire get 
oats for the horses. The Colonel sent for Lee, and of course, he 
knew nothing about the affair and no one else knew and the 
matter passed off without any one being punished for it, and 
our sutler lost his whisky and wine. 

September 29, '63. Going up the Mississippi River. Snagged 
our boat last night. It began to rain and continued all night, 
and about 11 o'clock P. M. some where between Milligins Lend 
and Eagle Bend our boat run into a snag. The boat was not 
going very fast when it occured. We believe if it had been our 
boat would have gone under and all drowned. As it occured 
some one on the bow of the steamer gave warning by crying out 
•'We are running on a snag," it was too late to stop. The boat 
struck the snag, which caused some men to jump overboard and 
were drowned The snag passed over the bow of the boat, struck 
the snagging suspended in front of the boat, and passing through 
it, next struck the oak covering of the boat, tore through it and 
through the cabin floor, the point just grazing the hurricane roof. 
The snag broke, and the boat passed over it, and we went on our 
way. It was a very narrow escape for the regiment from drown 
ing. 

The part of the snag that remained in the boat was about 25 
feet long, and 18 inches thick in the thickest part, and it took 
considerable work to chop and take out the snags. When 
we struck the snag we were about one hundred yards from the 
shore, and nearly all of our regiment were asleep, promiscuously 
over the boat. This morning we ran on a sand bar. We 
stuck only a short time, and got off without any assistance. 
The boys congratulated themselves at their narrow escape from 
a watery grave. 

Description of the Benjamin J. Adams. 

We are on board of one of Commodore Elliott's marine fleet. 
The boilers are surrounded by square logs about 18 inches 
thick built up from the deck to the cabin floor and extended 
back far enough to protect the engine. This protection extends 
all around the boilers and engines, and also a space forward of 
thf boilers for the coal and firemen. On the edge of the boats 
guards are placed two upright walls of oak boards two inches 



188 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

thick and six inches apart. These reach to underneath the Hur- 
ricane deck and commencing at the wheel house runs along the 
guard until they pass the forecastle, when they cross the boat 
and extend down the opposite guards and ends at the wheel 
house. The boat in the rear of the wheel house is protected in 
the same manner leaving only the wheel house and bow unprotect- 
ed. The space between the boilers and the main deck is divided 
into two stories by another deck erected midway and running 
the entire length of the boat. On these decks are erected wooden 
bunks for the marines through the oak walls. 

On these decks are loop holes for rifle firing. Forward on the 
cabin deck are two Napoleon guns, 12 pounders. On the bow is a 
10 pounder Parrott gun. The protection is only bullet proof. 

September 30, '63. Still going up the river at a very slow- 
rate. Last night we lay part of the time three miles below 
Greenville Mississippi. The river is very low, and we fear 
everytime we pass a sand bar that we may stick. We have 
grounded twice since starting, in a distance of 1(30 miles; on 
October 1st we reached Napolem, Arkansas, at 10 A. M. and con- 
tinued up the river, and October 2nd passed Helena, Ark., and 
are still going very slowly up the Mississippi River. 

October 3, '63 Reached Memphis, Tennessee, this evening, 
and disembarked, and marched to the rear of the city and en- 
camped. No tents. Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace rejoined the 
regiment at this point from his leave. We remained in the 
same camp on the 4th, on th° Germantown road. On October 
5th left Memphis and marched to White City Station to repel 
an expected attack of General Chalmers. On October 6th, we 
marched from White City Station to Germantown, 12 miles 
from Memphis, and remained in this camp over the 7th. Here 
the surplus baggage under charge of Lieutenant Walters was 
shipped to Corinth, Mississippi. 

Octocer 8, '63. Received orders to take possession of a large 
wagon train and to carry it through to Corinth. We are assisted 
by the 3rd United States Cavalry in our front and flanks. 
The w T agon train was empty and drawn generally by unbroken 
mules, and accordingly ten men were loaded in each wagon. 

October 9, '63. Had roll call at 5 A. M., fell in line and 
boarded the wagons at eight, and rode some 20 miles. The 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 189 



mules were about played out, as we did not feed nor water the 
teams until four o'clock P. M. After feeding, went on until 
9 P. M. and went into camp for the night. 

Ociober 10, "63. Passed Rossville and Moscow to-day. Left 
camp at sunrise, and arrived at Lagrange at 2 P. M. and went 
in camp. This place is very poor, as it has been gutted several 
times by the soldiers of both armies. Passed the towns of 
Grand Junction and Saulsburg to-day. 

October 11, '63. Left camp at Lagrange, Tennessee, this morn- 
ing shortly after daylight. Weather cool. Our boys killed 
many hogs. To-day we went some 20 miles, and went into camp 
at 9 o'clock for the night. 

October 12, '63. The bugle blew for us to fall in. Marched 
one mile over some very bad roads, where last night two wagons 
upset and broke, so they had to be left behind. We got into 
the wagons at the top of the hill, and came over to Pocahontas 
at 10 P. M. and went into camp. It began to rain about noon 
and rained all day. Here we learn that some 5000 Confederates 
attacked our men at Grand Junction. Our men held the fort, 
and fought some four hours until re-enforcements came. Our 
teams were sent out foraging in the afternoon. This march 
made in this unique fashion and under whip and spur, in every 
truth terminated the military career of Colonel Seil)ert, who 
somehow got his brigade out of the direct road and wandered 
around in the woods four days longer than he should. Of course 
the seals of the battle of wrath were broken and the contents 
poured upon his head when he reached Corinth on the 16th of 
October, and he was relieved from command immediately. 

Under the laws of Ohio all troops of lawful age, who were 
citizens of Ohio were entitled to vote, and on the 13th of Octo- 
ber '63, near Pocahontas on the Hatchie River, our brigade was 
afforded an opportunity to exercise the highest prerogative of 
citizenship. Each company constituted a voting precinct. 
Judges and clerks of election were selected by the men from 
among themselves, and officers were not permitted to have any 
thing to do with the polls, except to vote. No electioneering 
or peddling of tickets was tolerated, and every one was allowed 
to vote as he pleased. The total vote of the 47th was 200, of 
which five were for Vallandingham, and 195 for John Brough. 



190 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V- V- I- 



We were informed here that we are 18 miles from Corinth, and 
also that a fight has been fought near here and that General 
Sherman came near being taken as a prisoner. 

October 14, '68. Left camp at 6 A.M. When the brigade 
had boarded the wagons,our regiment had to crowd in the wagons 
wherever they could, which scattered us from one end of the 
t ,-am to the other. The 47th went about ten miles over very bad 
r, >ads, and went into camp at 4 P. M. Showers all day and night. 
Our blankets are all wet. We traveled, it is said, about eight 

miles out of our way. 

October 15, '63. The 47th started early in the advance, btill 
raining this morning. We arrived at Corinth about 2 :30 P. M., 
after being on the road ten days. Here Captain Webb Thomas 
returned from his leave. We turned our wagons over to the 
proper authorities, and marched five miles south of town 
and went into camp about dark. 

October 16 '63. A part of the old Second Brigade was trans- 
ferred to theFirst and to the Third Brigade, and was called 
the 54th Ohio, and the 83rd Indiana Volunteers, and thereafter 
we were called the Second Brigade, Second Division, Fifteenth 
Army Corps. Our brigade was under General J. A. J.Lightburn, 
and Brigadier-General Morgan L. Smith commanded .the divi- 
sion,and Major-General Frank P. Blair, the corps. The 4,th 
remained in camp, and signed pay roll for four months pay. 
Received orders to be ready to march to-morrow at 12 M 

October 17, '63. The 47th was paid for four months, and 
left camp at 12 o'clock M., and marched along the Memphis 
and Charleston railroad, east towards Tuscumbia, and marched 
some ten miles and camped at a email run at a sawmill. 

October 18, '63. ILained all of last night. Four companies 
of the 47th was rear guard to-day, and the other part layed here 
until 12 o'clock M. then marched over very bad roads tor two 
miles Where the roads were better we marched very fast, pass- 
nig through Barnesville, where we crossed the railroad and 
marched on to Inka, arriving there about 7 o'clock P. M and 
went into camp for the night. Remained here until October 
19th, at 2 o'clock, started on our march and marched about 
hve miles and went into camp. Colonel Taylor says on this date 
the Second Division closed up with the First under General 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 191 

Osterhaus, and thus associated, were designated in order as the 
Fifteenth Army Corps. Major-General W. T. Sherman com- 
manded the expedition composed of four divisions. The Third 
Division under General Tuttle had been left at Vickshurg, and 
the Third Division of the Sixteenth Army Corps substituted 
for it. 

Skirmish at Barton's Station. 

October 20, '63 The 47th crossed a large and beautiful 
stream called Big Bear Creek, and found themselves on the soil 
of Alabama. The First Division which has the advance had 
quite a skirmish at Barton's Station with Forest or Roddy's 
Cavalry. Our loss is reported as one killed and three wounded. 
We passed some very fine plantations and were told we were 
the first Yankees that passed through here. Went into camp at 
7 P. M. We again had rain through the day. 

October 21, '63. The enemy attacked our First Division at 
Cherokee Station. The enemy with a mounted force of over 
3000 men surprised the camp of the Fifth Ohio Cavalry, but 
the Fifth always ready for battle, formed at once, General 
Osterhaus with his division to its relief, and a sharp struggle 
ensued, in which the Colonel of the 30th Iowa was killed, and 
several others were wounded. The enemy retreated to oppose 
our forces at some other point. Colonel Taylor says General 
Osterhaus fretted because the enemy checked our advance so 
frequently, and petulantly said ; "Poys, schust vait till I springs 
up mine pattery; den I makes him hell shmell a leetle," and 
he did and the enemy scattered. Other reports say our loss 
was 7 killed and wounded 35, Lieutenant Sherwin Company 
E returned from his leave on October 22nd. We were lying 
between little Bear Creek and Cane Creek. Our three divisions 
are now lying close at hand for action. 

Skirmish at Little Bear Creek, Alabama. 

October 23, '63. It began to rain at 3 o'clock A. M. and 
rained nearly all day. Skirmishing nearly all day with the 
Confederates. While on our march the enemy have torn up 
the railroad over little Bear Creek. The enemy are trying to 
check us at every ridge and creek. 

October 24, '63. To-day by general order No. 1 Major-General 



192 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

W. T. Sherman (our favorite general) assumed command of the 
Department and Army of the Tennessee. (Taken from Official 
Records, Volume 31, Part 1 Page 712.) Weather very cloudy 
and cold enough for snow. We received orders to drop every- 
thing and to move on Stevenson, Alabama, at once. Ohio Re- 
port, VolumeS, Part 1, Page 718. 

October 25, '63. There were some skirmishing with the 
enemies' cavalry, and we made but a slight advance. 

Skirmish at Cane Creek, Alabama. 

October 26, '63. This evening we arrived at Cane Creek, where 
we met the Confederates strongly posted on its banks Gener- 
al Osterhaus commenced shelling them. The enemy answered 
with five pieces of artillery, and we had a pretty artillery duel 
of an hour in length, when darkness put an end to the fray. 
Our division was held in reserve as support to the First Divi- 
sion. From Ohio Reports, Volume 31, Part 2. Page 20. 



BATTLE AT CANE CREEK, ALABAMA. 

October 27, '63. The First Division Fifteenth Army Corps 
attacked the enemy in front Colonel Taylor says the Second 
Division moved out across Prides Plantation, via a narrow road 
screaned by Itrushwood to a ford in the woods. Anon, the soli- 
tary crack of a rifle was heard, then a pattering of rifle cracks, 
followed by the rapid firing of a battery, answered by another 
on the ridge to the east ; a sharp skirmish and the ford was ours. 
We moved steadily forward doubling the enemies left and 
threatened their communications with Tuscumbia. In the mean 
time Degross batter} 7 opened on their center and under its fire 
the First Division charged on the Confederate center and with 
a heavy skirmish fire drove the enemy off the field When 
the Confederate center broke, their left in front of the Second 
Division, fell back in confusion and with thp center and right 
passed through Tuscumbia, which we entered without opposi- 
tion. From Official Records, Volume 31, Part 1, Page 764. 

Colonel Taylor further says at some points the enemy retired 
precipitately, at others stubbornly. But the two divisions were 
in the valley in line of battle closing on them. The 4th West 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 193 

Virginia on the skirmish line in two ranks which advanced al- 
ternately through the intervals between the files, thus making 
an uninterrupted advance fire, while covering the first line of 
battle, which was composed of the 47th, 37th and 54th Ohio. 
Each regiment with colors flying followed by the second line. 
The enemy numbered about 7000 and were under Major-General 
S. D. Lee all mounted infantry and cavalry. At Tuscumbia 
our brigade was ordered to go to Florence, Alabama, a distance 
of five miles, and held the position all night. From this point 
the 37th and 47th Ohio, under Colonel Parry, marched to the 
foot of Mussel Shoals on the Tennessee, and sent dispatches to 
Commodore Porter. Sergeant Mat Richardson and Wm. Weber 
of Company F. who were youths not more than seventeen years 
of age at their enlistment, volunteered to carry the dispatches 
to the fleet and started at 9 P. M. in a dugont down the river- 
General Blair having paroled the wounded prisoners, on being 
joined by Colonel Parry, returned to Dixon's Station at 4 P. M. 
of the 28th of October. General Sherman sent a locomotive 
some distance out of the station to meet the command and 
whistle a greeting of welcome, to which an answering shout 
was given by 8,000 tongues. 

October 29, '63. The usual skirmishing and cannonading 
occured. Sergeant Richardson and William Weber returned to 
the 47th. They had found the fleet at Eastport, after having 
drifted and paddled 30 miles they had seen only one boat, a 
flat boat, which was engaged in ferrying over the river a body 
of Confederate soldiers who were wrangling over their turn to 
pull. Our bogs hugged the shore very closely and avoided 
observation. They were thanked in orders tor their bravery, 
and paid an extra allowance for it. 

October 31, '63. The 47th marched back to Cherokee Station, 
not molested by the enemy. 

On the 31st we marched some sixteen miles. Arrived at 
Chickasaw on the Tennessee River. The enemy followed at 
some distance and harassed our rear. Marched two miles 
further to Eastport and crossed the Tennessee River on the 
steamer Masonic, on the 2nd day of November, and on November 
3rd started on our march at 7 o'clock A. M., marched pretty 
fast, traveled over twelve miles and went into camp at 2 P. M. 



191 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

at Gravel Springs. Our advance were fired into and there were 
thirteen Confederate Cavalrymen wounded. 

November 4, '63. The 47th marched at 7 o'clock A. M. passed 
Cypress Mills at 3 P. M. and North Florance a little before sun- 
down. Went into camp a mile from town, having marched 
fifteen miles. 

November 5, '0-$. The 47th started to march at 7 o'clock 
A. M, and reached Blue Water Creek, and passing it reached 
Shoal River and crossed on a stone bridge, which is said to be 
450 feet long. Rained hard all day. 

November t'>, '63. Continued our march. Our regiment to- 
day has the post of honor, the rear, guarding trains and drh ing 
cattle .Marched some seventeen miles. Went into camp after 
dark. 

November 7. '63. The 47th had a very hard march of twenty 
miles, crossed Sugar Creek about 11 A. M. Went into camp at 
sun down. 

November 8, '63. Another hard march of seventeen miles. 
The 47th passed through Puhtskee at 10 A. M. Weather ve j 
cold. We saw the first ice of the season. 

November 9, ,63. Another hard march of about twenty mil • 
and camped in sight of Fayetteville and joined the balance of 
our Army Corps. 

November 10, '08. Started on our march at 12 o'clock M. 
Went through the town and soon reached Elk Rivef on a most 
splendid bridge, all stone work. It has six arches. Marched 
eight miles further and went into camp near Winchester.' 

November 11. '63. The 47th marched ten miles southeast, 
then turned nearly west, marched seven miles more and went 
into camp near Rock Springs. 

November 12, '08. Started on our march at 7 A. M., passed 
through New Market at 8 A. .\1. and took the road that leads to 
Maysville and went into camp in a field of red grass which was 
soon on fire. Some of our boys lost their knapsacks by fire. 

November 13, '63. The 47th marched through Maysville, 
where we found General Crook with our cavalry, Crossed Paint 
Rock Creek and went into camp. 

November 14, '63. Another hard day's march. The 47th 
marched over sixteen miles and passed through Larkinsville 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 195 

November 15, '63. Our regiment took the advance of the 
brigade and passed through Spotsville at 9 A. M. and Bellefont 
near noon, and at 4 P. M. went into camp, having marched 
fourteen miles. 

November 16, '63. Started at 7;30 and arrived at Stevenson 
at 10 A. M. where we remained two hours, then marched some 
three miles towards Bridgeport, and went into camp for the 
night. The country is broken. Roads very rough. 

November 17, '63. The 47th marched at 10 o'clock A. M. 
and marched six miles and arrived at Bridgeport where we 
went into camp to wash and clean ourselves, for since leaving 
Memphis we have marched 330 miles, and it has been all the 
time march, march and forage for rations. Part of the country 
was pretty and good roads and part was rough and muddy roads. 
However, we arrived at Bridgeport in comparitively good 
condition. Our shoes were worn out. General W. T Sherman 
spoke as follows about our corps while on the recent march. 

Winchester, November 11, '63. 
Major-General Grant : 

***Blair's two divisions received no rations but they are old 
soldiers, and have plundered so much on the road that I have 
no doubt there wagons contained plenty to last them till they 
reached Bridgeport.*** [Signed.] W. T. Sherman, 

Major-General Commanding. 

From Official Report, Volume 31, Part 3, Page 119. 

Again he wrote Headquarters Army of the Tennessee : 

Bridgeport, November 11, '63. 
Maojr-General James B. McPherson, Commanding Vicksbtug, etc: 

****A11 the Fifteenth, John E. Smith included, is now march- 
ing hence for Chattanooga, twenty-eight miles, which will make 
one of the longest and best marches of the war.*** 
[Signed.] W. T.Sherman, 

Major-General Commanding. 

From Official Record, Volume 31, Part 3, Page 188. 

November 18, '63. We are in camp at Bridgeport, Alabama, 
washing, cleaning guns, and getting ready for active field ser- 



196 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

vice. There are rumors that we will march to-morrow for 
Chattanooga. 

November 19, '63. In pursuance of orders, fell in at 10 A. M. 
ami marched to the Tennessee River which we crossed an Pon- 
toon Bridge, which is said to be 1500 feet long. We marched 
along the railroad towards Chattanooga and went about ten 
miles and went into camp at dark. Roads very bad and the 
road is strewn with dead mules of the Army of the Cum- 
burland. 

November 20, '63. The 47th resumed their march at sunrise, 
followed close along the railroad. The large bridges are all 
burned down. It rained about 2 P. M. The roads are very 
slippery, the country very mountainous. Went into camp one- 
half mile from Brown's Ferry on the Tennessee River, just below 
Chattanooga, or near the position of General Joe Hooker. Have a 
fine view of Chattanooga and positions of the army around it. 
Looking to the northeast from an elevation near the ferry, a 
good view is had of the country in front of, and above it. The 
river, after passing a high hill just below Chattanooga, makes a 
horse shoe bend, which is known as Moccasin Bend, and the 
peninsula formed by the bend is called Moccasin Point, oppo- 
site which is Lookout Mountain, rising out of the river, which 
towers at least 1000 feet above the highest point in this vicin- 
ity. East of the city, extending northward until it seems to 
rise up out of the river, a short distance above South Chicka- 
mauga Creek is Mission Ridge, which stretches away with a 
southerly trend until it is covered or hidden by Lookout Moun- 
tain. The city is thus shut within a vast amphitheatre. The 
irregular walls of which everywhere overlook it. and from the 
river on the north to the river on the south, it was commanded 
by hostile batteries skilfully located on the most prominent 
points, and watched all the time by vigilant sentinels of the en- 
emy. From all the high points Confederate flags were waving 
defiance to Rosencrans' vanquished army, then actually starv- 
ing within its line under its bomb proofs. The men were so 
hungry that they stole the corn from the mules and ate it, and 
the horses and mules were so nearly famished that they browsed 
on each other's manes and tails. There was scarcely an eight 
horse team in Chattanooga with the strength necessary to pull a 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. 1. 197 

twenty pounder gun on level ground in a walk. Cut off from 
the railroad and river, over bottomless roads on a long haul the 
team could pull but a few hundred pounds per load more than 
the forage required for it. It meant starvation. We found 
near here men of the 11th and 12th Army Corps eating soft 
bread, and well supplied with sutlers good. They were eastern 
troops. It exasperated our men to think that after having 
marched so far, they should be marched through those camps 
to active duty, while they were well fed and well clothed. 

It was about this time that an Irishman of our division came 
in contact with a soldier of General Carl Shurz's Division, and 
a hot dialogue ensued. Pat finally said, "Be jabers, ye men 
bes so widded to the divil that yez ware the symbols of yez 
haythenism on yez blooses. and that's wot makes yez pin the 
moon and stars on yez breasht instid of the blissid cross." 
This accusation almost upset the stolid Hans but he rallied 
und finally explained that the crescent was the badge of one 
corps, and the stars the badge of another. That they belonged 
to the 11th and 12th Army Corps, and had come down from 
the Potomac Army where the corps were known by their badges, 
and then asked what was Pat's badge. The ready answer came, 
"An faith, me badge it is ye wantto know, me badge," slapping 
his cartridge box "is fifty rounds in me cartridge box. and sixty 
in me pocket. Begorre, thats what makes a Fifteenth Army 
Corps man." Up to this time the Fifteenth Army Corps had 
no badge, but after General John A. Logan was assigned to the 
command of it, about Christmas, he adopted the Irishman's 
badge. 

November 21, '68. The 47th crossed the Tennessee River on 
the Pontoon Bridge this afternoon, but on account of the rapid 
rise in the river, from the heavy rains which had only ceased 
at 1 P. M. the bridge broke, and the crossing was interrupted. 
The regiment marched four miles from the ferry on the Dallas 
Road, and went into camp behind the hills. 

November 22, '08. Sunday. While at dinner we received orders 
to march at 2 o'clock A. M. on Monday and to take only a 
blanket or an overcoat. This order was countermanded about 
9 P. M., and the time of the movement fixed for Monday night 
at midnight. In the afternoon we were ordered to remain in 



198 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

cam]) behind Waldren's Ridge out of sight of the enemy. But 
for all that, some went up the ridge and watched a fight be- 
tween the 11th Army Corps and the enemy, in which the 11th 
Annv Corps lost 75 men killed and a number wounded. In 
advancing the line some 1200 yards, it captured between 500 
and 1000 prisoners ; at 4 P. M. of the same day aur brigade 
moved a few miles down the Chattanooga road to within a few 
rods- of the Coalwell house, opposite the mouth of the South 
Chickamauga, where we lay on the 23rd of November. That night 
"was. cold and dark and dreary," and although it did not rain, 
the air was full of mist, which chilled to the marrow The bri- 
gade arrived here about 8 o'clock P. M., and was compelled to 
lie here until midnight, during all of which time no one was 
allowed to talk above a whisper, nor even to light a match, as 
the locality was in plain view of the enemy across the river. 



BATTLE OF MISSIONARY RIDGE, TENNESSEE. 

November 24, '63. This morning before 1 o'clock A. M., we 
were ordered to fall in with one hundred rounds of ammunition. 
Marched to the river, and found that the First Brigade of our 
division were crossing. They (the First Brigade) had been fer- 
ried over, but we did not know this until after we were over. 
The First Brigade at the appointed hour embarked, twenty men 
and one officer being in each boat. In accordance with orders, 
the leading boat, when a Confederate picket fire was seen, 
pulled with muffled oars in to the shore, disembarked, surround- 
ed in the darkness the picket post, and closed in towards the 
light around them, and they were taken prisoners. As they 
approached one post, it is said the men composing it were 
talking about surprises. One of them said, "It would be a good 
joke if the Yanks floated down the river some night and took 
us in," and just about the conclusion of the laugh which greet- 
ed that nov^l idea, Captain Bragg of the 8th Missouri, said, 
"Boys, that's just what Uncle Billie has done. Guess you'll 
surrender, won't you?" The party having command, said, "All 
right, Yank you've got it on us, "and thus one by one every picket 
post of the enemy north of the South Chickamauga was captured 
without the firing of but one shot. Near the first post, the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 199 

First Brigade upon its arrival at the mouth of the South Chick- 
amauga,quickly landed on the upper side, retained enough boats 
to bridge the stream, and dispatch the remainder for our brig- 
ade, which was quickly ferried over, and took post on the 
lower side of the creek. About 8:30 A. M. the mist thickened 
into a fog which fortunately screened this movement until 
about 9 or 10 A. M By A. M. the 47th had completed a 
splendid rifle pit. Wood's battery was ferried over by 9 A. M, 
on the steamer Dunbar. At 11:80 A.M. General Morgan L. 
Smith with the Second Division occupied the left, GeneralJohn 
E. Smith the center, General Hugh Ewing the right of the line. 
At 11 :15 A. M. Lieutenant DeGross commenced firing his twenty 
pounder Parrot battery from the hill on the side of the Tennessee 
River. At noon our division advanced towards the ridge. The 
fog was then falling in a light r in. No opposition was encoun- 
tered on this advance to the spur of the ridge, up which the 
men pulled a section of artillery, two guns of Wood's Battery 
by prolongs, or with ropes. The summit of the first ridge was 
gained without a shot. The 47th was then sent to the main 
Mission Ridge, gained a point called Bald Knob which was of 
eq il height and next to Tunnel Hill, and began the move- 
ment of Tunnel Hill, covering almostone-half the distance 
between them, when the enemies' line, then advancing 
w s struck, and sharp firing began They also opened 
on us with a section of artillery ; twice they charged on the 
47th but they were repulsed. The battery then shelled our 
line lively, and they changed front to avoid an enfilading 
fire; at 4:80 P. M. the 30th Ohio re-enforced us.and at 6 P. M.. 
the 4th West Virginia and 83rd Indiana was sent to our assistance 
and during the night the 37th and 54th Ohio rejoined the brig- 
ade. General Giles A. Smith of the First Brigade of our divi- 
sion was wounded during the afternoon. After dark, entrench- 
ing tools were sent to the brigade, and Major Taylor of the 
47th was detailed to lay out and superintend the fortifications 
on Bald Knob. The 47th Ohio and 83rd Indiana were ordered 
to do the work. The men were relieved frequently, andat2 A. 
M. on the 25th the work was completed, and General Sherman 
complimented the Major on the skill and manner of construc- 
tion and finish of work when he inspected it. 



200 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



Battle of Mission Ridge. Second Day. 
November 25, ( 63. The skirmish line was advanced at day- 
light-, and met the enemy. The 47th Ohio m reserve. Gen- 
era! Lightburn then sent Colonel Jones of the 30th Ohio. Col- 
onel Jones advanced gallantly, and occupied a point close 
against the enemies' works, where they massed against him, 
and fought fiercely; but the 37th Ohio was sent to re-mforr, 
him and he held his ground. Afterwards the 57th Ohio, and 
several regiments of our First Brigade joined him, and General 
Corse came up with his command. All of these advanced re- 
peatedly into a part of the enemies' works, but they were driv- 
en back It was a hand-to-hand struggle, with the difference 
that our troops fought up hill, while the enemy fought down 
hill thus giving an additional momentum to all their move- 
ments; and the enemy under General Bragg covered the top of 
Tunnel Hill so thick with his soldiers that no one could give 
back without treading upon the rear rank man. Retreat was 
impossible. It was desperation on their part. When a man 
fell he was trampled on and fought over, and for along time it 
looked as though it would not be possible for our men to hold 
their footing much longer. But all day long these brave men 
held their ground, swaying back and forth like the vibrations 

of a pendulum. „,-,■, 

General Corse was wound, d, so he had to leave the held during 
the day, and his command fell upon Colonel Walcotof the 46th 
Ohio All day from early in the morning, the enemy kept re- 
enforcing his troops on Tunnel Hill, and maintained a heavy 
cannonade against our position. We watched the firing closely, 
and when a shot was threatening, sometimes General Sherman, 
and again others, would call "lay downl" when every one would 
prostrate himself on the ground . From this point we watched 
the memorable advance of Gen. G. H. Thomas' command up 
the slope of Mission Ridge, to prevent General Sherman from 
turning his right flank. Bragg committed the fatal mistake of 
drawing his troops from his .-enter until only a light line was left 
believing that with it and the steep mountain side, and almost 
inaccessible summit of the ridge, his line was perfectly secure. 
He had not taken into consideration the impetuosity of the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 201 

Army of the Cumberland, who yearned to wipe out the stain of 
Chickamauga, and who without orders, scaled the heights, 
climbed over the works, broke the enemies* center, and drove 
them pell-mell into confusion. We could not see the climax of 
the movement, but in a short time General Sherman received 
dispatches communicating the glorious news that Generals 
Hooker and Osterhaus had turned Bragg's left, that General 
Thomas had broken the center, and Mission Ridge was in our 
possession, and that General Bragg was retreating precipitately. 
This intelligence electrified the entire army, joy was unbounded, 
every one shouted for joy That night Major Taylor went on 
duty with fifteen companies, and was so close to Bragg's line of 
retreat that he could hear their conversation, and movements 
made by them, but his orders were imperative, and he could not 
fire a shot into the retreating columns, nor advance a rod. 

The Battle as seen from the North end of Mission Ridge. 

The day opened beautifully clear, and many a time in the 
midst of its carnage and noise, we could not help stopping to 
look across that vast field of battle to admire its sublimity. 

From this knob a grand view was had of the curvilinear slope 
of Mission Ridge, and of the slope of Lookout Mountain, ex- 
tending towards Chattanooga. During the period of our work 
on the fortifications on the night of the 24th, we paused several 
times to behold the magnificience of the scene. Beneath us 
and floating over the city were fleecy white clouds, which rose 
from a myriad camp fires, and from the creek and river, shut- 
ting out the life and light of the city, and bearing the vision 
over it to the corresponding height, upon a narrow plateau of 
Lookout, where the fight still raged. Generals Hooker and Os- 
terhaus's forces were still driving the enemy from line to line. 
Uneringly the progress was noted by the flashing of the rifles and 
cannon, whose muzzles were abreast of us. It was almost as 
irregular in the line of advance and retreat, as the electrical dis- 
play of a thunder storm, and the reverberations of the reports 
of the cannon as they rolled away between the bridges and 
were lost in the silence beyond, imparted a grandeur to the 
spectacle which was indescribable. But the enthusiasm of the 
men we could not see, nor even hear, telegraphed itself to us 



202 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



through their Hashes of fire, as they dashed hither and thither. 
We cheered in our intensity of joy, and when the last hostile 
Hash ceased, and the point of the mountain seemed to have 
been passed by our brave comrades. A shout went up thai 
mad'' the mountains ring. This advance brought our troops 
int<> the valley on the east of Lookout, and turned the Hank of 
the enemies' forces on the summit, and made them retreat 
hastily to avoid capture. 

In regard to our full operations of the battle of Mission 
Ridge, Tenn., we would kindly refer the reader to the Official 
Records of General J. A. J. Lightburn, who commanded our 
brigade at the time. It is as follows: 

Headquarters 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 15th Ann;/ Corps, 
In the Field, November 28th, 1863. 

Sir — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
part taken by my command in the late battle of Chattanooga. 

Persuant to orders, I started from camp on the evening of t he 
28rd inst., marched to the Tennessee River near the Caldwell 
House. At 3 A. M. the 24th inst. we crossed the river in Pon- 
toon boats, took position on an elevation near the river, and 
intrenched it. At 2 P. M. started in line of battle for the hills 
known as Mission Ridge, ascending the first hill without oppo- . 
sition, and upon arriving at the summit I perceived it not to 
be the hill designated in tha order, 1 therefore ordered. Col A. C. 
Parry with his regiment, 47th Ohio, to take possession of the 
point of the main hill, which was immediately in front of the 
one we then occupied. Upon arriving, Colonel Parry informed 
me that the enemy was advancing from the opposite side, also 
opening fire with two pieces of artillery from another elevation 
of the main hill; I then ordered Colonel Theadore Jones, with 
his regiment, 30th Ohio, tore-enforce him, subsequently order- 
ing Colonel B. J. Spooner,and J.H. Dayton, with their regiments, 
the 83rd Indiana and 4th West Virginia, to the same hill with 
instructions to intrench it, placing Lieutenant-Colonel Von 
Blessingh, with his regiment, the 37th Ohio, on the point of the 
first hill I occupied, fronting Chickamauga Creek, to protect 
my left flank and rear, in which position the command remain- 
ed until the next morning. The 25th at 9 A. M. I received 



Histoky of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 208 

verbal orders from Major-General Sherman to send forwards 200 
men to occupy Tunnel Hill. 

I ordered Colonel Jones with his regiment, the 30th Ohio, 
and two companies of the 4th West Virginia Infantry, under 
command of Captian J. L. Mallernee to perform that duty, or- 
dering Colonel Parry to place three companies of his regiment 
to protect the left flank of the movement. Upon advancing 
upon the hill Colonel Jones found it occupied in force by the 
enemy, which when reported, I ordered Colonel Von Blessingh 
with his reginent, the 37th Ohio, to his support. Colonel Jones 
advanced and took possession of the first elevation, driving the 
enemy from his outer works, and advancing his skirmishers to 
within fifty or seventy- five yards of his interior line, holding 
his position until sunset, when he was relieved by the First 
Brigade. I then called my command together upon the en- 
trenched hill and bivouacked for the night. On the morning 
of the 26th, I received orders to provide my command with 
three days rations, and at 12 M. inarched for Chickamauga 
Station. During the march and engagement the officers and 
men behaved splendidly, promptness characterizing every 
movement. 

I beg leave to make special mention of Colonels Parry and 
Jones for their courage, skill and promptness in performing 
the duty assigned them. Casualities as follows. 

30th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, killed five; wounded thirty. 

37th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, killed five ; wounded thirty- 
three. 

47th Ohio Volunteer Infantry killed none, wounded three. 

4th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry killed none, wounded 
seven. 

83rd Indiana Volunteer Infantry, killed none; wounded three 

Total killed, ten ; wounded seventy-six; total loss eighty-six. 

I beg leave to submit a supplementary report, in which I 
will give names, company and regiment of the killed and 
wounded. 

I have the honor to be very respectfully, your obedient serv- 
ant. Signed, J. A. J. Lightburn, 

Brigadier General Commanding. 
Lieutenant J. C. Hill, 

Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 

From Official Record, Volume 31, part 2, pages 029 and 630. 



204 History of the 47th Reoimevt O. V. V. I. 

This eagerness became so great that he besought Major-Gen- 
eral F. P. Blair for permission to advance or at least to open 
fire upon the retreating column, saying that he would produce 
such confusion that thousands of prisoner* might he taken. 

The General said he believed all that, but General O. O. How- 
ard had that matter in charge and he could do nothing. He said. 
"Go back and have your men rest." The command was relieved 
on the morning of Nouember 26th. The enemy had retreated, 
and it was our day of rejoicing with exceeding great joy, as it 
was then evident that Bragg's army was demoralized almost to 
the point of dissolution, and that there would not beany more 
spirit in it until it should be aroused into new life, and our 
army at onCe started in pursuit. We found the road leading to 
Chickamauga Station, near which we bivouacked for the night. 
We had found the road strewn with abandoned military stores 
and supplies, artillery, wagons, battery forges. Among the aban- 
doned cannons were some fine rifle guns At Chickamauga Sta- 
tion, all the buildings had been burned, and there were piles of 
hams and bacons ten to fifteen feet high, and large in propor 
tion. Huge hillocks of corn meal, rice and corn and other sup- 
plies on fire, and vinegar and molasses. Flour and sugar in a 
slush all over the ground about the station. 

November 27, '63. On the following morning the march was 
continued on the line of Bragg's retreat up the Chickamauga 
valley. Finding on every side evidence of hasty retreat, aban- 
doned wagons and cast-a-way supplies to lighten loads. Con- 
stant conflicts occurred between the rear guard of the enemy 
and our advance guard. Another bivouack at sun down, aud 
during the night a heavy rainfall, completely drenching the 
whole army, who had no shelter tents. 

November 28, '63. We reached Grayville, Georgia, on Sat- 
urday, at which point we burned a largp gun factory and arsenal, 
and destroyed railroads. 

The Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel and Major had only two 
saddle blankets for bedding. The cold was severe, and a good 
part of the night was spent about the camp fires. In the 
morning, the men performed their daily ablutions on the river 
bank, and it was highly amusing to watch one trying to comb 
his hair; he would insert the comb, but could not budge it for- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 205 

ward or back, up or down. Then a shout of laughter from 
somebody, and a pocket glass would be held before the puzzled 
individual, when he would behold each particular hair crystal- 
lized with ice, and standing in spikelets all over his head. It 
was beautiful to behold, but not enjoyable to the person mak- 
ing their toilet. 



The March to the Relief of General Burnside at Knoxville, 
Tennessee, from Graysville. Georgia, and Rerurn to 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, Thence to Larkinsville, Ala- 
bama, etc., etc., Thence Home on Veteran Furlough. 



November 29, '63. We began the march to relieve General 
Burnsides, at Knoxville, Sunday, at 10 A. M. Weather cold and 
roads bad. Halted at 2 A.M. and awaited rations. Three 
days half rations were issued, with orders to make them last six 
days. The march was resumed at 6 P. M., and continued to 12, 
midnight, when the regiment went into biyouack, scraped the 
snow away and laid down to freeze. The Surgeon's bed caught 
fire in his efforts to keep warm while asleep. On the next day 
at 7 A. M., when the march was resumed, the mud was frozen, 
so that it bore up the horses and their riders The 47th pass- 
ed through Cleveland, East Tennessee, a little after dinner-time. 
In approaching it, at the point of the convergence of the roads 
upon which the respective divisions were marching, there was 
a tedious blockade. While awaiting a resumption of the march, 
a soldier leading a mule loaded with provender, followed by a 
comrade with his rifle at a trail marching in the rear came up 
and was forced by the jam to halt near by. After awaiting in 
silence for perhaps half an hour, the leader tossed the halter 
strap to the other, saying in a matter of fact way, "Jeems, you 



206 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

take charge of the train, while I go to the front and ascertain 
the cause of this long stop." 

The convergence of the roads into Cleveland occasioned the 
delay. In this city, even then containing a thousand inhabi- 
tants, it was said there were only twenty sympathizers with the 
Confederates. Without waiting to know whether it would re- 
main in Federal possessions, or return to Confederate hands, 
and regardless of the consequences of their acts, the inhabi- 
tants accorded us a hearty welcome. Ladies waved handker- 
chiefs and men cheered lustily. Toward the upper end of the 
street stood a pleasant residence with a balcony, on the top of 
which stood, as we learned, Mrs. Middlecrof, a widow, and her 
daughter. When the head of the column came abreast of 
them the elder lady drew forth a small National flag and 
waved it. Instantly, and without orders, every rifle came to 
a shoulder; the field, staff and line officers drew swords and 
saluted, and the colors were dipped, and as each succeeding 
regiment approached this point, the battle-stained colors were 
unfurled, the bands played, and that gallant Army Corps 
passed in review to those two ladies — only varying the pro- 
ceedings by adding three hearty cheers. What an inspiration 
this greeting was to the troops. 

Cleveland stands almost on the threshold of East Tennessee, 
which, up to that time, had been a wonderland to us. How 
was it that a narrow strip along and on the slope of the Smoky 
Mountains in the very heart of the Southern Confederacy, sent 
so many volunteers to the Union army? Here we beheld the 
key. 

East Tennessee is broken by foot hills or spurs extending 
across the space which intervenes between the mountains and 
the river, giving to the entire territory a broken and moun- 
tainous appearance, and dividing it into numerous valleys. 
In very many localities the inhabitants were as picturesque 
as the country. The villages nestled snugly down in the val- 
leys, while many quaintly built homes stood about on the 
mountain passes and paths, from which their owners looked 
out over hill and dale. Nature had stolen their hearts. In 
this high pure atmosphere, liberty dwelt strong and deep as 
that which inspired the noble deed of the immortal Winkle- 



History of the 47th Regiment. O. V. V. I. 207 

ried. Nature and man were in harmony. 

December 1. '63. After a bivouac four miles from Charles- 
ton, thf* reginumt resumed their march at 11:30 A. M.. hut 
halted in a few minutes, when the regimental commanders were 
called together and informed that. Burnsides was invested, and 
could hold out only ten days. That there was only one day's 
ration in the train, that foraging details must be made, and 
that the army must reach him in four days, the distance to be 
marched being only eighty miles, but the roads had lost their 
bottom. The order was '-On ! on !" That night the bivouac 
was four miles from Athens. On the following morning the 
column passed through Alliens at 8 A. M. A large concourse 
of people thronged the streets and welcomed the army with 
songs and cheers. A patriarchal old man and wife said, "'The 
place was so patriotic that after the war began the city coun- 
cil changed the name of the principal street from Union to 
Lincoln, that there were only two sympathizers upon it, and 
they were in the brush now." The march continued along the 
railroad to Philadelphia, at which point the head of the col- 
umn changed direction, and marched to the Little Tennessee 
River, near Morgan town* where it halted to build a bridge 
across the river until 10 P. M. of the 4th. when it crossed the 
river, passed through the town, and went into camp some dis- 
tance beyond. 

Early upon Saturday morning the regiment received the or- 
der of attack upon Longstreet's Corps. The Fifteenth Army 
Corps constituted the center of the line, and was expected to 
encounter General Longstreet's own Corps. Under the order 
the formation of brigades was in echelon covered with skirm- 
ishers. Under no circumstances was the advance to be dis- 
continued, or a halt permitted. 

It was understood that ( ieneral Longstreet's Corp* was the 
finest in the Confederate army. The Fifteenth Army Corps 
had the vanity to believe that under General \Y. T. Sherman's 
training it was the finest Corps in the Union army. 

The inhabitants were all Unionist? to the core. The ladies 
were in throngs at the crossing of roads, and greeted us with 
waving of flags and song. They sang a song with a chorus, "I 
am for the Union still." It seemed a gala day. although we 



208 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

were marching to battle. It was a great inspiration. The en- 
thusiasm was unbounded. They knew the necessity for dis- 
patch, and accelerated it. They had water by the tub and 
harrel-fulls. Never did Roman matron do more to encourage 
the mailed legions of Rome. 

The regiment encamped in regular camp as usual at sun- 
down, and slept through another rain. The march was re- 
sumed at 7:30 in a dense drizzling fog. It was expected that 
battle would be joined during the morning, but as the columns 
were converging upon Knoxville, they were met by a courier 
informing the commanding officer of the entrance of the Union 
cavalry into the city, and the hasty raising of the siege by 
Longstreet and of his retreat. This ended the hope of meet- 
ing Longstreet's Corps. This intelligence terminated the ad- 
vance. 

On Monday, the regiment began with the rest of the division 
to retrace its steps, and bivouaced at the Hall place, about 
two miles from the village of Morgantown. 

December 8, '63. At 8 A. M. the 47th took up the line 
of march on the "Old Federal" road, following it to the inter- 
section of the Telico road, and thence via the Telico road across 
a succession of most beautifully formed points, called Hotches' 
Knobs, and reached the Telico Iron Works about noon. The 
smelting furnace had been put in repair by the Confederate 
States for their use. The works are quite extensive. The 
single street is in the form of a crescent. 

The 47th was detailed as an escort and guard for General 
Sherman during the day. The march was resumed at 2 P.M., 
on the road leading to Athens, and continued until 4 P. M. 

At 9 A. M. of the next day, we received orders to take the 
bare-foot men out of the regiment, and with the remainder 
to march via the Telico Pass until the column should communi- 
cate with Col. Long's Cavalry expedition. A careful inspec- 
tion showed that there were ninety bare-foot men in the regi- 
ment, who were left behind on account of the rough roads. 
The regiment left the iron works at 11 A. M., and began the 
toilsome ascent of the Smoky Mountains, and camped at night 
near Frey's store, about four miles from the North Carolina 
line. On some table land not far from Frey's store the regiment 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 209 

halted near a commodious and pleasant residence on a well- 
improved farm. Several ladies and children, with some grin- 
ning darkies, were standing on the lawn in front of the house 
near the road in a group, in the center of which stood a feeble 
old man. He approached and said that they would like to look 
at our flag, and that he would like to see it again before he died. 
The color- bearers were called and the colors unfurled. To the 
most of the group the stars anH stripes were a tradition only; 
thev had not seen the flag for a year. It was a joyful sight to 
all of them. The old man took the National Flag in his hands 
with great reverence, and pressing it to him, said, "It still pre- 
vails; it still prnvails; now I can die content." while great tears 
of joy filled his eyes. 

The scenery in places on the line of march was not only grand — 
it was sublime, when filled out very slightly by one's thoughts. 
There was no enemy to distract our attention here. Permission 
was- given to a number to visit Unicorn Mountain, the highest 
of the ridge by over 1000 feet, and to cross over into the Cherokee 
country of North Carolina. At Frey's store, several quills fill- 
ed with gold dust were exhibited, and it is said by the family, 
that it had been procured through ordinary pan washing at the 
head of Cocoa Creek, on which the regiment was encamped. In 
a trice the 47th became gold washers, but no one found a nug- 
get larger than he was able to carry away. 

December 12, '63. Colonel Long's command returned from 
its raid on Saturday, and the 47th discontinued its goldwashing 
and resumed the march by descending the mountains. When 
the regiment went into camp, the haversacks were empty, the 
foragers had not been able to secure anything, there was noth- 
ing in the Quartermaster's department to issue, and there was 
nothing eaten. It was a bivouack, and it was raining, but all 
hands sang, 

"We'll rally round the flag, boys, 
Rally once again," 

and laid down to pleasant dreams. At 8 A M. we marched 
with empty stomachs into the Columbus road. It was the wrong 
road, and after a time the command returned over it, and took 
a fresh start, crossed Conesaugha Creek twice, and bivouacked 



210 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

on its banks, and stood up during a heavy thunder shower, 
which drenched every one. Foragers came in after the rain 
with one and one-half bushels of corn meal and a little meat 
which was at once issued to the most hungry, one-half pint of 
meal to each man — -the only issue made on the 18th. After 
shaking the snow from the blankets, on the 14th, at 8 A. M , 
we continued the march towards Charleston. The mud was 
frozen so that it bore up the men and horses, only breaking 
through occasionally. The barefoot men of the regiment, of 
whom there were now over one huudred, with their feet wrapped 
in rags, now made very painful progress. The jagged points of 
the frozen mud, covered by the snow frequently penetrated 
their bandages, and as they lifted their fret, the blood marked 
the snow with a crimson stain, while the poor men went forward. 
In point of hardship and suffering, Valley Forge was compar- 
ed to this. 

Upon reaching the railroad again the men were permitted to 
march upon it, under command of the senior captain or other 
officers, until in proximity to a town, when the command was 
closed up, the town passed in order, and the railroad re-appro - 
priated. On the afternoon of the 17th we reached a place of 
bivouack near Chattanooga about 4 :30. The only recommen- 
dation it had for a camping place was that it had wood and 
water, but although there was a forest all around, there was at 
that time, only one axe in the regiment, and it was difficult to 
get the wood. There were no supplies for issue, but fasting 
was an almost daily occurrence. 

On account of the absence of rations, no time was consumed 
in getting breakfast. The snow was shaken from the blankets, 
and the march resumed, and continued to within one and one- 
half miles of Chattanooga. The brigade was moved to the 
northern side of a hill, and halted in an open field, over which 
a strong breeze was blowing, and our journal of that day, Fri- 
day, 18th of December, says : 

"iEolus took especial delight in coloring our cheeks to a pur- 
ple and in stiffening our limbs with his keen breath. Especially 
did he seem to enjoy the smothered echo of the footfalls of the 
bare feet upon the frozen ground, and the delicately crimson- 
tinted footprints made by very many as they incautiously step- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 211 



ped about. No forage. Hard work to obtain even half rations 
of crackers and meat from the Commissary Department of the 
Army of the Cumberland. And the Quartermaster's Depart- 
ment will not issue shoes and clothing. About noon we were 
moved higher up the hillside, so the wind could strike us more 
fairly. Remained in this position one hour, when we were moved 
boldly upon the crest of the hill, in which position 183 bare- 
foot and sorefoot men were taken from the regiment to the 
Tennessee River, and embarked in pontoons for Bridgeport." 

Colonel Parry having been for several days in command of the 
brigade on account of the sickness of General Lightburn, Lieut- 
enand-Colonel Wallace was ordered at 3 P. M., to place the re- 
mainder of the regiment under the command of the senior 
captain, and march by the the railroad to Bridgeport. Accord- 
ingly, they marched under the command of Captain Helmrich, 
of Company H. The regiment once more reached its own com- 
missary and Quartermaster's Department on the night of the 
19th, and got a full meal, being the first for twenty-seven 
days, during a part of which time all they had to eat was corn, 
which each one parched according to taste, and a part of the 
time it required continuous fasting on the part of some, two 
days, as the foragers could not procure a supply for all, and no 
Government rations were issued to the 47th after the 29th of 
November, and then only quarter rations for six days. 

Eighty-three days had gone by since the regiment had left its 
camp on Big Black River in the rear of Vicksburg, to take part 
in the campaign against Mission Ridge, and for relief of Burn- 
sides at Knoxville, twenty-eight days of which were filled with 
hardships and privations unparalleled in the history of the 
United States. Every day of the twenty-eight was a hungry 
day; every camp was a bivouack; every night was a night of 
freezing, and every hour of slumber was broken by turning the 
cold side to the fire to warm it. 

Major-General John A. Logran, who had been assigned by the 
Secretary of War to the command of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps, met the second division upon its arrival at Bridgeport, 
and watched it as it defiled into camp. On the succeeding day 
in the afternoon, all the field and staff and general officers of 
the division assembled in the camp of the division commander, 



'212 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

and accompanied by the division hand, marched to the Corps 
headquarters and called upon Major-General Logan. He was 
greal ly surprised by this ethusiastic greeting. Each officerwas 
formally presented to him. After a general conversation he 
spoke as follows: 

"He felt much flattered at the greeting of the second division ; 
thai the Fifteenth Army Corps had a reputation no one could 
tarnish ; that there is a silent monitor in the hearts of those at- 
home that would always do us justice; that he hoped he would 
be able at least to sustain the reputation it had acquired, and 
he was assured that the second division would materially assist 
in the performance of this great work." 

We took up the line of march once more on the 26th, at 8:30 
A. M., in a steady rain. The roads were horrible beyond de- 
scription. The earth seemed thoroughly saturated ; break the 
crust and there was no bottom The streams were all swollen, 
and the lowlands a vast quagmire. It was shocking to see the 
number of animals fast, which had been most cruelly abandoned 
without first killing them: they were in almost every stage of 
languishment and dissolution, some braying and breathing vig- 
orously, some piteously whinnying, and others scarcely breath- 
ing, occasionally making a convulsive effort to relieve them- 
selves, while horse-shoers passed among them, pulling off every 
shoe which could be reached. It would not be an exaggeration 
to say that a person might begin at Stevenson and walk twenty 
miles or more on the road leading to Chattanooga on the bodies 
of dead mules, except where water courses broke the chain. The 
merest tyro can comprehend the exhausting nature of marching 
under such circumstances. 

The regiment halted three miles west of Stevenson on the 
road to Bellefonte, and engaged in the work of corduroying an 
Alabama swamp so that the artillery and supply train could be 
moved. The work of roadmaking was engaged in by the whole 
brigade on Sunday the 27th. On Monday, Major Taylor, with 
the 47th was required to build a bridge over Big Raccoon Creek. 
The party without regard to rank or position worked ea r nest- 
ly, the most of the time in water from one to four feet deep, 
from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M., in which they built a bridge almost 
100 feet long, over which the brigade marched to camp. It was 



History or the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 213 

the hardest day of fatigue work the regiment ever performed, 
and after it came up out of the water, it marched in a southwest 
sleet storm two miles to a bivouack in the edge of the woods. 
When th»- men stacked arms the clothing of everyone who had 
been in the water was frozen stiff, and no one had a change. 

On the 30th, the 47th went into camp on the railroad near 
Bellefonte at sundown, having been fiv^ days making the march 
from Bridgeport, a distance of twenty miles only. 

Owing to the traditional army red tape, and the rules of the 
circumlocution office of the Quartermaster's and Commissary 
Departments, the requisitions of the Army of the Tennessee were 
hanging in the department offices of the Army of the Cumber- 
land, while the second division had exhausted all of its rations, 
except one day's beans, and the troops were without provisions. 

On New Year's Day instead of the cry being ''Happy New 
Year" it was "Hungry New Year!" and the earth was snow- 
clad. At noon it was so cold that ink taken from a bottle 
standing upon a burning log two feet from the part on fire, 
froze on the pen before it reached the paper. The men were 
gloomy because they were both hungry and cold. The cir -urn- 
locution office on the 2nd was insisting on other approval of 
the requisitions to transfer rations from the Department of the 
Cumberland to the Department of the Tennessee, and the men 
became still more hungry. On the afternoon of the 3rd, Gen- 
eral M. L. Smith, the division commander, rode along the color 
line, and when recognized, was greeted with cries for "hard tack. 
He replied, "Suck your paws like a bear." The Division Quar- 
termaster was compelled finally to send mules to Stevenson to 
pull the cars containing our rations over the Memphis and Char- 
leston Railroad, from that place to Bellefonte, because the Chief 
Quartermaster of the Army of the Cumberland would not per- 
mit a locomotive to pass into the territory under the charge of 
the Army of the Tennessee. Therefore, the 47th, with others, 
starved for four days, and the command did not receive any 
rations until noon of January 4th, '64, when half rations were 
issued after a fast of four days. The rations at that time con- 
sisted of twelve ounces of pork or bacon, one pound of hard 
bread ; to every 100 rations, fifteen pounds of beans, ten pounds 
of rice, eight pounds of roasted coffee, fifteen pounds of sug&Sj 



l'14 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

four quarts of vinegar, one pound and four ounces of star candles, 
four pounds of soap, three pounds and twelve ounces of snlt. four 
ounces of pepper and one quart of molasses. 

January 5, '04. The regiment was sent under command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace on a foraging expedition. The 
men and line officers rode in empty wagons to the Tennessee 
River, where Major Taylor, with three companies, D, E. and I 
crossed to an island and found and loaded into the boats about 
400 bushels of corn, and transferred it to the wagons by II P. 
M. The regiment bivouacked on the bank of the river, and 
was compelled once more to shake the snow from the blankets 
in the morning. The train reached the camp at 11 A. M., and 
was duly turned over to the Quartermaster's Department . 

The soldiers of the Fifteenth Army Corps were not permit- 
ted to enjoy social life at any time. They were always required 
to be ready to march, to keep the enemy on the wing. The 
47th was ordered to escort an artillery train to Larkinsville by 
the wagon road, while the remainder of the command marched 
on the railroad. Accordingly it left Belief onte in charge of 
the batteries belonging to the division, and arrived at Larkins- 
ville at 2 P, M. on the 9th. Immediately upon arrival, Lieut- 
enant-Colonel Wallace was detailed as Provost Marshal of the 
division, and reported for duty on the following morning. 

The campaign practically ended with the return of the Army 
Corps to its own department. It had consumed 102 days, and 
marched 965 miles since leaving its camp near Vicksburg: but 
the fruit of this remarkably hard service was — two Union 
Armies saved through victories; one Confederate Army defeat- 
ed and placed hors du combat, and another defeated, and with- 
drawn from the western field of operation. In the north it had 
assured the people of the absolute certainty of a successful is- 
sue to the war for the Union. The regiment was badly fatigued, 
and considerably exhausted, but there was scarcely a man in 
it who was not anxiously awaiting the beginning of another 
active campaign, as they believed that the end was just beyond it. 

January 24, '64. At sundown on Sunday, after two weeks 
of merely camp duty, the regiment moved on an expedition to 
Larkinsburg, on the Tennessee River, to break up rafts which 
were being built at that point, and disperse a Confederate 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 215 

force. After a long range skirmish, which was exciting but 
harmless to us, the object of the expedition was successfully 
accomplished, and the command returned to its camp at 
Larkinsville. 

General Sherman was about to make an expedition into the 
heart of Mississippi, and it was an object of prime necessity to 
draw attention from that locality by activity in our immedi- 
ate vicinity. The demonstration began with a movement from 
Larkinsville by the entire Second Brigade, temporarily under 
command of Colonel Parry. Major Taylor being in command 
of the regiment. At 8:10 A. M. the expedition marched from 
Larkinsville, with colors flying, to Larkins' Ford, crossed the 
river in boats, leaving the horses with guards on the north 
side, and marched to Wakefield, Marshall County, Alabama. 
As the small force of the enemy in front retired they destroyed 
bridges and culverts, and obstructed the roads, which had been 
previously obstructed most naturally by mud, which, when 
soundings were taken by the men, seemed to have no bottom. 
The enemy refused to make a stand, and only long range 
skirmishing was indulged in. Occasionally a vidette would be 
brought in but would not impart any information. In the 
hope of capturing the force at Wakefield, the 4th Virginia and 
the 47th made a detour of several miles to cut off their retreat, 
but the 37th. advancing directly m their front, flushed the 
game before we reached the roads leading to the enemies' rear, 
and we, like the King of Prance, marched back again to the 
river. Capt. Ward, having been injured by a fall, was sent to 
the camp at Larkinsville, and Capt. Holtenhof, of Company 
K, was sent to escort a train with supplies. A detachment 
consisting of 276 men and officers, which had remained at 
Larkinsville, joined the regiment at this place. The forward 
movement was resumed at 8 A. M. 

January 30, '64. In a very heavy rain, we crossed the 
river on a pontoon bridge and moved on a road leading 
to Lebanon, crossed the mountains through Jones' Gap, 
the cavalry marching via Smith's Gap to Wakefield, advanced 
to within five miles of Lebanon and went into camp. Some 
officers, who were recruiting for an Alabama colored regiment, 
came into the camp of the 47th, opened an office and were 



216 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

highly successful. As the march progressed the people flocked 
with their entire families to the road to see the Yankees, The 
I'nioii sentiment among them was decidedly strong throughout 
this entire section. 

General Morgan L. Smith was placed in command of the ex- 
pedition, and Col. Parry of the division. The troops marched 
light, passed over Sand Mountain, through Lebanon, the coun- 
ty seat of DeKalb County, and went into camp sixteen miles 
from Coosa River. Confederate soldiers appeared from their 
conduct to have been waiting an opportunity to be captured, 
as they came in from every side along the route and gave them- 
selves up. A heavy growth of Indian grass in the vicinity of 
the camp caught fire, and required great effort by the com- 
mand to extinguish it. 

At 8:30 A. M. the enemy appeared in some force along the 
road leading to Rome, and a spirited skirmish ensued, but the 
Union force pressed forward and drove the Confederates line 
back upon the main body, which retired to a new position. 
A brigade of the 4th Division of the 15th Army Corps then 
made a detour to secure a gap through the ridge and prevent 
their further retreat, when the Confederate force withdrew 
rapidly from our front, and the advance upon Rome, Georgia, 
was resumed at 1 P. M. on the Srd, and continued, meeting 
only slight resistance, until our cavalry reached and destroyed 
extensive saltpetre works located near that city. General 
Wheeler was sent with his cavalry to re-enforce the Confeder- 
ate troops, but arrived too late to save the works. The force 
of the enemy seemed indisposed to bring on a general engage- 
ment, and acting as a corps of observation, only maneuvered 
so as to cover Rome. They were held in this state of uncer- 
tainty on the 4th and 5th by our movement, after which the 
expedition returned, re-crossed the river, and dispersed, the 
troops returning to their respective camps, which was reached 
by the 47th on the 6th. 

The general Government had sent throughout the army about 
the beginning of the year, an invitation to re-enlist for the 
term of three years, or during the war. It had been submitted 
while the regiment was at Bellefonte, but only twenty-six or 
thirty had re-enlisted during the days of starvation, and the 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 217 

Colonel had become disheartened with the effort. During his 
absence, immediately upon the return of the regiment to its 
camp, he ordered Major Taylor to take the work in hand. It 
was organized by him at once During Sunday, the 7th, he 
secured the co-operation of all of *iie sergeants, and some of 
the men also began to take hold and assist. On the 11th, 
seventy were mustered into the veteran service; but orders 
had been received to be in readiness to march at a moment's 
notice. The Major appealed to Major-General Logan to sub- 
stitute a regiment for the 47th until the re-muster should be 
complete, and he consented if the Brigade Commander would 
make the substitution. The Colonel in command of the Brig- 
ade refused to make the substitution. At 12:30 P. M. we 
took up the line of march for Stevenson. The regiment 
marched on the railroad under the command of Captain Helm- 
rich. Captain W. H. Ward was detailed upon recruiting 
service. The Major, before leaving his camp, had been assur- 
ed that his regiment would be left to complete its re enlist- 
ment at Bridgeport; but at that place, the commander of the 
provisional division, General Mathias, informed him that 
while he could not relieve the regiment at that point he would 
leave it at Chattanooga; the command arrived there on the 
14th. At Chattanooga, it was the same old story. General 
Mathias said, "It would afford me great pleasure to relieve 
you, but I am not permitted to do it." The Major then "ask- 
ed permission to appeal to Major-General Geo. H. Thomas, as 
the command was then subject to his orders." This was ac- 
corded. The Major visited him, explained that his regiment 
had begun to re-enlist, and the multitude of broken promises 
from which it had already suffered, and he greatly feared if it 
was required to march beyond Chattanooga, a veteran organi- 
zation would be lost to the service. General Thomas said, "It 
was impossible for the 47th to remain at Chattanooga, but he 
had a depot of supplies to guard at Cleveland, and he would have 
it remain there, it could then get mustered in, and he would 
forward our application for 'veteran furlough' as a regiment, 
and we would be paid, and might lie homeward bound in a 
week." The Major then inquired if he might communicate 
this information to the men of his regiment. The answer was 



218 History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 

"Yes." Again the Major inquired, "May I pledge your honor 

that this arrangement will he carried out?" The chief of 
staff, Brigadier General Whipple, who sat at the desk near 
the Genera! looked up with a troubled expression, as though 
a great breach of propriety had been committed. The Gener- 
al was silent a moment, after which with a smile he said, "Yes, 
I am glad you are exact, and I will say in addition that when 
any superior officer orders you to move elsewhere, tell him of 
my pledge of honor to you, and if he shall persist, then tell 
him that I have instructed you to telegraph their refusal to ob- 
serve my pledge of honor, to me." 

In the morning, after the regiment had been formed and was 
about to march, when all the men were swearing like the 
■•Army in Flanders," the Major rode in front and made a 
statement of the interview with "Pap" Thomas, at the con- 
clusion of which three cheers were given for Major General 
Thomas. Cleveland was reached on the 17th. Capt. Webster 
Thomas, of Company E, was appointed Provost Marshal, and 
his company was detailed as Provost Guard at once. Capt. H. 
D. Pugh was detailed to take charge of the work of mustering 
veterans. Orders were received on the 19th to draw ten days' 
rations, and hold the regiment ready to march at a moments' 
notice. This aroused the Major at once, and he passed to 
Col. Parry, commanding the Brigade, but not receiving any 
satisfaction, he continued his inquiry until he had reached 
Major General Granger, who was the commander of the force 
to threaten Dalton, and thus prevent Bragg's Army from re- 
enforcing General Polk, who was opposing Sherman in his ad- 
vance on Meridian, Miss. He asked General Granger to re- 
lieve the 47th from the expedition on account of the promise 
made by General Thomas. 

The General said that the regiment was then under him and 
not under General Thomas. The Major inquired further 
whether it would be necessary for him to telegraph General 
Thomas that General Granger refused to recognize the pledge 
by him given to the 47th as binding upon him. After reflec- 
tion General Granger said, "You need not telegraph. Your 
regiment will be left here. Proceed with your re-enlistment." 
He returned to the regiment. In the meantime, a mail had 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 219 



been received from home, in which was a letter to some mem- 
ber of Company D, from Rev. Mr. Schooler, treating upon the 
subject of re-enlistment. It was handed to the Major to read 
and use as he thought advisable. The afternoon being pleas- 
ant, he called the regiment out and made them a speech, dur- 
ing which he read the letter and commented upon the reasons 
cogently advanced in it for re-enlistment. The parade was dis- 
missed, and soon the work of re-enlistment again began. 

During this period, the regiment was engaged in picket and 
patrol duty. Large numbers of the enemy came in and sur- 
rendered. If having been determined to make Cleveland a per- 
manent post. The inhabitants arranged for a flag raising 
to celebrate its permanent restoration to the Union. It 
was one of the most patriotic gatherings ever assembled. 
To the citizens, doubtless, it rivaled in intensity of feeling, 
the ever — memorable Assembly at Independence Hall, on the 
4th of July, 1776. However, the principal interest centered 
in the flag which was about to be raised. It was only an 
ordinary garrison flag, but it bore a dual relation to them ; 
it was the symbol of their freedom, and the souvenir of 
their trials. Three years it had been the object of the most 
thorough search by the Confederates, and three years it had 
been most jealously and sedulously hidden by the Unionists. 
During that time it had been quilted into a skirt and worn by 
different ladies. It had been quilted into comforts. It 
had been stuffed into mattresses. It had been hidden in 
the woods. It had been buried in an ash hopper. It had 
been buried in a graveyard. And then it had been passed 
from house to house, and from female to female, at differ- 
ent periods of its peril, until most every lady of stand- 
ing in the county had at some time jeopardized her liberty to 
save it from capture; and now it was brought from the last hid- 
ing place and vvas about to be given to the free air of heaven. 
Oh, what joy 1 On every fold, when it was given to the breeze 
and waved over them, they read protection to home, and person- 
al security to themselves. Every lady in that large audience 
felt a personal interest in that flag, and on that day of jubilee, 
insisted in honoring its defenders with their sincerest thanks, 
and giving reminiscences of their part in protecting it. 



220 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

The men of the 47th enjoyed the hospitality of Cleveland, 
but they pressed the veteran re-inlistment, and by the 29th of 
February the Major had signed the discharges for all the re- 
enlisted men, mustered the remainder, and compared the mus- 
ter rolls; and on the 1st of March, true to his promise. Gen- 
eral Thomas had relieved it, and started it to its own depart- 
ment for muster and pay. On this march it was placed under 
the command of Capt. L. D Graves, of Company A, and pro- 
ceeded by the railroad on foot to Chattanooga, and thence in 
the same way to Larkinsville, where it arrived on the 5th, and 
at once made application to be mustered as a veteran regiment. 
In accordance with this application, on Sunday, March 6th, at 
9:30 A. M.,. Lieutenant C. J. Dickey re-mustered the 47th into 
the U. S. service. During the intervening days up to the 10th 
it had rained quite heavily, and on the morning of that day a 
a subterranean creek broke through its archway or natural tun- 
nel and submerged the quarters of a large part of Company K, 
producing great consternation, but as the day dawned and the 
cause of the overflow was seen, the excitement was allayed. 
The men were taken into the cantonments which had not been 
reached by the flood and comfortably provided for. 

After considerable delay, the regiment was paid on the morn- 
ing of the 18th, and started at once on the march to Cincin- 
nati to enjoy the veteran furlough, at which place we arrived 
on the 22d of March at 8 A. M., and completed the work of 
furloughing the men two days thereafter, for the period of 
thirty days. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 221 



THE EXPIRATION OF THE VETERAN FURLOUGH. 



The Return to the Field. 



At the expiration of the veteran furlough on the 25th day of 
April, 1864, th° members of the Forty-Seventh Ohio returned 
to Camp Dennison, and again took arms. This time to fight 
until the end of tht conflict unless death should sooner termi- 
nate their warfare. On that day, when the early and the later 
trains had arrived, on the respective company commanders' 
order of roll call, it was found that there were no laggards. 
Every man was present, and every officer was in his proper 
place; and they were accompanied by some recruits. 

This untarnished statement shows the unswerving fidelity of 
the American volunteer. The annals of history do not record 
a parallel instance. No nation upon the face of the 
earth had ever dared or ventured to send its legions home dur- 
ing the middle of a war for national existence, and disband 
them for thirty days, in a country in which they would daily 
come in contact with the secret-oath-bound friends of the con- 
tending power, who had most industriously written letters dur- 
ing a part of the conflict to those soldiers urging them to de- 
sert and come home, assuring them of protection if they would 
do so ; nor had any nation ever dared to bring them home and 
disband them among friends. But the immortal Lincoln was 
full of faith, boundless in resources, and always astonished 
mankind by the originality of his methods. He trusted the 
soldiers, and the soldiers showed him that his faith was well- 
founded ; that his honor as a volunteer was dearer to him and 
his family than the comforts and allurements of home while 
the perpetuity of the Union in peril or an incomplete obliga- 
tion required the performance of a patriotic although most 
perilous duty. 

The great President doubtless saw that the commingling of 
the soldiers with their relations and neighbors would have the 
effect of renewing enthusiasm in the homes of the patriotic, of 
subduing or frightening the cowardly and traitorous organ iza- 



222 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

tion known as the "Knight of the Golden Circle" unto death, 
and of strengthening the determination of the soldiers to 
triumph. However, that may have been, it did accomplish 
those very results, and withal adeed a large army of most ex- 
cellent recruits to the trained army confronting the enemy. 

April 27, '64. Cincinnati, Ohio. The regiment came here 
from Camp Dennison, and we took our same old muskets. Every 
one of those on furlough reported promptly to go to the front 
again. Not one has violated his oath of furlough. We are all 
here to go again to the front, and ready to die for our country 
if need be. We went on board of a steamer at 3:30 P. M. for 
Louisville, Kentucky, and arrived there about 2 o'clock A. M. 
the next morning, April 28th, and remained on the boat until 
near 8 o'clock in the morning, when we disembarked, and were 
marched through the city to near the Louisville and Nashville 
railroad depot, and at 6:15 we went aboard of a train for Nash- 
ville. Tennessee. We run very slow all night and part of next 
day, and arrived at Nashville on April 29th at- 3 P. M. We 
went to the Soldiers Home No. 2 for supper, and remained in the 
city until Sunday, May 1st, at 12 o, clock, when our regiment 
got aboard of four freight trains for Stevenson, Alabama, un- 
der command of Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace. We left 
Nashville at 1 P. M. One car broke down about dark and we 
had to roll it off the track, then went on all night and arrived 
at Stevenson, Alabama, at 3 o'clock A. M. on May 2nd, where 
we remained waiting for our division, which is marching this 
way. 

On his arrival at Stevenson, Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace at 
once resumed the position formerly occupied by the regiment 
in the Second Brigade. Second Division of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps, and marched with the division. 

Colonel Parry had been ordered to Columbus, Ohio, to settle 
the accounts for recruiting during the sojourn in Ohio. As the 
regiment was about to embark for the field, Major Taylor receiv- 
ed a telegraph order to report to Columbus and assist him in 
making the settlement. 

May 3, '64. Lelt Stevenson, Alabama, and marched in the 
direction of Bridgeport. About two miles from here we joined 






History op the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 223 

our brigade and marched to Bridgeport, Alabama, and there 
ramped for the night. 

May 4, '64. Left Stevenson and marched in the direction 
of Bridgeport. About two miles from here we joined our brig- 
ade and marched to Bridgeport, and there camped for the 
night. Left Bridgeport at 7 o'clock A. M. Our regiment 
was detailed to guard the wagon train. We were scattered 
along the whole length of the train, four or five men to erch 
wagon, which hauled our knapsacks. All day troops passed us 
going towards Chattanooga. We went in this manner about 
ten miles, and went into camp, at the Narrows. 

May 5, '64. Left the Narrows at 6 A. M., our regiment in 
advance of the brigade. Weather warm, roads dusty. March- 
ed some twelve miles. Went into camp at 5 P. M. in Lookout 
Valley, five miles from Chattanooga. 

May 6, '64. Left Lookout Valley and marched three miles be- 
yond Chattanooga, then had to march back to Chattanooga, 
where our regiment drew new Springfield Rifles. After this, 
then marched until 10 o'clock at night, having caught up with 
our brigade. Went into camp for the balance of the night. 



Commencement of the Campaign for Atlanta, Georgia. 

The Atlanta Campaign may be said to commence here so far 
as the 47th Regiment Ohio is concerned, and before going into 
the details of the operation of our part of this army, let us see 
what R. Shelton Mackenzie says in his history of the Civil 
War. 

"General Sherman's objective point in Georgia was Atlanta, 
the great Confederate depot of supplies, and the railway centre 
of the Confederacy. The army was collected, organized, armed, 
and drilled with great celerity, and numbered over one hundred 
thousand men and two hundred and fifty-four guns. The 
troops were marshaled in three divisions — The Army of the 
Cumberland, under Major-General Thomas, numbering over 
sixty thousand men — the Army of the Tennessee, commanded 
by Major-GeneralJ. B. McPherson, nearly twenty-five thousand 
men, and the Army of the Ohio, Major-General Schofield, up- 



224 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. L^ 

ward of fourteen thousand men. The Cavalry force, under 
General Kilpatrici and others, amounted to five thousand men. 
The Confederate Army, commanded by General Joseph E.John- 
ston, comprised three grand divisions, under Hardee, Hood, 
and Polk, was sixty thousand strong, including ten thousand 
cavalry. On the 7th of May General McPherson formed the 
extreme right at Gordon's Mills, Georgia." 

Let us now see the composition of the Fifteenth Army Corps, 
to which we belong. The Fifteenth Army Corps is commanded 
by that great and gallant Major-General, John A. Logan; the 
First Division Brigadier-General Peter J. Osterhaus; the Sec- 
end Division (ours) Brigadier-General Morgan L. Smith. (Our 
brigade, the second) Brigadier-General J. A. J. Lightburn, com- 
posed of the following regiments: 30th, 37th, 47th and 54th 
Ohio, and 4th West Virginia, and 83rd Indiana Artillery. 
Captain Peter P. Wood, Batteries A, B, and H of the First Illi- 
nois Artillery, with General Thomas in the center, and General 
McPherson on the right, and General Schofield on the left, 

Third Division Brigadier-General John E. Smith. The Fourth 
Division Brigadier-General J. M. Corse. The strength present 
for duty estimated 20,611. * * * 

May 7, '64, The regiment marched soon after sunrise and 
crossed the Chickamauga Creek at 8 A. M. above the old battle 
ground Marched some 12 miles and went into camp near 
Gordon's Spring Gap. Weather hot, roads dusty. 

May 8, '64. The 47th Regiment marched at 10 A. M. We 
passed Gordon Springs at 2 P. M. and marched until sun down 
and came to a halt for one hour, where we heard the enemy 
were leaving Dalton and that we had to march through the 
mountains to cut off their retreat. We marched some three 
miles farther and went into camp this side of the mountains in 
the direction of Snake Creek Gap or near the Chattanooga 
Mountains. On our march through the day met a division of 
cavalry and a brigade of in fantry going in the opposite direction. 
Heavy firing heard. Artillery was to our left, and we suppose 
we shall soon have to face the enemy. 

May 9, '64. The 47th were called early, and marched at sun- 
rise. We marched some miles in the direction of Snake Creek 
Gap, and came to where our advance had been skirmishing 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 225 

with the enemy. The Colonel of the 9th Illinois Infantry was 
wounded, also a few of his men. The Confederate Cavalry made 
a charge and were repulsed losing several killed, some wounded 
and twelve taken prisoners. We got orders to see that our guns 
were well loaded ; here we remained some time, and about 3P.M. 
we advanced near a mile and took our position in line of battle. 
Four companies of our regiment were on the skirmish line. Came 
to a halt and threw up breastworks in Sugar Valley, and with- 
out opposition, approached very closely to the railroad bridge 
over the Ostenaula River, at Resaca The little town, protected 
with a few earthworks, was in full view. The garrison was weak 
and it looked to us as though we had an easy victory in our 
grasp. Evidently General Joe Johnston had not calculated 
that General Sherman would be so expeditious in his movements. 
He had been surprised. Resaca was at our mercy and his rail- 
road practically in our posession, because it was in easy range 
of our batteries. 

May 10, '64. About 3 P. M. the Sixteenth Army Corps on 
our right drove the Confederates into their works along the 
railroad, and cut the telegraph wire, then fell back, as there 
were indications of the Confederates attacking our rear. Their 
falling back left us in the front. Were ordered to be ready to 
move at a moments notice, and be under arms. At 10 A. M. 
the 47th fell in line and marched some few hundred yards south 
of the battery, where we expected an attack. There ensued quite 
a brisk skirmishing on our left front. We remained here until 
noon, then threw up fortifications by felling timber, and then 
earth on them. While here quite a disagreeable rain fell. Colonel 
Parry and Major Taylor joined us at this point. 

This was the first real acquaintance we had with General 
McPherson, and we were not familiar with his cautious methods. 
McPherson viewed the situation with the eye of a finished en- 
gineer, and he believed that should he possess himself of the 
position, General Johnston could crush his army before Gen- 
eral Sherman could re-enforce him. After we became acquaint- 
ed with him we esteemed him most highly. He was never 
compelled to evacuate a position because it was untenable. 

May 11, '64 The 47th is still at Sugar Valley. A very 
heavy thunder storm and hard rain last night. We were call- 



'226 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I, 

ed up atone o'clock this morning and fell into line at 2:30 
and marched two and one-half miles to to the rear, at the 
mouth of Snake Creek Gap. where we were again put to work 
throwing up a line of breastworks, which were said to be three 
miles long. The work was done by two divisions of the Six- 
teenth Army Corps and three divisions of our Corps (the Fif- 
teenth.) Skirmishing to-day. Companies F and G on the 
skirmish line. We cannot understand why this retreat waf 
made, but know our commanders understand their business 
thoroughly. We heard the artillery and the rattle of musketry 
to our left very frequently through the day. 

May 12, '64. At Snake Creek Gap. Received orders at 8 A, 
M. to pack up and be ready to move at a moments notice. 
Marched a little before 10 A. M. The 47th took the position 
that we left yesterday in Sugar Valley, having marched about 
two and one half miles, and halted. A brigade of our cavalry 
passed us going towards the railroad at Resaca. They were 
met by the Confederate Cavalry and a regiment of infantry 
and were driven back with lossof some killed and many wound- 
ed. In the evening a battery passed us and Generals Joe Hooker, 
and Sickles, who had left his left leg on the battle field of Get- 
tysburg, rode down the line, eliciting enthusiastic cheers, 
especially when the men beheld the empty pantaloon leg flapping 
against the saddle skirt. 

Later in the day Generals Sherman, Thomas, Palmer and 
Howard arrived and passed along the line of our Army of the 
Tennessee. This display gave the soldiers knowledge that the 
entire army was concentrated, and ready for a forward move- 
ment ; besides, it gave to each one a knowledge of *he appear- 
ance of our respective commanders, and had a tendency to in- 
spire confidence in them. 

During the afternoon the 47th, together with the remainder 
of the Second Division, moved into Sugar Valley and took 
position at the cross roads. The entire army is here except 
General Howard, and he is marching this way. 






History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 227 



THE BATTLE OF RESACA, GEORGIA. 



May 13, '64. The 47th was called up at midnight to draw 
rations, and pa 'k up our knapsacks; take them to brigade head- 
quarters a id leave them, and at 6 o'clock A. M. fell into line. 
Our regiment being the advance of the division, went some 
distance and halted until the cavalry passed us, led by General 
Kilpatrick in person. 

The cavalry struck the enemy in a dense woods, who contest- 
ed the advance sharply. They were dismounted by order of 
General Kilpatrick and fought as infantry, until he was wound- 
ed in the thigh, and carried back on a stretcher beyond the 
head of our column. 

Companies D, E, F, H, and K of the 47th were deployed for- 
ward as skirmishers and relieved the cavalry, which was then 
massed in some open fields by the roadside, in a safer place. 
When the advance reached the Calhoun Ferry road, the first 
line of battle was formed, the right of the brigade resting near 
Lick Creek, to which the line presently advanced. After 
the skirmishers had effected a lodgment in the woods in front 
of the line, and cleared it of the enemy, it moved across the 
open country to the friendly cover of the woods, steadily con- 
centrating as it approached Resaca. Sharp opposition was 
experiencd by the right of the brigade from a force in a stock- 
ade on a detached hill. Without halting, the line pressed 
forward, flanking it, and cheer on cheer rang out as its defenders, 
who, beholding the inevitable, flaunted their flags defiantly at us 
and made haste to their main line. 

The advance was changed after this obstruction was passed 
from the line to the flank, marching by fours, as the country 
was broken, and the heavy skirmish line relieved; Company H 
alone being required to cover the entire front. As the force 
neared Resaca, the resistance became more general, and the 
skirmishing incessant, the advance being made under a constant 
pressure of resistance. The enemy retired steadily, abandoning 
ridge after ridge, until he finally entered his line of earthworks. 
which enveloped the town, and covered the bridge over the 
River Ostenaula. 



228 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

The casualties of the day were light in the 47th: no one 
was killed. 

Our position was most advantageous and important ; because 
from it our Parrott Battery could reach the town and the rail- 
road trestle, and the bridga over the Ostenaula River. After 
nightfall the regiment retired behind the crest of the ridge 
and lay down. Companies A and B relieved Captain Helmrich 
and Company H on the skirmish line. Total loss in the regi- 
ment was five men wounded. 

May 14, '(34. On Saturday details were engaged in heavy 
skirmishing; at 12 M. we assisted in making a demonstration, 
which continued until 4 P. M. Active skirmishing had begun 
at sunrise, and artillery firing had become general at 6 A. M. 
Between the ridge occupied by the Federals and the line of the 
Confederates, a lower ridge extended, paralleling them almost 
to the river, and in the valley separating our line and that 
ridge, flowed Camp Creek, the banks of which were heavily tim- 
bered which had been deadened, the same being then on fire. 
At 6 P. M. again made a demonstration which continued till 7 
P. M. Two men in Company C were wounded ; at 7:10 P. M. 
the 47th advanced under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry, 
to the support of the First Brigade, Second Division, Fifeenth 
Army Corps, which had stormed a hill occupied by the enemy. 
During the night the 47th was occupied in fortifying the posi- 
tion we had captured from the enemy, not far from the railroad 
bridge at Resaca. Major Taylor says about the timber on fire 
in the valley as follows. 

In some manner, this deadening had been set on fire. It- 
seemed that every tree was a fire slowly burning. 

"O'er all the vale fell slowly, wafting down 
Dilated flakes of fire, as flakes of snow 
On Alpine summit, when the wind ishushed, 
As, in the torrid Indian clime, the son 
Of Amnion saw, upon his warrior band 
Descending, solid flames, that to the ground 
Came down ; when he bethought him with his troops 
To trample on the soil — 

So fell the continual fiery flood, wherewith 
The earth glowed underneath, as under stove." 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 229 

There was no cover there for skirmishers, and the burning 
valley must be passed. Down into the fiery furnace dashed the 
fearless 47th and through the falling flakes and sparks and 
limbs nothing daunted, they ran to the creek, crossing which 
they advanced up the ridge beyond, but being out of reach of 
their reserve, and the protection of our line. 

About noon, from the very heavy firing on the left, and the 
movements of the enemy, it was evident that some portion of 
our army was making a very strong fight. Therefore, our bat- 
teries increased their fire, and the line of battle advanced on 
the crest of the ridge in full view of the enemy, and cheered 
immensely as though in the act of charging. This demonstra- 
tion brought back a column of the enemy, apparently a brigade 
to watch our movements. 

In a short time, orders were received to hold the regiment in 
readiness to advance with the Second Brigade of the Second 
Division, of the Fifteenth Army Corps, to support a charge 
which would be made by our First Brigade under General Giles 
A. Smith. General Osterhaus was ordered to move with the 
First Division to hold the position to the left of the storming 
column. The passage of the fiery furnace was worse than 
charging the enemy, because of the falling sparks and burning 
limits, but we were soon through it and over the creek, climbing 
the ridge on which the First Brigade had already gained a foot- 
hold, and was being most severely pressed by a part of General 
Johnston's command, which made two or three charges to dis- 
possess them. The musketry firing which succeeded each repulse 
of the enemy, was terriffic. But the First Brigade stood as a 
wall of stone, not even asking f<»r our deployment on their right, 
until 7 :10 P. M. All the batteries with which the Confederates 
could reach our advancing column were turned on it, and belched 
forth their terrible missiles of death full upon its line of ad- 
vance, when passing through the fiery furnace, but the column 
gained the required position, a knell in the edge of a small 
woods about 400 yards from the enemies' line and held it secure- 
ly. At 8 :10 the enemy abandoned the effort to retake t lie posi- 
tion, ceased firing at once along his entire line, and withdrew 
to the works immediately in front of the depot and trestle. 
Company D was detailed to fill the gap between the right of the 



230 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. T. 

line and the river and promptly occupied the territory, and 
extending our Line to it. 

General Johnston, immediately after this capture and the 
extension of our line to the river, began his retreat by moving 
his wagon t rains and reserve art illery over the river bridge, and 
kept up the work most actively until daylight [n our position 
we could distinctly hear the talk of the trainmen and teamsters 
as they moved rearward, [n accordance with the usual prac- 
tice, work upon rifle pits was at once begun, and continued until 
3 A. M., whenthey were finished and the men slept. At 3 A. 
M. Gen. Johnston sent a train load of wounded to the rear. At 
■1:30 A. M. musketry firing began on our line, accompanied 
uo"»' and then at considerable intervals, by a cannon shot. The 
skirmishers were active all the morning. At noon, an aid-de- 
camp of General Lightburn, came with an order to repel an as- 
sault, as the enemy was forming in three lines in our front . 
After standing to arms an hour, in serious expectation, it lie- 
came apparent that General Johnston was feigning, to prevent 
an advance by us, and the day passed witli nothing but skirm- 
ishing on our part'. At 11 P. M. it seemed as though Hooker 
was forcing the battle from the heavy firing and loud cheering 
in his front. The noise and din and smoke of the conflict, to 
one outside the cloud, would have created the impression that a 
tremendous battle was raging. However, it was only a feint or 
-ha in by Johnston to prevent heavy fighting with the Federals, 
as if was necessary for him to have the friendly cover of the 
night, when the "sable mantle" would he suspended between 
the contending forces to enable him to withdraw the rest of 
his storesand his army. 

Evacuation of Resaca, Georgia 

May 1(5, '04. Our skirmishers were advanced and found that 
the enemy had evacuated at sunrise The 47th advanced to the 
railroad near the Ostenaula River, and remained some two 
hours. Comrade Geo. \V. Girton, Company E says: While we 
were here 1 went over part of the battle ground, which had been 
in our front. There I saw several dead Confederates, among 
them was a lieutenant-colonel. Most of them had whiskey in 
their canteens, and were nearly as black as negroes.) About 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 281 



10 A. M. we inarched back near one and one half miles to where 
we formed our line of battle on Friday. Here we halted for 
dinner and to wait until our knapsacks cam" up. Marched in 
pursuit of the enemy, crossed the Ostenaula River near Lay's 
Ferry on a pont >on bridge, cams up with the SiKteenth Corps, 
and went into camp two miles from the river. Our advance 
have been skirmishing with the enemy nearly all day. The 
enemy lost several badly wounded men. We marched some 
twelve miles to-day.. 

At 8:30 A. M., of Monday, we saw the railroad bridge ablaze, 
and realized that General Johnston had removed everything he 
deemed it prudent to attempt to move, and was safely over th<> 
river. But General Sherman in anticipation of this movement, 
had SHnt General Garrard's cavalry, with a pontoon train, a 
pioneer corps, and a strong infantry support to Lay's Ferry, 
where two bridges were laid across the river, and during the 
morning we heard the cannonading between our advance, and 
the rear guard of the enemy, near that point. The casualties 
of the regiment were on the 13th: Company I three; Company 
A two; On the 14th, Company A, one; C. one; and Captains 
King of F and Helmrich of H ; on the 15th, Company I, one, 
all slightly wounded. 

Generals J. B. McPherson and J. A. Logan, at Resaca Georgia. 

A comrade of Company C 47th Ohio writes as follows of the 
battle of Resaca: '"General Sherman's orders to General 
McPherson were to push through Snake Creek Gap and strike 
the railroad at Resaca and hold it (if in his descretion he thought 
best to do so) and thus force Johnston and his grand army of 
retreaters to let go at Dalton. General McPherson accordingly 
with 23,000 men and 96 guns entered Snake Creek Gap on Mav 
9th at 5 A. M. and within one hour encountered the Confederate 
cavalry. We quickly brushed these aside and drove them be- 
fore us, and at 2 P. M. the 47th were within one and one-half 
miles of Resaca, Unshed with success, and ready for the final 
dash, but McPherson thought otherwise, and the advance was 
not ordered and our golden opportunity to captureResaca on that 
day was lost." General Sherman (in his memoirs) writes: ' ; On 
the 9th I received a note from McPherson (written at 2 P. M. 



232 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. L 

when he was within one and one-half miles from Resaca) and 
we all felt jubilant. I renewed orders to Thomas and Schofield 
to be ready for instant pursuit of what I expected to be a brok- 
en and disordered army, forced to retreat by the roads to the 
east of Resaca known to be rough and impracticable." "On this 
occasion and in his menoirs gives vent as follows: McPherson 
had startled Johnston in his fancied security, but had not done 
the full measure of his works. He had in hand 23,000 of the 
best men in the army, and could have walked into Resaca, then 
held only by a small brigade, or he could have placed his whole 
force astride the railroad above Resaca and there have easily 
withstood the attack of all of Johnston's army, with the knowl- 
edge that Thomas and Schofield were on his heels. Had he 
done so, I am certain that Johnston would not have ventured 
to attack him m that position, but would have retreated east- 
ward by Springplace, and would have captured half his army 
and all his artillery and wagons at the very beginning of the 
campaign. Such an oppotunity does not occur twice in a sin- 
gle life, but at that critical moment McPherson seems to have 
been a little timid; still, he was justified by his orders, and fell 
back and assumed an unassailable position in Sugar Valley on 
the Resaca side of Snake Creek Gap." (And now the comrade 
says) "The question now arises could McPherson have held Resa- 
ca if he had taken it." General Sherman says that he could and 
Johnston in his "narrative of the war" claims that he could 
not, and that he would have annihilated him then and there, 
but does not exactly state how. It must be understood that 
we were not so well informed as to the strength of the garrison 
in Resaca, on May 9th, 1864, as we were several years afterwards, 
when General Sherman wrote his memoirs and under the cir- 
cumstances General McPherson acted wisely at the time. I 
would, though, in this connection, offer my humble opinion that 
had General Logan commanded instead of McPherson, and 
with the same instructions, Resaca would have been ours on 
May 9th instead of the 16th. It is far from my desire to cast 
any reflections on the fame of General McPherson, and wither- 
ed be the hand that should ever attempt it, for a truer and 
more gallant soldier and gentleman never commanded an army. 
He was as everybody in his command knew, an extremely keen 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 2BB 

and cautious commander, and would not sacrifice any human 
lives without attaining good results therefrom; Logan, on thu 
other hand, was bold and impetuous, even unto rashness, and 
would stake his last man to win, and on every occasion did 
win. It is for the above reasons, I say, that had General Logan 
commanded, the result would have been different, for with titie 
same dicretionary order, he would have acted just the opposite 
way and planted the Army of the Tennessee right across the 
path of Johnston's retreating forces or died in the attempt. 
And had McPherson's orders been peremptory the same results 
would have been attained by him, but Resaca was won on the 
16th of May. We lost several good men. The Second Division 
resumed the march on the 17th, with the 47th in the advance. 
This service was exceedingly tiresome throughout the day; the 
regiment being almost constantly engaged as skirmishers and 
flankers to cover and protect the column as it moved through 
the forests and broken country. 

We passed the 16th Army Gorps at 7 A. M. We are closely 
pursuing the retreating enemy. Our advance has skirmished 
all day ; our cavalry, the 5th Kentucky, had one man killed at • 
or near McGuires. The enemy made a stand in a dense woods, 
and opened a battery on us, when our division formed and ad- 
vanced in line of battle, then the enemy retired. We heard 
some heavy firing on our left Went into camp about one 
mile from McGuires on the Adairsville and Rome road at sun- 
down having marched about sixteen miles, and skirmished more 
or less all day with the enemy. During the day it rained 
heavily, and our clothing is very wet. 

May 16, '64. The 47th remained in camp resting until 3 P. 
M.,then marched to Adairsville with two companies of our regi- 
ment deployed as flankers arrived at Adairsville. We rested 
there, drew some rations and at 10 P. M started on our march 
again Marched until 3 o'clock the next morning. Through 
the fault of some one we were lost and only mar died five miles 
{all night) in a direct line. All the boys were very tired and 
wearied out. We saw General Sherman and his face wore a 
pleased and satisfied expression. This place seemed to be a 
point of concentration ; as all the army seems to be around here, 



2S4 History of the 47th Regiment 0. 



V. V. I. 



some say nearly 100,000, and our sutlers came up for the iirsi 
time since the campaign commenced. 

Ma or Taylor describes the armies leaving Ada.rsville.as see, 
„.;„„ ' n p „ im of ob8 ervation: "Durmgthe afternoon, sjmu a 
neous lv the armies took up the lineoi march from the lit! 

,H J On ascending a ridge called Gravelly Plat* ,au wh rch 
overlooked the valley, in which the village was half h ddmv by 
beautiful groves, and the roads diverging from it, the writer 
,; . ,1 oJside the column to behold tins Irving panorama oi 
,,1 power. At his feet were about 90,000 men ,n motion ; 
' ,' " , ..ar.nv with banners" daunting in the gentle breeze. 
Z the 'heads of the respective columns moved from the village, 
f was seen that, the Army of the Ohio was on the left; he 
A.,mv« he Cumberland in the center, and the Army o the 
TeZssee on the right. In advance of each moved a solitary 
vidette or light patrol, followed by a detachment of cavalry 
tl brizlt Lidons. As the detachment reached divergent 
lav, fe bC of. a bugle gave the direction, until it seemed 
rhTevery road, every by-way and every path, contained a mov- 
fanny and looking towards the village, it seemed as though 
ti a sheet of burning steel, writhing and wriggling itself m- 
Cm as the dense masses undoubled and wound into columns. 
Aethnl.tey.nove out at a bugle blast, a small body '.'double. 
a aiclea "deploying forward, until the head of the column was 
^covered by their skirmish line.andon the "flunks 
of the Armies of the Ohio and the Tennessee, a body was seen 
to move about a quarter of a mile on the oute.d eo the m , 
nndoubled ranks and marched m single hie, keeping itsen 
u o y parallel with the marching column, winch was known 
as flanke s Then came the regiments, each protecting its ex- 
p^d lank as above, two or three.or ^^^ -the ,«- 
of the brigade, then the brigade commander and a battel y or 
I t Ten telh,;ed by an equal number; and ,n « ,hi. way*e 
movement proceeded until the entire army was on the march. 
Z. ■ tl. 1 rLLea took up the man-h. t he bands began to play .n- 
fpirnglh'-the regimental, brigade, battery and other colors 
and flag were fluttering in the wind, the men stepping proud- 
W and rap flly forward, and, looking over the bine columns as 
,,1 Lively tread the roads of that broken country, here 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 235 

coming into view as a little hill was crossed, there disappearing 
in a valley, or around a curve in the way, or anon moving in 
straight lines to the front, with the bright afternoon sun glint- 
ing upon and reflected from the burnished steel and silken 
colors, it seemed a sight to stir the soul to its lowest depths 
with the highest degree of pride and faith, and to almost en- 
trance the beholder. Away in the distance four or five miles, with 
the aid of my glass, I beheld General Joe Johnston and others, 
watching the movement with the same absorbing interest, ap- 
parently, and I felt delighted that we had given him one mag- 
nificent view, undisturbed by bullet or cannonball. The regi- 
ment marched to a point about two and one half miles from 
Woodlawn, where it went into camp a little after dark. In the 
course of his duty, it was necessary for the writer to ascend a 
high point from which he obtained a view that he recorded in 
his journal as the most beautiful of the kind he had ever beheld, 
— viz: a night scene of a large camp. The Army of the Ten- 
nessee, numbering about 25,000 men, were bivoucking in a large 
crescent shaped valley a few hundred feet beneath with over 
10,000 camp fires brightly burning, from which ascended fleecy, 
semi-transparent clouds of smoke, tinted and colored from the 
lightest roseate to the most gorgeous scarlet, and shading off 
in the distance into more subdued and sombre hues, rippling 
and floating like the waves of a crystal sea, through which could 
be dimly seen the animated groups around the several fires, and 
could lie heard the bursts of laughte 1- and snatches of song, as 
they cooked their bacon and coffee. On the opposite side of 
the valley, a bold high ridge, covered with bright green foliage 
revealed by the blaze of the myriad fires, rose grandly as a 
background to the picture, and just overhead, shutting me in, 
as it were, between the nimbra strata, extending away towards 
the Etowah River, clouds of every conceivable shade of blue, 
tinged on the lower edges to an aurora, by the reflection of the 
colored lights beneath, were chasing each other on their diurnal 
revolution to bring another day. 

May 19, '64. The 47th with the brigade resumed the pursuit 
of Johnston's army at 7 A. M. towards Kingston; passed the 
place where our cavalry had had a fight with the enemy. Our 
force lost some men wounded, and several horses killed, still 



236 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



lying there. Several of the Confederates were wounded, among 
them a Colonel who fell a prisoner in our hands. Orders were 
received to be prepared, at all times, to deploy for battle. The 
ar 8 1 division, under General Osterhaus. was in the advance, 
and we were compelled to march very slow. We heard firing 
during tbe day, but as the enemy retreated on slight pressure 
it was unnecessary to deploy in line, the skirmishers doing all 
the work. The Army of the Cumberland occupied Kingston. 
and the Army of the Tennessee was between that city and Rome. 
General Johnston's army, then at Cassville, it will be seen, was 
completely flanked, and his position and rifle pits could not be 
held by him. We picketed the road between Kingston and 
Rome, supported by two regiments which slept on arms, ready 
to re-enforce us at a moments notice should an emergence re- 
quire it General McPherson and staff passed us in the fore- 
noon The 47th marched some eight miles and went into 
camp on the Connasene Creek, near where it empties into the 
Etowah River, not far from Kingston, Georgia. 

May 9 '64 We did not look on Friday as an unlucky, but 
as a lucky, day, for the battle which was expected to occur 
on that day, was averted by the enemies retreat. We remain- 
ed in the camp during the day awaiting rations. Got orders 
to lay on our arms and be ready for any emergency Duaing 
the day a member of our division staff saw a note, which read : 
"Yanks the rebellion will be crushed. You've got men, we 
havn't. You will find us in rifle pits six miles from here towards 
Cassville, but will flank us out. When we cross the river, 1 
shall go north where I came from " 

The 30th Ohio returned from its veteran furlough to-day. 
May 21 '64 The 47th still remained in same camp near 
Kingston,' Georgia. Received orders to wash our clothing, etc., 
and had inspection of arms. 

Mav 22 '64. Still resting in same camp near Kingston, 
Georgia. Orders to march to-morrow. There appeared to be 
a row in the 54th Ohio, or a free fight by the dozen. General 
O O Howard and others preached in the afternoon, this being 
Sunday. Captain L. D. Graves and Lieutenants Kmgsburg 
and Wilbur rejoined their respective companies. At b A^ M., 
on Monday the 23rd, the pickets were all drawn in, and the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 237 

second division in advance crossed the Etowah River on Glue's 
Rridge. We passed the residence of Vice President Stevens of 
the so-called Confederacy. His residence is a beautiful one 
and a very fine plantation. Here moved up the river among 
fields of splendid looking wheat, to the Rlackville Road, and 
thence on it to Van Wert. This movement, we understood, 
was made for the purpose of driving General Johnston south 
of Allatoona Pass withaut a battle. It was strategy, and the 
benefit of that noted stronghold was lost to the Confederates 
without a direct struggle on our part. It was a victory won by 
a felicitous combination of brains and legs, bearing on a defi- 
nite object. After marching nineteen miles, the 47th went in- 
to camp on Euharlee Creek, and the pickets were established 
in good season. Daring the night, the pickets of the 8th Mis- 
souri Mounted Infantry were fired on. General Wilder's cav- 
alry passed us after we went into camp. 

May 24, '64. The 47th remained in camp until nearly noon 
As the Fourth Division of our Corps took the advance, the Sec- 
ond Division was relegated to the wagon train, consisting of six 
hundred wagons, then loaded with twenty days' rations to sus- 
tain the flank movement. A regiment was assigned to one 
hundred wagons. The train began moving out of park about 
noon, but although the movement never ceased a moment it 
was night before the last of the train moved out. The division 
including the 47th went into camp on Cane Creek, a branch of 
Raccoon, a short distance East of VanWert, having only 
marched eight miles. Passed through VanWert, a small town 
in Calhoun County. We are not far from Dallas. There is 
some skirmishing at the front. It literally poured rain at 
night; the water ran under us, and some of the boys procured 
rails and placed them on logs to lie on; it was, indeed, a very 
disagreeable night, and an almost sleepless one for the Army 
of the Tennessee. Company F, of the 47th, was placed on 
picket for the night. 

May 25, '64. Resumed our march at 7 A. M. Passed the 
Fourth Division of our Corps. Marched until 10 o'clock and 
halted for an hour ; then again marched toward Dallas, near 
Pumpkinvine Creek. Heard some artillery firing, supposed to 
be by the Cavalry. The 47th then received orders to be pre- 



288 History ok tiik 17th Ukoimk.vt O. V. V. I. 

pared to move at a moment's notice \t 7 P. M. were called 
into line and marched oue and one-half mile-* nearer Dallas, 
where we formed in line of battle on a steep hillside, and were 
ordered to lie on our arms in line of battle for the night — the 
First Division, Fifteenth Army Corps on the right, the Second 
on the center, the Fourth with the wagons. We were in rear 
and in support of our battery. The night was dark and rainy. 

During the morning Gen. Garrard's Cavalry struck the ene- 
my sharply, and a tierce struggle ensued, during which the 
First Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps was sent to re-en- 
force him, and the advance was continued to Pumpkinvine 
Creek, the 47th going into camp near a log church, four or five 
miles from Dallas. Heavy skirmishing in front 

Let us now see what the other wing of our army is doing on 
our left, while we are making our flank movement on Dallas. 
At 6 P. M. the Battle of New Hope Church opened unexpected- 
ly to both armies. General Hooker was marching on road- 
leading to Marietta, and was about four miles from the bridge 
at the point of the intersection of the road leading from Van- 
Wert to Marietta with that leading from Allatoona to Dallas. 
known as New Hope Church, when Geary struck a heavy in- 
fantry force from Johnston's Army, moving to Dallas. Re-en- 
forcements arrived rapidly to both armies, and the battle was 
unusually spirited. It began raining very hard at 7 P. M., and 
the night was pitchy dark, but the fight did not subside for an 
hour, and then ceased only on account of the confusion pro- 
duced by the darkness. The Federals did not fortify because 
they expected to renew the conflict and move forward in the 
morning; but in the morning, alas I they beheld a fine line of 
works in front of the enemy. In the meantime, during the 
skirmishing, the Fifteenth Army Corps fell in and marched 
two and a half miles nearer to Dallas, and took position on a 
ridge facing south-east, General Osterhaus occupying the first, 
and General M. L. Smith, with the Second Division, occupying 
the second line of battle. 

General G. M. Dodge, with part of the Sixteenth Army Corps 
was on the left, and General Jeff C. Davis was on the left of 
Dodge, but there was a distance of between two or three miles 
between Hooker's right and Davis' left. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. ¥. V. I. 289 



COMMENCMENT OF THE BATTLE OF DALLAS, GEORGIA. 



May 2fi, '64. At Dallas Georgia. The 47th lay in the same 
position we were last night. At 12 o'clock M. were ordered to 
fall into line; marched nearly a mile; then formed line of bat- 
tle to the left of the Powder Springs Road. We remained 
thus perhaps twenty minutes, then came to a left face, and 
moved about a quarter of a mile, then again formed line of 
battle in a cornfield, where we remained about one hour, then 
advanced to within sight of Dallas in line of battle, then again 
came to a left flank, marched up in front of the Confederate 
works in the edge of the town ; found the works weak and no 
enemy behind them; then marched up in the town of Dallas 
where the Sixteenth Army Corps passed us. We then moved 
about one mile east of town, formed our line of battle in rear of 
battery H to support it. The enemy is strongly posted in our 
front, and in a few hundred yards the skirmish line encount- 
ered the enemy at close range. The fire was sharp and deadly. 
In a few seconds the entire first brigade was engaged, batteries 
unlimbered, and the fight became fierce, but the enemy gradu- 
ally gave ground until we gained the summit of the ridge, east 
of Dallas At this point our line halted. The second brigade 
moved forward to the support of the first, and General Oster- 
haus deployed one brigade of his division on each flank of the 
first brigade of the second division. During the night there 
was a constant effort to advance, which occasioned sharp con- 
tention, and occasionally heavy firing. In the morning, it 
was seen that the first brigade of the Second Division, Fifteenth 
Army Corps, had grained a few rods and dug rifle pits. 

Battle of Dallas, Georgia, Continued. 

May 27, '64. Changed our front at 7 A. M., fronting to the 
north. Moved again at 8 A. M., leaving Companies C and H 
to support the battery; went a short distance nearly east and 
formed our line in our position in the brigade, and proceed- 
ed to throw up breastworks. Was again called into line in 
the afternoon; there was continued sharp skirmishing all day. 



240 Historv of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

Several in our brigade were wounded, and some were killed ; the 
tire of the artillery on both sides was heavy all day. Dur- 
ing the day the enemy charged the First Division, Fifteenth Army 
Corps. The charge was spiritless, and of course, failed. Dur- 
ing the afternoon, a captain and two men of the Fourth Division, 
Fifteenth Army Corps, captured a squad of twenty-one Confed- 
erates who had just taken in one of their skirmishers. To- 
day the wagon train was ordered behind the center. 

The First and Second Divisions gained considerable ground 
to the north of the Marietta road and fortified it. Each army 
had become very proficient in the construction of earthworks,, 
and they were built remarkably strong with head logs and bas- 
tions, which delighted the eyes of the engineers. General Sher- 
man said, "Many of them grew to be as formidable as first 
class works of defense." This morning the Confederates made 
a charge on General Osterhaus, which he repulsed, and follow- 
ed with a countercharge at once, capturing a line of rifie pits 
from the enemy, which he immediately turned and fortified. 

During the day General Lightburn moved the Second Brigade, 
Second Division into line on the right of the First Brigade, and 
between it and General Harrow; the 47th was in the first line. 
This brigade gained considerable ground during the day, and 
of course, fortified it. 

Battle of Dallas, Georgia, Continued. 

May 28, '64. The day opened with heavy skirmishing, the 
47th still constructing rifle pits. The skirmish is brisk and 
sharp in our front* several more of our men wounded. The 
enemy opened a heavy cannonade, and at 4:50 P. M. made a 
charge upon our line ; they were repulsed with a very heavy loss. 
They, (the enemy,) charged up to within a rod of our breast- 
works, when our men opened on them by volleys, taking aim. 
General Logan was present. Colonel Parry and General Logan 
cheered the men and urged them on. Our volleys cut the ene- 
mies ranks all to pieces scattering them badly * they retreated 
pell-mel leaving their dead and some wounded behind them. 
Their loss must be over 2,000, while our loss is light — some say 
twenty to our brigade. After the repulse of the enemy the 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 241 

skirmishing continued, also heavy artillery firing, which lasted 
till midnight. Major Taylor says of this battle as follows: 

"Early in the morning of the 28th the Confederates opened a 
battery on General Osterhaus, which was promptly answered 
by one of his batteries, and a sharp artillery duel followed for 
a considerable period. From 10 A. M. until 4 P. M. there 
was a bill in the conflict, only light skirmishing, during which 
it was evident that the Confederates were preparing for a supreme 
effort. At 4 P. M. the enemy opened with a heavy cannonade 
from all their guns, and continued the rain of the missiles of 
death one-half hour, at the expiration of which they made an 
imphtuous charge, striking Harrow's Division first. The storm- 
ing column reached the works in front of Griffith's battery, 
crossed them, and took possession of one gun, but all of those 
daring men died at the gun. The storm ran down the line, 
sounding like an approaching hail storm, striking the Second 
Brigade, Second Division 4 at 4:40, and the First Brigade, Sec- 
ond Division at 5:55, rolling onward to the First Division 
Fifteenth Army Corps. In front of the Second Division the 
foe was suffered to approach within ten steps of the rifle pits, 
when the soldiers rose in them, and delivered rapid and deadly 
volleys, while the artillery vomited double-shotted charges of 
cannister in their faces. No lines could stand up under that 
sudden and well sustained fire, and the charge failed. In a 
space forty feet square the writer counted 20 dead and 30 wound- 
ed, and it seemed as though they were lying in almost the aamf 
manner all down our entire line. The Second Division captured 
some prisoners. The dead and wounded in our immediate front 
belonged to a Florida Brigade. Heavy firing with cannonading, 
continued on our left until almost twelve o'clock, midnight. 

May 29, '64. A brisk heavy skirmish was continued to-day. 
Comrade George W. Girton, Company E, says in his dairy of 
this date. At sunrise went up to the ditches in our front to see 
the Confederate dead that our men had carried in. There was 
one captain and twenty-one non-commisioned officers and pri- 
vates. Our men would have brought in a great many more, but 
the Confederates fired on them when they were getting their 
wounded to take care of them, and getting their dead to bury 
them. The Confederate wounded and dead were more an object 



242 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

of pity than any thing else; they were very dirty, and mostly 
shot in the head and upper part <*f the body; it was a horrify- 
ing spectacle in onr front. In the evening there were Rome ex- 
citing rumors; one was that Johnston had been re-enforced by 
R. E. Lee's forces; the other was, that we would retreat to some 
better position. Our wagon train went to the rear during the 
night, and about 10 P. M. our regiment w;i< called into line. 
(we being in reserve.) remained in line half an hour, when we 
heard heavy firing on our lef ! . We then went at double-quick 
over to our works in support of the 83rd Indiana, and there re- 
mained all night without seeing a Confederate. We supposed 
from the firing there was a hard fought battle to the left; our 
skirmishers were sharply engaged, but nothing transpired dur- 
ing the day except skirmishing, which occasionally rose to the 
dignity of battle. 

In accordance with orders to break from the right in order 
to prolong the line toward the railroad, General Harrow began 
lo move his division to the rear early in the morning, but did 
not get the head of the division in motion until 10 P. M., at 
which time the ConfeHerates were massed for another assault. 
In a few minutes the storm burst in great fury upon the First 
Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps, and against the Sixteenth 
Army Corps, but it was soon repelled, and cheer upon cheer 
rang out on the ''calm still night." Again and again, the 
tactics were repeated by the Confederates until 3 A.M. they 
were simply "feeling" to see if our line and"our flag were still 
there." 

May 30, '64. The 47th was called into line at daylight and 
marched back to our old position. Some of the regimental 
officers of our brigade were drunk this morning ; the Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the 83rd Indiana was in that condition and concluded 
he could take the enemies' works. He walked through 
our skirmish line, and the Confederates took him in out of the 
wet ; suppose he will have plenty of time to sober up at Ander- 
sonville. The skirmishing is as brisk as usual. Generals \V. 
T. Sherman, and J. B. McPherson, and J. A. Logan passed our 
lines at about noon. Colonel Taylor of General McPherson 's 
staff was wounded in the right side and General Logan slightly 
wounded in the arm as they passed the left of our regiment ; in 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 248 

the evening our regiment relieved the 53rd Ohio in the trenches. 
Companies D and F were skirmishers. 

May 31, '64. Skirmishing continued throughout the day. 
The Confederate skirmishers are bolder than other days ; they 
killed one man and wounded three more in our regiment to-day. 
Two men of Company D and one of Company A were badly 
wounded ; one man in Company B was killed ; later in the day 
it is reported that two men of Company D have died. We re- 
mained in the outer works all day. 

The last three days we have been anxious to break to the 
left, but the enemy watch us so closely we cannot do it with- 
out being caught "in air," and compelled to fight at a great 
disadvantage. To-day at a time when -there was sharp firing, 
General Logan and staff rode along the line on a gallop, elicit- 
ing loud cheers and great enthusiasm. At 6 P. M. the cannon- 
ading was quite heavy, and again it broke out late in the night. 

June 1, '64. Dallas, Georgia. At 5 o'clock A. M. the 47th 
moved out of our works and marched to Dallas, where we re- 
mained until about 9 A. M. Comrade George W. Girton, Com- 
pany E, says : ''While our regiment rested at Dallas this morn- 
ing for some two hours, I went to some of the houses where 
the Confederate wounded were, and I saw the most heart sick- 
ening sight I ever saw ; men living with the most horrible 
wounds, with maggots crawling all over them, and they taking 
their hands and killing and throwing them off of themselves." 
We resumed our march at 9 A. M. We marched some six miles 
to our left, reached Newhope church, where we relieved Gen- 
eral Butterfield's Division of the Twentieth Army Corps. Here 
our regiment was placed in reserve. A brisk skirmish is going 
on at the front; there was an alarm at 11 P. M. by heavy fir- 
ing on our left. All the regiments had withdrawn safely, and 
at 6:45 A. M., when the bugle blew the call the skirmish Hue 
marched in retreat, covering the general movement magnificient- 
ly, for which the regiment w r as highly complimented by General 
Smith. A few Confederates advanced cautiously to our aban- 
doned works, when a Company of the 37th, which had been 
placed in position for the purpose, opened fire and swept them 
from the line, thus preventing a further advance. 

June 2, '64. Newhope Church, Georgia. The 47th was call- 



244 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

ed about 4 A. M., and went into the front earthworks, reliev- 
ing the 53rd Ohio. The skirmishing is as brisk as usual; one 
man of Company H was wounded in the foot; he was the First 
Sergeant. It began to rain at 11 A. M., and continued nearly 
all day ; the rains in Dixie land are not in drops, but it appeal" 

to pour down. 

June 3, '64. Near Newhope Church. Georgia. Our regiment 
was relieved this morning at 6 A. M. by the 83rd Indiana, and 
we went back in reserve. The regular skirmishing is going on 
as usual, one man from our regiment was wounded in the arm 
while going after water. We had three showers or pour downs 

to-day 

June 4, '64. Near Newhope Church, Georgia. The 47th was 
called up at 2 A. M., to be ready for battle, but in a short time 
w-e found it was a false alarm, caused by some firing on our 
right After we were ready, all soon became quiet again. It 
began to rain at 4 A. M., and the pour down continued nearly 
all day. The skirmishing continues as usual ; one man in Com- 
pany E was wounded on the skirmish line. 

June 5, '64. Our regiment was relieved from the works in 
front by the 83rd Indiana about daylight; went back to the 
reserve ; soon learned that the Confederates had evacuated their 
works in our front ; eleven prisoners with one lieutenant were 
taken in our front ; received orders to be ready to march at a 
moments notice. We fell in line and marched at 11 A. M., 
marched via Burnt Hickory Church; marched some six miles 
and went into camp near the Fourteenth Army Corps Hospital 
at 5 P. M. Rained some more to-day. This camp is seven miles 
from Acworth. Our pickets joining with those of General 
Turchin of the Fourteenth Army Corps towards the railroad, 
with the First Division on the right; the Second Division on 
the left- the Third Division in reserve. During the interven- 
ing days from June 2nd to the 5th, inclusive, were occupied in 
extending lines and skirmishing. There was not an hour m 
either of the days when the 47th Ohio, and every other regiment 
in the command, was not under fire. 

June 6, '64. The 47th arose early and marched at 7 A. M. 
Soon came to the railroad from Chattanooga to Atlanta ; march- 
ed along side of it some distance; passed through Acworth, a 



History ov the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 245 

pretty litte Georgia town ; marched two miles beyond the place 
and went into camp at 12 M., where we received orders to clear 
off the ground and put up shanties in regular order. Captain 
Helmrich and Lieutenant Sherwin had some difficulty about 
axes, but was soon settled without bloodshed ; our boys are near- 
ly all out of rations. Received a large mail from God's Country 
(our homes.) Drew some rations after dark. 

June 7, '64. 'ihe 47th remained in same camp; nothing go- 
ing on but the usual camp duty. 

June 8, '04. Still in same camp. Received orders to march 
to-morrow at A. M. 

June 9, '64. Still in camp, The orders to march were counter- 
manded this afternoon ; a division of cavalry went to the front ; 
we can hear some firing at a distance in the front, off to our 
right. The enemy is reported in strong force at Big Shanty 
Station. In the meantime, General Frank R. Blair had arriv- 
ed with two divisions of the Seventeenth Army Corps, and we 
then held at this place the first reunion of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee at the headquarters of Major Gen. James B. McRherson. 

On the night of the 9th of June, a small force of venturesome 
Confederates attacked the picket line of the 47th Ohio, but 
were easily and quickly repulsed. 

June 10, '04. The 47th received marching orders early. 
Resumed our march at 7 A. M., moving in the direction of Big 
Shanty, following the railroad. After marching some five 
miles skirmishing commenced, and we were at once formed 
into line of battle. About 10 A. M. our artillery moved up 
and threw some shells into the enemy. This, with our skirm- 
ish line re-enforced, drove the enemy. At 12 M. we advanced 
some distance forward. At 8 B. M. a heavy thunder shower 
came up. Skirmishing continued all day, driving the enemy 
inch by inch, and at f. M. we again moved forward and took 
possession of a ridge to the east of Big Shanty Station on the 
railroad, which we fortified that night. The Fifteenth Army 
Corps formed line of battle at this point, after having marched 
only seven miles. General Harrow's Division joined the line 
on the right, and General Leggett of the Seventeenth Army 
Corps, prolonged it to the left. 

General Johnston's line was distinctly seen, reaching from 



246 History of the 47th Reoiment 0. V. V. I. 

Blarifc Jack Mountain via Kennesaw and Pine Hill to Lost Moun- 
tain. It was a very strong lint 11 , but was too long for his force, 
which numbered about 00,00) at that time. From the moun- 
tains, In' overlooked every foot of the territory over which we 
were compelled to advance and meneuver On Big Kennesaw' 
his headquarters were established. Here he had a battery, 
which commanded, a large scope of country. This was the 
highest peak of the ridge, and from it he communicated through 
his signal stations with his army. His position was equal in 
strength to 50,000 men. These strong peaks were connected by 
apparently a good line of rifle pits. It was here at Big Shanty 
that our men captured a train in 1862, led by a Mr. Andrews, 
and who did not succeed in burning the bridges and make their 
escape to General Mitchell, then operating against Chattanooga, 
but the train was re-captured near Dalton, and our men placed 
in Confederate prisons, and Andrews and some others were 
hung in Atlanta, while the others lingered in Confederate pris- 
ons and were finally released. 

June 11, '64. Near Big Shanty, Georgia. At 10 A. M. the 
47th received orders to be ready to march at a moments notice. 
To-day, a detail from the entire division, comprising in the ag- 
gregate four regiments, of which Companies D, E and F were 
contributed by the 47th, all under the command of Major Tay- 
lor, advanced toward a wood and water station at the foot of 
Big Kennesaw, on the railroad. It was an easy advance, the 
skirmishers meeting only trifling resistance, and the advance 
was correspondingly rapid. Perhaps one- half of the distance 
had been gained, when a locomotive whistle was heard in our 
rear. The Major spurred his horse across the railroad track, 
just as the 'locomotive came around the curve. He opened the 
line wonderingly and let it run through, and the dare-devil en- 
gineer arid fireman and one or two others who were on it, ran 
at a good ten mile rate ahead of the troops to the wood station. 
How the men yelled at the idea of a locomotive being sent on 
vidette duty by General Sherman. It took wood and water at 
Kennesaw Station at foot of the mountain, while the battery 
on the Big Kennesaw was trying to disable the engine. Three 
or four cannon balls from that battery perforated the roof of 
the wood house, but missed the engine about 20 or 30 feet. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 247 

The Confederate Infantry did not attempt to make a capture of 
it. because it could run to cover under Major Taylor's line be- 
fore they could reach it. When sufficient wood and water had 
been taken by it, the engineer backed into our line, whistling 
merrily all the while, and the Confederates also cheered im- 
mensely at the exploit, as though they admired the daring 
of it as much as we did. It was said that General Sherman 
had learned through a prisoner that Confederate General John- 
ston had proclaimed to his men that some of "their daring 
Cavalry Commanders had cut and torn up Sherman's railroads 
?o that his supplies were cut off and his army was forced to 
subsist on green corn." And the locomotive was sent forward 
t<> disabuse their minds on this point, through the whistle, 
which acted and stood as a bulletin to th.fi whole Confederate 
Army that the railroad was in good repair, even beyond our 
most advanced line. Working parties are at work strengthen- 
ing our breastworks. We had considerable rain during the 
day. We find the following in the life of General Sherman 
on pages 281 and 282. 

June 11, '64. General Sherman moved his army forward to 
Big Shanty, a railroad station in full view of the Kennesaw 
Mountain. In this instance Sherman's movement was slow and 
cautious, as it was, and all the time, under fire; was the only 
one he could hope to execute with success, and here, and at 
Acworth he received largre re-enforcements. In the month of 
May he had forced his antagonists from Dalton, Resaca,Alla- 
toona and Dallas, and had advanced his lines victoriously for 
one hundred miles: from Chattanooga to Big Shanty, over 
mountains and through ravines, constituting one of the most 
difficult routes any army could be called upon to traverse. 
The fighting had been almost continuous and of a kind which 
rendered a computation of losses almost impossible; that they 
were heavy was clear, and when the official figures came in for 
May, they showed that General Thomas had lost 1,294 killed 
and 5,562 wounded. General McPherson 216 killed and 1.055 
wounded; General Schofield 1,868 killed and 7,486 wounded. 
On the enemies 1 side, Johnston figured his total losses for May 
at 721 killed and 4,692 wounded, together with over 8,000 pris- 
oners. 



:MS 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. L 



rune 12 '64. Rain on top of rain. Commenced to vain this 
morning at 2 o'clock and continued all day. There is the 
usual skirmishing in our front, and in the middle oi the day 
there was some artillery firing. The 47th is m plain sight ot 
the Confederate position. Their position is said to be on three 
mountains, known as Kennesaw mountain. Pine mountain and 
Lost mountain. The greatest part of the day was occupied by 
the Army of the Cumberland in closing in, and by the 47th 
Ohio with the rest of the division, in securing a more favora- 
ble position. 

June 13, '64 The 47th was called up at daylight to be ready 
to' move 'immediately, and marched about one mile to the 
northeast and crossed the railroad. We went part of the way 
double-quick, our regiment being in advance of the brigade. 
We formed our line in a thick woods as reserve in support of the 
Seventeenth Army Corps. Our rations are about given out ; it 
rained last night and until noon to-day; last night General 
John A. Logan and staff awoke the' division commander and 
staff at 3AM., saying "an attack was expected, and every- 
body had to be called into line." This disgusted the division, 
but the order was obeyed with alacrity, and the line was form- 
ed about 3:30 A. M., and moved forward in a very heavy ram, 
but no enemy came. _ 

June 14, '64. The 47th remained in the same position in 
reserve of the Seventeenth Army Corps; skirmishing briskly at 
the front; in a word, our skirmishers are engaged all the time, 
as they have been for days working their way through dripping 
thickets and torrent-washed ravines, followed closely by our 
regiments and brigades, entrenching and holding every foot 
gained by us. General Sherman while reconnoitering the situa- 
tion in person to-day, discovered a Confederate Battery sur- 
rounded by a group of officers abreast of Pine Mountain. He 
had two batteries turned on the spot with the result they were 
Bcattered and General Bishop Polk was killed, as we learned 
t he next day ; this occured near our regiment ; we mean the fir- 
ing A captain, two lieutenants, and twenty-seven men be- 
longing to a Virginia Confederate Regiment abandoned General 
Johnston's picket line; and surrendered themselves to General 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 249 

Osterhaus. They reported the feeling of the army quite de- 
spondent over their continuous retreats. 

June 15, '64. Near Big Shanty, Georgia. The 47th was call- 
ed up at daylight and ordered to be ready to march at a moments 
notice. We learned from Confederate deserters that Lieutenant 
General Polk was killed yesterday in our front. Orders to 
move countermanded until 2 P. M. We drew cartridges to be 
ready for battle. The skirmishing was very heavy all of last 
night and to-day, and heavy artillery firing after daylight. At 
2 P. M. fell in line an I marched some distance nearly east, in 
support of the Fourth Division of our Corps (the Fifteenth) 
they being engaged in a demonstration against the enemy. The 
Fourth Division captured nearly 400 prisoners, among them 
there was a Confederate Colonel of the 31st Alabama. We re- 
mained in this position until dark, then returned to our old po- 
sition. Our lines were advanced on our left nearly one-half mile 
nearer the enemies' lines. We are getting closer all the time 
and Johnston will certainly soon retreat again, we suppore to 
Atlanta. Some of the prisoners that came into the 47th's line 
in the afternoon reported that General Polk had been killed. 
This is what Major Taylor says at this time : 

"The entire skirmish line, as it was called, was now in gener- 
ally easy range of the Confederates. This line had changed 
with the requirements of our new conditions, into a line of light 
rifle pits. Each detail for skirmish or picket duty, which was 
the same at this time, was equipped with spades and picks as 
regularly as rifles and cartridges. Every rod of earth secured 
was fortified by some of them, while the others, with their ac- 
curate shots kept the enemy down. On our line the pickets 
or skirmishers were relieved at night, and were at almost every 
point on the line of the Second Division compelled to remain 
in the rifle pit throughout the entire day. To attempt even to 
leave it was to court death. Each regiment contributed accord- 
ing to its strength, to the required force by daily details. The 
whole of the division skirmishers and pickets are under the 
command of Major Taylor. Captains Webster Thomas of 
Company E 47th Ohio had command of the skirmishers of the 
Second Brigade, and Wilson of the 57th Ohio of the First Brig- 
ade. Except when charges in column, or demonstrations 



250 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

in force were made; the fighting in front of Kennes:iw and At- 
lanta was done by the skirmish line. The regiments usually 
contributed about two companies each every day. 

General Sherman acquainted himself with the country through 
a very efficient corps of topographers, dra*n from the troops 
and connected with the respective commands — the men called 
them "Topogs" — who sketched and mapped the country. Us- 
ually they crept close to the enemies' lines and marked down 
every roadway and little path. At night their sketches were 
generally consolidated, and the commanding general had an 
accurate map of the territory in his front, which would be trav- 
ersed or fought over the following day. Sergeant Scupham, a 
tearless youth, performed this duty in the Second Division. 
On the 15th, he and the writer made an early exploration under 
the noses of the enemy, who practiced target shooting upon 
them, but Scupham worked away serenely and steadily although 
an occasional shot would come, as the clipped twigs showed, 
within three inches of his head. He persisted until the sketch 
was completed, when the pair withdrew to the line, knowing 
the ground by actual sight. Day by day he performed this 
perilous duty without injury. 

June 16, 04. Near oig Shanty, Georgia The 47th was 
called into line at 10 A. M. by the sounding of the bugle, and 
started on the double-quick. We traveled about a mile to our 
right, and relieved General Gresham's Division of the Seven- 
teenth Army Corps, and was in the second line of works, on the 
right of our brigade and division. Here we stacked arms and 
drew some rations, and at 8 P. M. were ordered to remain there 
for the night, if the enemy did not run us out. The skismish- 
ing is continued as usual — some artillery firing. Let us now see 
what the other part of the army is doing. 

In the afternoon of the 15th, the Army of the Tennessee 
made a demonstration to draw attention from an assault which 
the Army of the Cumberland expected to make. The Fourth 
Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, marched down the Marietta 
and Big Shanty road, and deployed to the left of General Leggett 
of the Seventeenth Army Corps, and in company with his divi- 
sion, advanced so aapidly that the Confederates could not leave 
their rifie pits; twenty-two officers and -120 enlisted men, be- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 251 

sides a large number of small arms, were captured] in them 
The enemy very promptly moved a battery forward, supported 
by a column of infantry, and tried to dislodge Harrow and 
Leggett. but our celebrated De Gross battery unlimbered and 
mace the position untenable for them. In the meantime, Gen- 
eral Osterhaus went forward with a yell, also General Gresham 
of the Seventeenth Army Corps, and General Dodge of the Six- 
teenth Army Corps, with his two divisions, were included in 
the movement, and captured a line of low hills about 600 yards 
In advance of their previous position. The demonstration was 
a complete success so far as the Army of the Tennessee was 
concerned — the total prisoners taken by them was 500. The 
Second Division had been sent to their relief, and the 47th, with 
the remainder of the division, were engaged in a desultory bat- 
tle all day. At night the regiment, with the rest of Lightburn's 
Brigade, in pursuance of orders, relieved one brigade of General 
Gresham's Division. 

During the night Major Taylor passed outside the line in 
front of Lightburn's brigade, to the west of a low ridge, and 
laid out a line for his skirmishers. It had been occupied by 
the Confederates, and they had not removed their dead from it, 
nor buried them. In this work, he came in front of the 37th 
Ohio, which almost made his blood run cold, as he heard the 
click of their rifles from the right to the left of the regiment, 
as they made ready to fire on the object in their front. They 
had not been notified that any friend had gone in their front. 
Fortunately, he was alone, and dropping upon the ground made 
himself very thin while he told them who he was, and induced 
the commander to recover arms. It was very dark and favor- 
able for the work in the advanced and perilous position The 
line was completed and occupied by the skirmishers before 
morning. During the progress of the work, the enemy fired 
very briskly for awhile. 

June 17, '64. There is a battery on our right and one on our 
left, which kept up a constant firing all day, and the enemy re- 
plying but did us no injury. The skirmishing is very brisk. 
Our cavalry are working hard on our left and are skirmishing 
with the enemy all the time. Towards evening we fell into line 



'J'yJ History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

and made a feint or demonstration to draw the enemies' atten- 
tion, while our right and left .dosed up. 

In the afternoon General Giles A. Smith, under orders, made 
a diish with the First Brigade, S cond Divisi »n, 'by right of 
regiments to the front" on the double-quick, and came into 
line in splendid style, capturing considerable territory. 

In this way the battle was waged daily, the enemy being press- 
ed more closely everywhere, although the advance seemed and 
was irregular. The skirmishers were always on the alert; the 
regiments in the main line were constantly at the rifie pits ready 
to s°ize their rifles, and everybody was engaged. There was 
no quiet; not a minute in the day when ''z-i-p" and the fol- 
lowing "thud" as the rifle ball buried itself in the earth could 
not be heard. The enemy was brave, well sheltered, in elevat- 
ed positions, and kept us active. Each division was compelled 
to conform to the position of the one on its immediate flanks. 

June 18. '04. The 47th is still in the same position. It be- 
gan to rain at 3 A. M., and continued nearly all day, one man 
was wounded in Company E while lying in his tent. Whisky 
was issued out to the men to-day at noon. Orders were that 
no man could draw his rations of whisky and let some one else 
drink it. The Sergeants disregarded this order and were re- 
duced to ranks by order of Colonel A. C. Parry. Brisk skirm- 
ishing and some artillery firing on both sides. Companies A. 
and B of the regiment assisted the line materially in gaining 
ground which was secured. 

June 19, '64. Near Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia. Sunday. 
This morning at daylight received orders to be ready to march 
immediately. Companies C, D and E of the regiments were 
on the skirmish line, advancing on the enemies' works at day- 
light and had found the Confederate outer works evacuated. 
Our whole line advanced about 10 A. M. as far as the enemies' 
outer works without opposition, in a heavy rain storm; the en- 
emy shelled us after the 47th had advanced about half way from 
our works to theirs, and killed one man in our brigade. About 
noon we advanced and took our position on the second ridge, 
which was next to the highest peak, and were in plain view of 
the enemy on the highest point of Kennesaw Mountain cover- 
ing Marietta. We went to work at once throwing up entrench- 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 253 

ments The skirmishing very brisk with some cannonading 
during the day : rained in the afternoon ; there was heavy ar- 
tillery firing on our right and also on our left. In life of Gen- 
eral Sherman, we find the following: 

Sherman in his dispatches to Halleck, thus mapped the sit- 
uation : — "This is the nineteenth day of rain and the Prospect 
of fair weather is as far off as ever; the roads are impassable, 
the fields and roads become quagmires after a few wagons have 
passed, yet we are at work all the time. The left flank is across 
Noonday Creek ; the right is across Nose Creek. The enemy 
still holds Kennesaw, a conical mountain, with Marriettr be- 
hind it, and his flanks retired to cover the town and railroad. 
I am ready to attack the moment the weather and roads will 
permit troops and artillery to move with anything like life." 

It will be noticed from the above, that we are constantly expos- 
ed to rain and the enemy in our front, also. We are pressing 
the grand army of retreaters constantly. 

Under the immediate orders of General McPherson the Major 
made a reconnaissance with the above named companies, down 
the railroad three-quarters of a mile, parallel with the slope of 
the mountain, meeting very little opposition, until he struck 
a low spur extending northward from it But the remainder 
of the line not having conformed to the advance, General M. 
L Smith directed the former position at the station to be re- 
occupied. 

June 20, '64. Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia. The 47th is 
lying on the ridge that we took possession of yesterday. We 
fortified it last night and still working on them to-day. Our 
artillery was placed in good positions last night ; there is some 
artillery firing and skirmishing. We are throwing up rifle pits 
in front for the skirmishers, and still it rains; we had right 
smart of rain last night ; heavy firing on our right, for we hear 
the heaviest artillery firing we have heard since the Battle of 
Mission Ridge. We had another shower of rain in the evening. 
Companies F and G are on the skirmish line ; Lieutenant Adolph 
Ahlers with his company made a grand advance. Our Major 
tells the following of the skirmish line and other movements. 

At 11 A. M. the Major, in pursuance of orders, made a re- 
connoissance up the Big Kennesaw. In a short time General 



254 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

Osterhaus joined the line on the right. The force from the 
Second Division, comprised of the 55th Illinois, 57th Ohio, 
111th Illinois, one company from 30th Ohio, five companies 
53rd Ohio, the 6th Missouri, one companj' 1 16th Illinois, and 
he was afterwards re-enforced by three companies 37th Ohio, 
and to the left by Companies I and K of the 47th Ohio. The 
line moved obliquely up the side of the mountain. The ad- 
vance was continued to a detached mass of huge rocks, among 
which the bayonet was freely used by the 6th Missouri. The 
Confederate line was forced to retire behind the rocks. The 
Seventeenth Army Corps did not co-operate, and it exposed the 
left flank of the advancing line. The movement was continued 
until General Osterhaus's further advance was prevented by a 
long cliff of rock. The fighting was very sharp. The advance 
reached within a hundred to a hundred and fifty yards of the 
summit of the mountain. The position had been considered 
impregnable by the Confederates, and it was comparatively 
undefended. A battery of artillery, the headquarters guard, 
and a line of skirmishers being its only defense. But the ad- 
vance was abandoned at 3:30 P. M,, and our old lines re-estab- 
lished at 7 P. M. 

June 21, '64. The 47th is still lying in the same position, 
skirmishing and building works of defense. We had some 
rain last night. We drew more whisky and some of the boys 
got drunk. Had a hard rain this afternoon. Our battery, 
known as the Degross Battery, of twenty pounders, did some 
very good shooting at the Confederate batteries on top of Kenne- 
saw Mountain, and soon silenced them. From our position we 
can see the enemy hard at work fortifying, and from time to 
time our batteries scattered them. 

Jude 22, '64. The 47th is still in the same position, fortify- 
ing and skirmishing with the enemy. We are continually 
under fire. The enemy to-day shelled our camp quite briskly, 
but the Degross Battery soon made them cease. To-day some 
of the boys of our regiment went about a mile to our left and 
saw the town of Marietta. Drew some more whisky, and some 
of our boys felt quite funny. We heard some very heavy ar- 
tillery firing to our right. We suppose General Thomas is en- 



History of the 47tfi Regiment O. V. V. I. 255 

gaged with the enemy, under the command of "Fighting Joe" 
Hooker. 

June 23, '64. The 47th was called up at 3 A M. to resist a 
charge which was thought the enemy would make, hut they did 
not come We were ready to give them a grand reception. 
Heavy fighting heard towards our right wing. The enemy 
shelled us again to-day; no loss. Between 3 P. M. and 5 P. M. 
to-day, on our right and center, the heaviest artillery duel of 
the campaign took place. The Confederate Batteries engaged 
in this fight are in plain view of our position, and was really a 
grand sight to see it and not he in the way of the shells thrown 
by them. 

General Sherman says : '"We continue to press forward on 
the principle of an advance against fortified positions. The 
whole country is one vast fort, and Johnston must have at least 
fifty miles of trenches with ahattis and finished batteries. We 
gain ground daily, fighting all the time. Our lines are now in 
close contact and the fighting is incessant, with a great deal of 
artillery firing. As fast as we gain one position the enemy has 
another ready. But I think he will soon have to let go of 
Kennesaw, which is the key to the whole country. Our losses 
are light and our supplies are ample." 

June 24, '64. The 47th is still in the same position. Some 
of our officers are of the opinion that the Confederates have 
all gone, except a strong line of skirmishers. Our skirmish 
line advanced about noon, but at dark fell back again. The 
enemy did not fire any artillery to-day. 

June 25, '64. This morning the enemy opened fire on us 
with their artillery at 9 o'clock, which convinced our army 
that the enemy had not departed. The skirmishing went on as 
usual. 

June 26, '64. The 47th still occupies the same position. 
All along the line artillery firing and skirmishing has been 
quite heavy. Had inspection at 9 A. M., and at about 3 P. 
M. the 47th received orders to have an early supper and be 
ready to march at dusk, with knapsacks, and shortly after- 
ward came orders to pack up and be ready to march immedi- 
ately. There we remained until dusk. Shortly after dark we 
fell into line, being relieved by other troops. We marched 



256 History of the 47th R egiment, O. V. V. I. 

some four or five miles to the right in the darkness through 
the pinn woods, which was very hruahy, and about 10 P M. 
the word came to halt. Here we stood, and finally the word 
came that we would lay there the balance of the night. We 
were in th* rear of the First Division of our Corps, the Fif- 
teenth Army Corps. This Division had relieved troops of the 
Fourteenth Army Corps the day 'previous. 

Assault of Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, '64. 

The 47th men were awakened early this morning, and ordered 
to get breakfast soon as possible and pack our knapsacks, 
which were to be left behind with those marked off of duty, as 
we were to charge on the enemies' works on Kenesaw Moun- 
tain at 7 A. M. Cartridges were issued to the regiment, sixty 
to each man, and each company piled up their knapsacks to be 
guarded by men from their company. Fell into line and 
marched some distance to the right. Here our brigade (the 
Second) Second Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps, was 
formed the 47th Ohio on the right of the second line and sup- 
porting the 53rd Ohio. At 8 A. M. the brigade thus formed 
advanced to storm the works of the enemy upon Little Kenne- 
S aw Mountain. As usual, the 47th was led by its gallant and 
brave Colonel, A. C. Parry, assisted by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Wallace and Major Taylor leading the skirmish line. Cross- 
ing the open field in our front completely swept by the enemies 
fire By this time Kennesaw smoked like a volcano, and many 
brave officers and men were swept down by the ternffic storm 
of shot and shell and cannister. We were thus exposed until 
we reached the foot of the hill in the edge of the thicket, where 
we halted for a moment to dress up, when we moved through a 
Dine swamp with underbrush and green briar vines so thick that 
the regiment scattered considerable. This thicket and swamp 
must have been near 100 yards across, and we soon came unex- 
pectedly upon the first line of the enemies' rifle pits, which 
was occupied by Georgia Confederate troops; the 53rd Ohio 
was already engaged in a fierce hand-to-hand conflict with i the 
bayonet and some with the butt of their muskets. The 47th 
Ohio likewise became engaged with the enemy, assisting the 
58rd We captured these works in short order, killing or cap- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 257 

taring nearly all of the enemy in them. We again advanced 
into an open woods up to a bare knoll towards the ene- 
mies' second line of works, but on account of our exposed posi- 
tion under a terrific and murderous fire of the enemy in our 
front, and on our right, and left flanks, we are unable to 
proceed farther; the bugle sounded the retreat and we fell back 
to or near the captured Confederate works, where we remained 
until near midnight, as it would be impossible to return to our 
own lines without a great loss of life. In this assault the brav 
and gallant Colonel A. C. Parry commanding the regiment, 
received a severe wound and was borne from the field as the reg- 
iment was retiring from the first to the second line of Confed- 
erate works. Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace at once assumed 
command of the regiment; the enemy kept pouring a storm of 
musketry and artillery at our position, which was near them 
until long after dark, both front and flanks, but did us but lit- 
tle injury, as the regiment lay flat upon the ground under the 
base of the hill where the enemies' fire came from. A long 
time after dark of that day we retreated to the place where 
our knapsacks had been left in the morning, and there remain- 
ed until the next morning. Our loss in this assault is said to be 
three killed and thirteen wounded, as follows: Killed, Henry 
Asselmeyer, Company C and Joseph B. Campbell aud Oliver S. 
Knote, both of Company E, and others severely wounded. By 
noon the assault was over and had completely failed to break 
the enemies' lines at any point. General McPherson lost in this 
assault 500 men and several officers, and General Thomas lost 
2000 men ; the enemies' loss did not exceed 800 in killed and 
wounded. 

Major Taylor, who led the skirmish line, describes the assault 
as follows. At 4 A. M. on Monday, the 27th, General M. L. 
Smith, with the writer, made a careful examination of the roads 
leading to Little Kennesaw Mountain. At 8 A. M. General 
Smith organized an assaulting column consisting of the First 
and Second Brigade of the Second Division, and Walcott's 
Brigade of the Fourth Division. Walcott's Brigade advanced 
up the gorge between Big and Little Kennesaw ; the First Brig- 
ade, General Giles A. Smith, squarely against the north front, 
next to Walcott, and General Lightburn on the extreme right 



:25S History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

of the Army of the Tennessee. The 47th Ohio held the right of 
tlif Second Brigade. Each brigade moved forward in excellent 
order, and entered the woods covering their respective points of 
assault, and halted for the time to arrive to dash forward. 

From this point, Little Kennesaw, as it seemed, rose with 
smoothly sloping sides in front of the Second Brigade, out of a 
narrow field to a round cone-like top a few hundred feet high. 
Near the top, the slope seemed to change to an abrupt rocky 
ascent of considerable height. The open field was about 500 
feet wide, beyond which the mountain side had been covered 
with timber; this had been felled, and was lying upon the 
ground, with tops down the slope; every limb had been sharp- 
ened. The underbrush of the woods had been hacked about 
eighteen inches from the ground, pressed down and pointed. 
Lines of abattis had been continuously and securely plant- 
ed on the side, while lines of rifle pits had been carefully 
constructed on the summit, in which several batteries seemed 
to be well posted. It was a rugged looking place to assail. On 
the north side of the little field was a dense swamp, almost 
impenetrable, through which passed a flowing rivulet. On the 
south side of the swamp a line of rifle pits had been construct- 
ed, in which a Georgia Regiment had been stationed as a skirm- 
ishing party. At last the command was given to move quietly 
forward through the swamp and wood. The briars were cut, 
the rivulet crossed, " the swamp passed, and the charge was 
sounded. A volley from the rifle pit, and the regiment of 
Georgians are prisoners. They are trampled under foot. There 
is no pause. What exulting cheers ring out. Now, the 47th 
enters the whirl-wind of the charge, where men become crea- 
tures of iron with nerves of steel. Sheets of flame baptise them ; 
plunging shot strike comrades on every hand, and they fall un- 
noticed by your side. The field is passed, the fallen timber is 
reached. There is no touch now. It is God for all. The ad- 
vance is climbing under tree trunks, jumping over hacked sap- 
lings, tearing through the sharpened brush, stepping over fall- 
en comrades, working among the detached rocks, up, ever up, 
struggling among the living, facing the sheeted flame filled 
with missiles, giving forth ten thousand shrieks and tones, 
intensified by the cries of agony and the torture of the wound- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 259 

ed. It seems as though all the fiends of Hades, and all the 
devices of the damned are let loose upon that storming column. 
You see gleaming and flaunting in the sunlight of that June 
day, in the center of each body of men, the flags that were car- 
ried at Carnifex, at Antietam, at Shiloh, at Vicksburg, 
which were glorified at Mission Ridge, and greeted the 
triumphs of Resaca, Dallas, aud other battle fields, well abreast, 
now halting, now dashing forward; anon, one sinks from the 
sight, and the life blood oozes from the brain of a brave color 
bearer, but in the twinkling of an eye it is lifted up again, and 
borne by another aspirant for honorable mention and glorious 
death. The sun rises higher, its rays are fiercer and intensify 
ten fold the heat of battle ; but still the flags ascend higher. 
They are only a hand's breadth from the crest of the mountain 
The wounded and killed lie thickly over the slope; but up, up, 
the living push and surge. Deadly cannister fills the air, the 
leaden hail of bullets swept over them, and shells with fuses 
burning are pitched among them. Now, they are through the 
abbattis. Colonel Parry, of the 47th Ohio, Colonel Ren Spooner 
of the 83rd Indiana, Colonel A. V. Rice of the 57th Ohio, and 
other gallant officers lie wounded — but victory seems ours ; 
the rocky base of the mountain is reached ; now the line wavers ; 
the advance slackens. A shout of bitter disappointment is 
heard. It is a precipitous bluff; they cannot scale it. Foot 
by foot they had fought their way up the steep, slippery with 
the blood of their companions who had gone in the belching 
fire up to the rocky bluff of Little Kennesaw to glory. But 
they had died in vain. The assault was defeated by Nature. 
By 11 :30 A. M. the assault had everywhere failed. 

Bravely and defiantly the unwounded withdrew ; stealthily 
and painfully the wounded who were able crept and hid away 
among the bushes, the rocks and fallen trees, lying in the torrid 
sun all the remainder of that terrible day. After night had let 
her curtain down, the wounded were carefully removed from 
the mountain side, and taken to the hospital. The division 
was drawn out, and with it the 47th rested for a brief space, 
and then marched around to the right flank for another battle 
and another charge. 

General M. L. Smith, then commanding the Second Division, 



260 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

and his staff, enjoyed a hearty laugh during the assault, at the 
expense of Colonel Maddox. of, I think, the 116th Illinois, who 
was Provost Marshal on the Division Staff. The General and 
members of the staff then about him were advancing with the 
line up the slope, when a terrible thud was heard, and all turn- 
ed to see who had been hit. At the same instant, Colonel 
Maddox, pale as a corpse, cried out, "Oh, General Smith, I'm 
killed, I'm killed!" The General answered, '"Then why in 
hell don't you go to the rear, and quit howling?" The writer 
discovered that a minie ball had struck the Colonel's canteen 
buckle and fallen down, but his left breast had been bruised 
over a space six inches in diameter, and it was painful, but the 
flesh was unbroken. The buckle saved his life. 



ASSAULT OF KENNESAW MOUNTAIN, GEORGIA. 



Report of General J. A. J. Lightburn. 



Headquarters 2d Brigade, 2d Division, loth Army Corps, 
Near Big Shanty, Georgia, June 28, 186 '4- 

Sir : — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
part taken by my command in the assault upon the enemies' 
works on the 27th instant. 

Pursuant to orders I marched from my bivouac at 7 :30 A. M., 
formed in two lines in rear of a battery in Brigadier-General 
Osterhaus' line, and at ten minutes past eight moved forward; 
my advance was a part of the way through an open field under 
a raking fire of artillery obliquely on my right and left, also a 
musketry fire from the same direction. After passing through 
this open field, crossing a small stream into low ground cover- 
ed with underbrush and interwoven with vines, through which 
I advanced a distance of 150 yards to another open field in my 
front and immediately in front of the enemies' main works. 
The edge of this field was occupied by the enemy with a heavy 
entrenched skirmish line, which I could not see until the front 
line was within twenty paces of it. A few volleys were fired 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 261 



and my men dasher! forward with clubbed muskets and succeed- 
ed in carrying this work, and advanced 150 yards into the open 
field, finding this position exposed to a complete flank fire of 
artillery from the left and musketry from the right, the line 
fell back under cover of the woods, where I remained with my 
command until after dark, when by order I withdrew to the 
bivouac left in the morning. During the advance my officers did 
all that could be done, but the underbrush through which we 
advanced was so thick that it was impossible to reserve a line; 
the consequence was the entire line was broken (this accounts 
for the heavy loss of officers) which was impossible to reform in 
the woods, on account of the thick underbrush ; or in the open 
field in front, on account of the raking fire to which they were 
exposed. Some regiments fell back and reformed in the open 
field in the rear, only to be broken again in advancing. I, how- 
ever reformed the line as well as I could under the circumstances 
and held my position, pursuant to order, under a heavy fire of 
of artillery until dark. My casualties are as follows : Commis- 
sioned Officers killed, 2; wounded 13: enlisted men killed 16; 
wounded 140; total 171. A full list will be forwarded soon. 

J. A. J. Lightburn, 
Captain Gordon Loflnnd, Brigadier General Commanding. 

Assistant Adjutant General. 2d. Division, 15th Army Corps. 
From Official Report, War Department, Volume 38, Part 3, 
Series 1, Pages 221 and 222. 



From Official Report, War Department, Volume 38, Part 3, 
Series 1, Page- 178 and 179 — General Morgan L. Smith reports 
as follows : 

Headquarters Second Division, 15th Army Corp*. 

Near Kennesiw Mountain, Gn>r</ia<, June 28, 1864.. 

I have the honor to submit the following report of an assault 
made by a part of General Logan's Corps under my command, 
upon the enemies' works to the right of Kennesaw Mountain. 

In accordance with General Logan's order, 1 withdrew my 
division from its position to the left of the mountain, after 
dark on the night of the 20th instant, and massed it opposite 



262 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

the extreme right of the mountain and a hill which is a contin- 
uation of the same, to the Sight. This hill was the objective 
point of the assault, and my Division and Colonel Walcott's 
Brigade of General Harrow's Division was designated as the 
assaulting column, and at 8 A. M. of the 27th, the hour to 
advance, General Lightburn commanding Second Brigade, of 
about 2,000 muskets was directed to form in two lines and assault 
through a little orchard About 400 yards to the left. General 
Giles A. Smith commanding First Brigade of about the same 
strength, was directed to move at the same time in two lines 
directly on the hill. Colonel Walcott commanding the Brigade 
of General Harrow's Division of about 1,500 muskets, was di- 
rected to move directly for the gorge, where the hill joins on 
the mountain; lapping the mountain and left of the hill, feel 
into the gorge as far as possible, and capture the works in his 
front, as the enemy could not depress their artillery sufficient- 
ly to fire on him ; he was ordered to advance first, and the 
opening of the enemies' firp upon him was the signal for the 
other two brigades to advance. The line moved about 8 o'clock. 
It advanced steadily with a strong line of skirmishers, but ow- 
ing to the extreme density of the underbrush, it was impossible 
for skirmishers to keep in front of their lines. Found the 
enemies' line of rifie pits about 400 yards from their main works, 
and killed or captured most of their skirmishers. 

After passing a deep swampy ravine, the line fixed bayonets, 
advancing, moved steadily and rapidly for the enemies' works, 
amidst a shower of shot and shell ; officers and men fell thick 
and fast; in addition to the steepness of the ascent, trees had 
been felled, and brush and rocks piled in such a manner as to 
make it impossible to advance with any regularity; officers and 
men still pushed forward; re-enforcements of the enemy were 
seen coming in from the right and left; within about thirty 
feet of the enemies' main works, the line staggered and sought 
cover as best they could behind logs and rocks. Some of the 
55th Ohio and 111th Illinois, of General Giles A. Smith's Brig- 
ade fell on, and inside the works. Gen. Lightburn on the right 
pressed on through a swamp, where officers and men sank to 
their knees in a very dense thicket; but on account of an 
enfilading fire was unable to get nearer than 150 yards of the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. 1. 268 

orchard and works beyond. He, however, by coining suddenly 
out of the thicket and swamp killed and wounded quite a num- 
ber of the enemy, and captured 2 officers and 86 men. 

Colonel Barnhill commanding the 40th Illinois of Colonel 
Waleott's Brigade, and Captain Augustin, 55th Illinois were 
killed on the hill near the enemies' works; Colonel Rice, 57th 
Ohio, also wounded on the hill (leg amputated) ; Colonel Spooner 
88rd Indiana, farther to the right of the hill was wounded (arm 
amputated at the shoulder;) Colonel Parry, 47th Ohio, severely 
wounded in the leg; Colonel Walcott commanding the Brigade 
from General Harrow's Division, moved forward promptly to- 
wards the gorge, encountered the enemies' rifle pit?, captured 
about 50 prisoners. Found the gorge perfectly impassable on 
account of the rocky and precipitous entrance. He then turn- 
ed his attention to the right of the mountain, from 
which he was receiving a flank fire, and left of the hill; some 
of his brigade met their fate at the breastworks; officers and 
men on the side hill were completely covered by the second line, 
and sharpshooters and the artillery of Generals Osterhaus and 
Harrow's Division, so that I am satisfied not one prisoner was 
taken by the enemy. A good line of rifle pits were made in 
front of General Giles A. Smith's and Colonel Waleott's Brig- 
ades in one hour, within 100 yards of the hill in some places. 
At dark the men were all withdrawn from the side hill ; our 
pickets were relieved by General Osterhaus, and I received Gen- 
eral Logan's order to resume the position occupied in the morn- 
ing. Accompanying please find list of casualities and reports 
of brigade commanders. 

Your obedient servant, 

M. L. Smith, 
Maj. R. R. Townes, Brigadier General of Volunteers. 

Assist and Adjutant General, Fifteenth Army Corps. 



264 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

A THRILLING INCIDENT 

Of the assault of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia. Comrade Jo- 
seph B. Campbell, Company E, fortells his death just before the 
assault June 27, 1864; and made his last will and testament: 



In Camp Near Larkensville. Alabama. 
This 18th day of April, 1864, I do this, this day knowing 
the certainty of death and the uncertainty of a soldier's life, 
do will, what little I do possess, as follows: 

Every brother and sister to have a nice bible of the same 
quality, not costing less than five dollars, and not over six. 
Those bibles to have my birth and death recorded in them, and 
do request that they do be well kept, and well read in remem- 
brance of me. My will being that you all live Christian lives 
and die Christian deaths The remainder to Father and Mother 
to use and dispose as they see fit, so it is used to their good or 
some benevolent purposes. Written, signed and sealed by me. 
Signed. Joseph B. Campbell, 

47th Ohio. This J 8th day of April, 186I>. 

The indorsement on the envelope which contains the will, 
the following is a true copy : Not to be unsealed as long as 
there are any hopes of my return, for when I return I shall ex- 
pect this without being broken. Put it in my trunk, think 
nothing and say nothing; don't even look at it after you put 
it away. 

Larkinsville, Alabama, April 1864. 

Signed. Joseph B. Campbell, 

Company E, J^7th Reg. Ohio. 

On the morning of June 27th, just before the assault, Com- 
rade J. B. Campbell said to Comrades J. W. Fisher and 0. C 
Moon and others, he knew he would be killed that day and be- 
fore he would get very far; and burned up all his letters, saying 
he did not want any one else to read them, as he would not 
come out of the battle alive. He was killed. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 2G5 

An Incident of the Assault of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, 
as Remembered by the Writer. 

June 27, '64. I was detailed to guard our flag in the assault 
this morning, and I reported to the Color-Sergeant, and 
O. S. Knote, of Company E, also soon reported. He looked 
ill to me, as though he was sick I knowing that he was full of 
jokes when well, ventured to ask him if he was sick. He replied 
no, but I am going to get killed to-day, and before the sun 
goes down to-night I shall be at home with Jesus; about this 
time Colonel Parry was going along the regimental line, instruct- 
ing the officers and encouraging the men. The Colonel came to 
us and told us what was expected of us, then he went on towards 
the left. These words of Knote were on my mind, but thought 
he had been joking, so I ventured to ask him again. I said 
what you told me before Colonel Parry came to us, you were 
certainly joking, were you not? He seeing I did not believe him, 
took his diary out of his pocket and said he had written 
what he had told me. I read it and he had done so. Now, 
says he, I shall be killed and be at home with Jesus before 
the sun goes down to-day, and he said you will not get hurt in 
this charge, and I want you to tell my mother what became of 
me. It is needless for me to say that I did as requested, and 
in the excitement of the assault, I forgot his saying for the time 
being, but when we fell at the time Colonel Parry was wounded, 
Comrade Knote fell under the stars and stripes, and died, 
being shot through the heart and his saying was fulfilled. 

June 28, '64. Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia. About8 A. M. 
the 47th marched about one-half mile to the rear of the battle 
line and went into camp for a rest. The assault on Little Ken- 
nesaw Mountain deprived the 47th Ohio for a time of its Col- 
onel, and placed it under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
John Wallace, than whom there was no more capable officer in 
the Fifteenth Army Corps. Every member of the regiment 
admired him and believed in him; consequently, there was no 
loss of efficiency in the change of commanders. Wallace was 
a Christian soldier who maintained his consistency under all 
circumstances. He was always brave, prudent and cool. 

General Sherman describes the battle of the 27th of June, as 



266 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

the hardest of the campaign. The losses in our command on 
that day reached about 500. distributed among the three brig- 
ades of the Fifteenth Army Corps. 

During the month of June, the combined army lost L790 
killed, and 5740 wounded. During the same time, General 
Johnston reported 468 killed, and 3480 wounded, but he failed 
to report his loss by capture, of whom our Provost Marshall's 
records show a trifle over 3,000, making his total loss reach 6,948. 

June 29, '64. The 47th is still in the same camp, where we 
can hear the skirmishing at the front, and artillery firing to- 
wards our right wing. 

June 30, '64. Still in same camp. The regiment was mus- 
tered by Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace. We had some rain in 
the evening. We can hear heavy firing to our right. It is said 
it is being done by the Fourth Army Corps and the Fourteenth 
Army Corps; it is said the loss was very heavy on both sides. 

July 1, '64. The regiment drew clothing in the afternoon. 
We noticed nearly all the artillery moving to the right. 



From Little Kennesaw Mountain to Nickajack, by the 
Right Flank to the Enemies' Left Flank. 

July 2, '63. The 47th received orders to be read to march at 
3 A. M., and at 4 A. M. marched with the division towards the 
right wing, marching until 12:30 P. M. when we had arrived to 
the extreme right. We took our position behind works con- 
structed by Col. Strickland's Brigade of the Twenty-third Army 
Corps, which we relieved, they moving farther to the left. The 
regiment, during the morning, had marched in rear of the 
Federal right, passing Chaney's house and three small mills, 
and at noon, having marched 11 miles. Companies H, I and K, 
of the 47th, were detailed as skirmishers, and with a like detail 
from each regiment of the division, under the command of 
the Major, made a careful reconnoissance some distance in ad- 
vance of the army without finding the enemy. In the afternoon 
we completed the works on our front ; there waited for the enemy. 
Weather very hot, some of our men were sunstruck on this march. 



History of the 47th Reoiment 0. V. V. I. 267 



BATTLE OF NICKAJACK, GEORGIA. 



July 3, '64. Sunday. The orders were to wear our cartridge 
boxes all day, and details were set to work on the breastworks, 
to give the alarm in case of an attack by the enemy, as we 
were on their left flank, and at 1 :30 P. M. Companies H, I and 
K were sent out as flankers for our brigade. Our brigade soon 
charged the enemies' works ; this advance was something over 
one-half mile through woods and underbrush. After getting 
through the woods, then went through a large cleared field, be- 
yond which the enemy were posted with one battery behind 
hastily constructed works, on the east bank of Nickajack Creek. 
A brief rest and we again advanced, crossing the Creek and 
made connection with the 54th Ohio. The enemy retreated, and 
we occupied the works of the enemy, capturing some prisoners. 
The enemies' fire is quite brisk in this charge. In this advance, 
three shells from Anderson's Battery exploded in the ranks of 
the 53rd Ohio, killing and wounding twenty-eight men. The 
First Brigade crossed the Creek on the left of Lightburn. and the 
enemy was compelled, without further resistance, to retire with- 
in an admirably constructed line of earthworks in a forest on 
Nickajack Ridge about nine miles from Chattahooche River. 
The sun having gone down, the advance was discontinued. The 
cnsualities during the day were four killed, and forty-five 
wounded, in the Second, and only one wounded in the First 
Brigade. 

July 4, '64. Nickajack Creek, Georgia. The 47th received 
orders to be ready to march at about 7 A. M., but did not 
march then ; again at 12 M. received inarching orders to be 
ready in twenty minutes. Marched at 1 P M., some three 
miles south-east to the rear in support of the Sixteenth Army 
Corps, who made an attack on the enemies' works. The Six- 
teenth Army Corps were successful and captured the enemies' 
works with many prisoners. We remained in support of the 
Sixteenth Army Corps until about 6 P. M., when we marched 
to the right of the Sixteenth Army Corps, and threw up breast- 
works, had our rifle pits completed by dark. The enemy shelled 
us soon after dark with but little damage. We are told the en- 



268 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

emy have retreated from Kennesaw Mountain to the Chattahoo- 
che River. 

Let us see what General Sherman thought about this time. 
He says: "The last movements have been rapid and brilliant ; 
the moment I threw McPherson from his left to his right, in 
front of Kennesaw, and thereby stretched his right down towards 
Turner's Ferry on the Chattachooche, he presented two alter- 
natives to Johnston. First, either to attack Thomas in his front 
or second, to permit him, Sherman, to reach his railroad below 
Marietta, or even cross the Chattachooche. Johnston, of course, 
perferred to abandoned Kennesaw and Marietta, and fall back 
to his Chattahooche entrenchments, which covers his position 
on that river, a broad and deep stream." General Sherman 
had not suspected the existence of entrenchments at this point 
and fully expected, to capture a portion of Johnston's Army in 
the act of crossing the river ; but Johnston was well entrench- 
ed at the river. 

General Sherman on the night of the 3rd had written Gen- 
eral McPherson ''If you ever worked in your life, work at 
daybreak to-morrow on the flank, cross Nickajack somehow, 
and the moment you discover confusion pour in your fira. You 
know what a retreating mass across pontoon bridges mean. 
Feel strong to-night, and make feints of pursuit with artillery 
I know Johnston's withdrawal is not strategic, but for good 
reasons he must cross the Chattahooche ; but his situation with 
that river behind him, is not comfortable at all. I don't 
confine you to any crossing, but press the enemy all the time 
in his flank, till he is across the Chattahooche." 

General Johnston had provided against and forestalled con- 
fusion by the construction of a strong line of earthworks, 
known as a tete de pout, which covered all his approaches to 
the river, extending according to the configuration of the 
ground, about seven to nine miles north of the river, and he 
was even then slowly crossing his cavalry and wagon trains to 
the south side of the river. 

In reference to this strong work of protection, Sherman in 
his Memoirs, says, "I confess I had not learned beforehand of 
the existence of this strong place, and had counted on striking 
him an effective blow in the expected confusion of his crossing 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 269 

the Chattahooche, a broad and deep river to his rear." Gen- 
eral Sherman says this was "one of the strongest pieces of field 
fortifications I ever saw." 

From this point of observation, we obtained our first view of 
Atlanta and the surrounding camps, and looked down into them, 
and the confused throngs moving through the streets about 
twelve miles away. A good field glass brought the points of 
interest out very distinctly. It was a busy scene, and we saw, 
in miniature man} 7 of the formidable obstructions, which still 
stood between our arm} 7 and its great prize. We knew it was 
only a question of time, and patiently awaited the directions 
of General Sherman. That Atlanta would be ours was believ- 
ed by every member of our grand army. There were no doubters. 
We now have seen that Johnston had retreated from Kennesaw 
Mountain and Marietta, and our army is again in pursuit, and 
have found him fully entrenched at the Chattahooche River, 
and our position being on the extreme right in sight of Atlanta ; 
and in a few more days, Johnston must retreat again, for anoth- 
er move, and we will be at the Chattahooche. We will now re- 
turn to our diary written at that time. 

July 5, '64. At 10 A. M. the 47th marched by way of the 
Sandtown Road to the intersection of the Turner's Ferry Road, 
thence down the Ferry Road to within some three miles of the 
Chattahooche River. We met little resistance ; the enemy re- 
treating ; we marched about six miles, and camped about three 
and one-half miles from the river. Weather very hot. The 
enemy had retired to an interior line, and though strongly 
pressed, still held our army at bay. The fighting members of 
the army discovered on the 5th that General Johnston had 
simply, as they put it, "drawn himself into his shell;" that 
each day he contracted his lines by withdrawing behind an in- 
terior work of defense ; that he understood, as fully as General 
Sherman, the loss which would result from an attack upon his 
army if he should attempt to cross the river in haste with his 
trains and masses of laborers and thousands of troops with- 
out cover, and had proteced himself against it, and they con- 
cluded his resistance would be most desperate. Consequently, 
General Sherman's cautiousness in moving the Army of the 
Ohio, General J. D. Cox's Division of which had been closed 



270 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 



up on the Second Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps, on the 
4th, to the extreme left, and by sharp skirmishing covered that 
movement, and drew Johnston's attention awry from it, on 
the intervening days. 

July 6, '64. We did not move. Many of our boys went to 
a high hill where we could see the city of Atlanta, and hud a 
fine view of it across the valley of Chattahoochee River. It is 
said we are about twelve miles west of Atlanta. We drew only 
half rations to-day, We heard some firing on our left. 

July 7, '64. We remained in the same camp, cleaning up, 

July 8, '64. Still in same camp. There is some heavy fir- 
ing on our left this morning. We received orders at 3 P. M. 
to be ready to march, and at 4 P. M. started. Somehow got 
on the wrong road, and marched five miles to go three. We 
took our position on the right of the Twentieth Army Corps, 
and went into line in front of the enemies' works on the west 
side of Nickajack Creek noarits mouth, and constructed light 
breastworks. Orders were to sleep with our accoutrements on. 
Some skirmishing in our front. 

July 9, '64. The 47th is still in the same position this morn- 
ing. In the afternoon the regiment moved forward in line 
some two hundred yards, and threw up light breastworks, and 
cleared off the brush in front of our batteries, working until 
nearly midnight. 

July 10, '64. Sunday. Orders were received to be ready to 
inarch at' a moments notice. News came that Johnston's 
Grand Army of Retreaters had retreated across the Chattahoo- 
chee River, and at 10 A. M. our skirmish line, Companies C, 
D and E of the 47th Ohio, then in the long line of the Second 
Division skirmishers, being in the closest proximity of the 
works, first discovered the movement of the rear guard. In- 
formation was sent to headquarters, and at once the Com- 
mander advanced his line to the river bank, where a spiteful 
fire was received, which continued until 9 A. M. The lines of 
the respective armies were only about one hundred and fifty 
yards from each other. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 271 

The Movement of the 47th Ohio, From Nickajack to Peach 
Tree Creek. Near Atlanta, Georgia. 



General Sherman well knew that no fortifications could avail 
the enemy this side of Chattahoochee River, for Atlanta was 
only nine miles away, and in sight, and the ground favored 
the practice of the maneuvers which had hitherto driven him 
out of all his impregnable strongholds. He therefore arranged 
his forces, and with that result the nnemy, under Johnston, 
evacuated the trenches, burned the railroad bridge, pontoons 
and trestles, and left General Sherman and his army in full 
possession of the northwest bank of the Chattahoochee River 
and all of Northern Georgia. Many of our boys went to see 
the Confederate works, and thought they were the best and 
strongest they had seen during the campaign. We did not 
move to-day. but were under orders to be ready to move at a 
moment's notice. 

July 11, '64. The 47th received orders at 10 A. M. to be 
ready to march in one hour. At 11 A. M. we fell into line, 
marched by way of the Ferry and Sandtown Road to within a 
short distance of Sweet Water. Marched about six miles. 
We had a heavy shower of rain in the afternoon. W6nt into 
camp at 5 P. M. 

July 12, '64. There were details made to clean the camp, 
and at- 4 P. M. received marching orders, and at 5 P. M. the 
47th fell in line and marched some four miles and rested for 
half an hour. Started again and marched until 11 P. M. and 
stopped, with orders to resume the march at 2 A. M. the next 
morning. We had marched about ten miles. We had a heavy 
shower of rain just before night. Our clothing was very wet, 
and cannot get much sleep, and no fires were allowed. 

July 13, '64. The 47th started on their march shortly after 
2 A. M., and passed through Marietta a little before daylight, 
and marched two miles beyond the place, towards the Chatta- 
hoochee River, then halted about one hour for breakfast and 
then resumed the march. Went about five miles further and 
again came to a halt, it being then 10 A. M., with orders to be 
ready to march at 5 P. M. Resumed our march at 3 P. M. 



272 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

Marched some four miles and went into camp at sun down in 
an <>ats field for the night. On this date General Sherman's 
dispatch to Halleck read: 

"All is well. I have now accumulated stores at Allatoona 
and Marietta, both fortified and garrisoned points. Have also 
three places to cross the Ch ittahoochee. Only await Stone- 
man's return from a trip down the river to cross in force and 
move on Atlanta." 



Commencement of the March to Atlanta. 

July 14, '64. The 47th drew some beef, ar.d resumed our 
march at 4 A. M. ; passed through Rosewell and crossed the 
Chattahoochee River to the south; marched one mile south of 
it and went into camp. Our men had rebuilt the bridge which 
the Confederates had burned, and our cavalry burned a large 
cotton factory. Companies E and I were sent out on picket. 
Our Division, the Second of the Fifteenth Army Corps, at 
once went to work and threw up breastworks for protection, as 
we are south of Chattahoochee River, and in a short time will 
be in Atlanta. 

July 15 and 16, '64. We remained in the same position near 
Rosewell Factory, Georgia, assisting in the construction of 
works of defense in case of an attack by the enemy. But we 
were not molested. 

July 17, '64. The 47th was awakened at 4 A. M., with orders 
to be ready to march soon after 6 A. M. Fell in line and 
marched at 7 A. M., on the road to Crosskeys, and on reaching 
Nancy's Creek we marched very slowly. Went into camp in 
line of battle, and was ordered to clean off the underbrush 
thirty feet in front of our guns, and throw up light breast- 
works. Orders were issued for all to sleep with their accou- 
trements on. Weather very warm and roads dusty. 

July 18, '64. The 47th was called up at 3 A. M. and had 
roll call ; fell in line and marched at 5 A. M. Went very slow, 
marching some' four or five miles, and at 3 P. M. halted and 
were ordered to pile up our knapsacks and march on quick 
time towards the Augusta and Atlanta Railroad, near Stone 
Mountain, and our Brigade turned the railroad upside down 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 273 

for about a mile. Wh then piled rails on it and set the whole 
business on fire. That done, we then returned to our knap- 
sacks, put them on, and then rejoined our Division, camping 
on Peach Tree Creek for the night in line of battle. Our regi- 
ment to-day had the post of honor, the advance. There was 
some skirmishing by the cavalry. We marched over twelve 
miles. 

The following is related by our Major, telling about our 
mode of destroying railroads in Georgia, also giving a de- 
scription of Stone Mountain, near Decatur. He says: 

"The division halted at the mountain, and destroyed the rail- 
road The members of the Second Division were adepts at 
this work. The method of destruction depended upon the time 
which could be given to the work. If the time was short, dry 
material was procured, piled on alternate joints of the rails on 
either track, and burned. The expansion of the rails caused 
by the heat, bent the end of each rail at the heated joints into 
abrupt elbows, or angles, and it was necessary in repairing the 
road to take up the rail, cut the damaged end off, replace Hie 
burnt ties, and relay the track. This, with the rebuilding of 
the culverts and bridges, usually interrupted communications 
for several days. Where the track was not well ballasted it 
was thrown over or upset. A regiment would stack arms, 
march parallel with the track, detach the spikes at a given 
point, and lift together, when the rail by which they were lift- 
ing passed the dead point in the overturn arc, the weight of 
the frame or track greatly assisted the work ; the men break- 
ing from the left and passing to the right, where they again 
joined in the lift and kept the track rolling over like a long 
spiral spring. This was the most rapid process of destruction. 

The most elaborate and effective destruction was committed 
by dividing the regiment into sections, the first of which with 
clawbars pulled the spikes and removed the rails ; the second 
piled the ties and the rails so that the ends rested upon piles 
of ties, on and midway of were piled other ties ; the third sec- 
tion burned the ties, and with long handled tongs held by sev- 
eral men, twisted the rails from each end. When this work 
was carefully done, the rails were unserviceable until re-rolled. 
Of course, the bridges and culverts were always destroyed." 



274 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

Stone Mountain was once a solid mass of brown sandstone, 
which evidently was forced by a subt c, ranean convulsion in 
conical form out of the earth in a comparatively level country 
several hundred feet above the surface. It is now rent into 
three parts by chasms or fissures several incheswide, which are 
designated as "Sunstroke" "'Buzzard's Roost" and ''Cross- 
roads. The surface is quite uniform and smooth. Very little 
vegetation is found upon it. From the summit a good view 
of the surrounding country is obtained. The regiment camped 
near it at night, after having marched sixteen miles. 

July 18, '64. Near Atlanta, Georgia. It was on this date 
that General Sherman learned Johnston had been superceded 
by General J. B. Hood, Confederate States Army. 



Skirmish at Decatur, Georgia. 

July 19, '64. Near Stone Mountain, Georgia. The 47th 
drew some beef before daylight. Orders received to be ready 
to march at 5 A. M. Our regiment did not march until 6 A M., 
on account of being in the rear of our brigade ; marched soihp 
three miles towards Decatur, where our regiment and the 83rd 
Indiana was detailed to support the batteries, while the balance 
of our brigade with the First Brigade of the Second Division, 
Fifteenth Army Corps, advanced to the railroad near Decatur, 
and they destroyed the railroad. There was skirmishing and 
artillery firing in our front. At 12 M marched again moving 
very slowly, and arrived near Decatur at 3 P. M. and halted in 
line of battle. At 5 P. M. we again fell into line on account 
of the enemy having opened up on us with artillery. The Sec- 
ond Division was deployed into line of battle across the Atlanta 
Road, the 47th holding the extreme right near an old church. 
The left was protected by a strong skirmish line under the 
division skirmishers. We advanced upon them when we had 
quite a skirmish with the enemy, and they retreated. We 
then went back to our old position ; at night the 47th again 
advanced three-quarters of a mile, and went into camp in a 
cornfield near Peach Tree Creek in line of battle. 

Incident by Major Taylor, as follows : 

"Quite a number of ladies and children, who were doubtless 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 275 

panic stricken by the din and roar of the battle, chaperoned by 
an old man had fled from their village homes into the adjacent 
woods, and attempted to shelter themselves in a shallow ravine. 
As the skirmish line was advancing, the men caught sight of 
moving objects in the underbrush, and, true to their soldierly 
instincts, were about to fire, but, from his horse the Major had 
caught sight of a sun-bonnet just in time to command "Recov- 
er Arms !" and prevented a terrible calamity from befalling 
the wanderers. They were then peremptorily escorted to their 
homes, where they were safe." 

Let us now see the position of the army on this date. Gen- 
eral. Sherman says, he had his three armies converging on At- 
lanta, and meeting with so little resistance that he was led 
to conclude the enemy intended to abandon the place without 
a battle ; General McPherson was on the railroad near Decatur 
on the extreme left ; General Schofield had a direct road to At- 
lanta on the right ; General Thomas was hugging Peach Tree 
Creek, in line of battle, in the center. 



COMMENCEMENT OP THE BATTLE FOR ATLANTA AT 
PEACH TREE CREEK. 



July 20, '64. Wednesday. The 47th marched at 6 A. M. 
through Decatur, and one mile beyond it halted. We were 
then on the direct road to Atlanta ; here we got orders for no 
one to straggle ; we formed our line of battle, our regiment in 
advance of the brigade. Companies F D G and H deployed as 
skirmishers. The entire skirmish line being under command 
of Major Taylor, of the 47th Ohio, the division officer. This 
line advanced at 4 A. M. One mile west it struck the skirmish 
line of the enemy, and drove it from position to position with- 
out nmch effort, capturing at the last position, a line of light- 
works. General Logan, in his report, said: "The skirmishers 
met those of the enemy, and drove them steadily before them. 
The enemy would occasionally use artillery from commanding 
positions on this road, which in no way impeded my advance." 
At this point, while halting for the First and Fourth Divisions, 



276 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V- I- 



Fifteenth Army Corps, to close up, at General McPhersoirs re- 
quest Captain De Gross unlimbered one of his twenty pounder 
Parrott's, sunk the trail so as to give the piece greater eleva- 
tion and sent a few shells over the woods into the city ot At- 
lanta, "to let them know," as the General said, "that we are 
coming and are in reach of them." These were acknowledged 
to be the the first shots from our army, which had entered the 
city of Atlanta, Georgia. 

When the Fifteenth Army Corps had closed up, the advance 
was resumed and continued until the last strong ridge which 
separated the Army of the Tennessee from the city was m our 
front The ridge was then occupied by Wheeler's Cavalry, dis- 
mounted, and a pioneer force, both of which were busily at 
work building a new line of defence on it. We were so close 
we could hear their talk; we also could hear them chopping. 
\fter the line had discontinued the advance, about 10 A.M., 
the Major saw a member of Company H whose sobriquet was 
"Pe-wee " approaching with two mounted unarmed cavalrymen. 
"Pe-wee" reported "that they were two of Wheeler's Cavalry 
whom he had flanked and surprised while dismounted and had 
made them throw down their arms, mount and march to the 
Maior " Of course, "Pe-wee" was complimented upon his 
skillful and successful imitation of General Sherman's grand 
strategy The prisoners were turned over to the Provost Mar- 
shal, and the capture reported, together with the progress 
made to General M. L. Smith, by the Major, who remained 
with the General. The advance had been very slow through 
the woods, skirmishing all the time. Company C took two 
prisoners ; the enemy threw some shell coming near the regiment ; 
then Companies E and H were sent out as flankers. We drove 
the enemies' force steadily back some three miles; we were 
then relieved at night by a Regiment of the First Division 
Fifteenth Army Corps. We then went into line, and went to 
work throwing up breastworks. Weather very hot ; heavy fight- 
ing on our right. _ 

July 21 '64. The 47th was called early for roll call ; heavy ni - 
ins on our right. The skirmishing almost ceased to-day. Our 
regiment assisted in constructing rifle pits, and worked nearly 
to midnight; through the day General Logan personally order- 



History of the 4<th Regiment O. V. V. I. 277 

ed the Major to advance the line of the Second Division skirm- 
ishers, which was promptly and successfully executed, the en- 
emy being driven about 500 yards. The new position was 
fortified that night. 



THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA, GEORGIA, 
Our Works Captured. 



July 22. 64. In obedience to the orders of General M. L. 
Smith, early on the 22nd, Major Taylor advanced with the 
Second Division skirmish line. Companies B and C of the 
47th, with two companies from each regiment of the division, 
were in the line. The progress was rapid ; the skirmish line of the 
enemy firing briskly, retreated upon the main line, and the en- 
tire body then quickly retreated until it reached the slashed tim- 
ber in front of the interior line surrounding the city, where it 
occupied aline of lunettes which were under cover of that line. 
The Major pressed these lunettes closely so that at some points 
the enemy could only use solid shot against his line, their own 
men being in almost equal danger from the exploding shells. 

This position was secured at 6:30 A. M. As soon as our line 
came into view, the Confederates climbed upon their works to 
look at it. The Major thought he could reach them from his 
position, and, taking a Springfield rifle from one of the men, 
raised the sight to 500 yard^ and fired at them. After one or 
two more shots had been fired, there was a perceptible movement, 
among the enemy; he then directed firing at that elevation, and 
the top of the enemies' works were soon cleared. 



Formation of the Second Division for Battle. 

The Second Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps had been 
advanced to the line captured from the enemy by the skirm- 
ishers about 8 A. M., and occupied the same in about the fol- 
lowing order: On the extreme right of the division, Captain 
DeGross' Battery was placed in position ; then came the Second 
Brigade as follows: The 30th Ohio, the 37th, 54th, and seven 



278 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

companies of the 47th Ohio next a section of Lieutenant Smith's 

Napoleon guns: then the Decatur wagon road and two more 
Napoleons, supported by Compaay K, 47th Ohio. The 88rd 
Indiana was Hospital and Quartermaster's guard, and the 53rd 
Ohio and two companies of 47th Ohio wen' in reserve. Between 
the Decatur wagon road and the railroad, at that time, on a 
narrow strip of ground, stood two of Lieutenant Smith's guns. 
Battery A, supported by Company K, 47th Ohio, under Captain 
Charles Haltenhof . The deep cut of the]railroad separated the 
First Brigade from the Second. Immediately on the south side 
of the cut were two more of Lieuienant Smith's Napoleons; 
then came the 57th Ohio and the 55th Illinois, the 111th Illi- 
nois being in reserve. The 127th and the 116th Illinois and 
the Sixth Missouri had been taken out of the line and sent un- 
der Colonel James Martin, brigade commander, to re-enforce 
the Sixteenth Army Corps, 



THE BEGINNING. 



The Major was standing on the skirmish line with Lieutenant 
Ahlers of Company C, 47th Ohio, when the first fitful shots away 
to the rear were heard at 1 o'clock P. M. Simultaneously the 
firing became fierce in our front and the Lieutenant's left arm 
was shattered by a shot. By 1 :30 P. M. it seemed that our 
unprepared and unexpectant Army of the Tennessee was taken 
in :iir, was doubled back on the center, and cannon balls actu- 
ally reached within 100 yards of the hospital of the 47th Ohio, 
which was not far in the rear of the regiment. The situation 
is graphically described by General Sherman, who says: "'The 
men" — Seventeenth Army Corps — "were skillful and brave, 
and fought for a time with their backs to Atlanta." 

General Sherman, in his Memoirs, Volume 2, Page 79, says: 
"Unluckily for us I had sent away the whole of Garrard's Di- 
vision of cavalry during the night of the 20th, to be gone four 
days, so that McPherson had no cavalry in hand to guard that 
Hank." 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 279 

THE BATTLE— A GREAT SURPRISE. 

This was, perhaps, the greatest surprise and shock that Gen- 
eral Sherman had ever experienced. The battle was a magnifi- 
cent conception in itself, and the movement had been so mas- 
terfully and scientifically conducted that no 'alarming symp- 
toms" had been discovered, even by the Signal Corps, until 11 
A. M. The design and execution were as nearly perfect as it 
was posible for commanders and men to make them. Dense 
underbrush in the movement of an army will always mock 
"Old Time" and disappoint a commanding general when suc- 
cess depends upon the hour the blow should fall. At its in- 
ception, the battle gave brilliant promise of success. 

General McPhersui's views of the situation on the morning 
of the 22nd of July, 1864, are reflected by his biographer, page 
535, -'Ohio in the War." 

"About daylight came a staff officer from Sherman to report 
a movement of the enemy, which was interpreted to mean an 
evacuation of the city of Atlanta. General McPherson was 
suspicious. The skirmish line, however, was moved forward 
to the crest of the hills overlooking Atlanta. General Mc- 
Pherson himself rode out to this crest. From the very front 
of the skirmishers, he looked down into the interior Confederate 
works, and though the streets of the beleaguered city. Some 
men could be seen in the exterior lines and a few were moving 
about in the street". With these exceptions, no living object 
was visible. * * * The habitual caution stood his command 
in good stead. He doubted the sudden evacuation — would, at 
least, look into it a little more before ordering his army pell- 
mell into Atlanta. To that caution we owe the salvation of 
the forces surrounding the besieged city. 

"He gave some general directions to the pioneer companies. 
Then riding back to General Blair's headquarters, he heard of 
the suspicious appearance of Confederate cavalry in the rear, 
threatening the hospitals. Confirmed somewhat by this in his 
doubts, he gave some orders for the removal of the hospitals, 
and then rode rapidly off to the right to General Sherman's 
headquarter's and General McPherson lost his life on his way 
there." 



280 



History of the 47th R egiment 0. V. V. I- 

THE DEFENSE, 

The report submitted by Major Taylor, the regimental com- 
mander gives an accurate statement of the principal movements 
of the 47th Ohio, on the 22nd of July, 1864. The division 
front extended about 1550 yards. The division contained twelve 
regiments, averaging 319 effectives, and Company K. remaining 
of the late Eighth Missouri, mustered out. He says: "I sa* 
the regiment first in the following order: Three companies be- 
hind the rifle pit on the right of a section of artillery, north of 
the Decatur Road: Subsequently, Company K47th Ohio was or- 
dered to support a section of artillery between the Decatur wa- 
gon road and the railroad, posted behind a low earthwork, ter- 
minating a few feet from the right bank of a railway cut fit- 
teen feet deep, and fifty feet wide at the top, dry and firm, and 
at the time of the battle was neither blockaded nor occupied 
by tmops; south of the cut were two guns covering fifty feet; 
between the cut and the Decatur wagon road north of it, on a 
strip 66 feet wide, were two guns, then the wagon road 34 feet 
wide and on the north of it a third section, being the guns 
brought back by Colonel Jones from the reserve picket post, 
which occupied fifty feet more, a total of 250 feet of space 
One platoon of Company K, numbering sixteen men of the 
47th Ohio, was posted between the guns on the 66 foot strip; 
the other platoon of the company was in the rear of the section 
Seven companies of the regiment were on the left of the Second 
Brigade, directly north of the third section of artillery, and 
the two reserve companies were ordered into the rifie pit among 
the other troops, immediately after the second repulse of the 
assaulting column. Two assaults were handsomely repulsed. 
When General Lightburn saw the assaulting column advance 
the third time against his division, he ordered his reserve into 
the rifle pit among the other troops, and thereby destroyed 
all organization. But notwithstanding, the men fought gal- 
lantly, and had the railroad cut and Decatur wagon road 
been obstructed, Cheatham's Corps would have been again 
repulsed. At the last charge, a column of the troops under 
cover of the smoke of the battery, charged without resistance 
through the railway cut, and another in the gap in the wagon road 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 281 

between the sections of artillery. The writer never saw men 
look more badly scared than those who charged through the 
wagon road, and was about to place the reserve platoon of 
Company K in the gap to repel them, when he felt the concus- 
sion from bullets coming from the rear, and turning, saw the 
column debouching from the cut, forming on the right by tile 
into line, on the run, and firing at will. There was no force 
to oppose them; of course, the division could not remain there, 
and could not change front on that ground successfully. It 
was necessary to withdraw to re-form and re-organize. The 
men were cool and self-possessed, and felt and expressed great 
indignation because the ordinary precautions had been omitted. 
When retiring to the line which had been occupied by the Sec- 
ond Division Fifteenth Army Corps in the afternoon, Corporals 
Clandening of Company I, Saunier of Company F, and some 
of their comrades of the 47th Ohio asked permission of the 
writer to take off limbers and caissons belonging to Lieutenant 
Smith's Battery, which was accorded and they gallantly took 
possession of them and brought them into the second line. 

ww The platoon between said guns fought desperately, and all 
except four men were killed, wounded and captured; the other 
platoon of Company K being in the rear of said guns, could 
not fire without killing their comrades in front, but received a 
heavy fire from the front, on the right flank, and the 
enemy debouched from the said cut in their rear, when, to avoid 
capture, they retired." 

"Simultaneously, the entire line began moving back. At 
the works, a fierce struggle and hand-to-hand fight occured 
over our colors, in which the enemy were punished most severely. 

"In this struggle, Corporal McCarthy, of the color guards 
was captured; Corporal Abram T. Craig of the color guard was 
wounded and captured; and Henry Beckman, Color Sergeant, 
wounded. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace, commanding the regi- 
ment, and Captain H. D. Pugh were captured while bravely 
laboring to form a new line." 



282 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

The Recapture of our Works by the Regimkxt 

Having learned upon the arrival of the 47th Ohio at the 
line occupied by it in the morning that Lieutenant-Colonel 
Wallace had been captured. Major Taylor asked to be relieved 
from staff duty, that he might join his regiment. His request 
was granted, and he at once took command of the regiment. 

''Behind these works he re-formed the regiment; it was the 
first re-formed, and he says in accordance with orders from the 
Corps and Division commander, he advanced in line of battle 
with bayonets fixed, to re-capture the works taken by the enemy. 
After proceeding a short distance, one small company, and men 
from various regiments joined the line, swelling the number to 
about two hundred and fifty, with whom, wholly unsupported, 
the 47th Regiment charged and succeeded in approaching with- 
in a few feet of the works, when such was the storm of fire 
which swept over this gallant band that both flag staffs in the 
hands of the color bearers were shot off, and the regimental 
standard was torn by a fragment of shell from the staff. One 
of the color bearers, Corporal Joseph Sudborough was killed, 
and Corporal Rosemild, of the Color Guard, wounded. Finding 
the command flanked on both the right and the left, to avoid 
capture he retreated. In retiring through the entanglement, 
and through the dense undergrowth T the command became to 
some extent, separated." He further says: 

"Meeting a line upon a ridge in the rear advancing, I halted 
and with them made a second assault. Captain Pinkerton, 
Company D, and Lieutenant Brachmann, Company G. with a 
portion of the right wing moved forwanl on the right of the 
railroad, while I, with men from both wings moved on the left 
of it, but being again outflanked all were compelled to retire. 
This time we withdrew to an open field, and re-formed as rap- 
idly as possible, and a third time advanced upon the works. 
In the beginning of the last charge, the prospect of success 
seemed so slight that only Private McGaw of Company D, 
accompanied the regimental commander until he had gone 
about fifty yards, when the regiment surged forward with great 
speed and cheers. In a moment the Major had obtained his 
sword scabbard, the tassels of the regimental standard, the 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 283 

silver plate on which was engraved the legend of the colors, and 
the lower part of each color staff, all of which were lyingr near 
the late brave Sudborough, having been shot off by the vol- 
ley which killed him. Captain Pinkerton and Lieutenant 
Brachmann, as before, moved on the right of the railway, and 
Major Taylor on the left of it, pouring a continuous fire on the 
enemy, driving him from the works and re-taking the section of 
artillery standing upon the left and south of the railway, which 
the enemy had turned upon us, and which, with the assistance 
of Sergeant Sidel, Sergeant-Major Henry Bremfoeder, and pri- 
vates Louis Walker Company K, and Isaac N. Sliver Company 
D, and other men of the 47th and a few from the 53rd Ohio, he 
turned upon and served against them, the Major himself sight- 
ing the pieces, until they withdrew from range. In the third 
assault the regiment captured seventeen prisoners." 

"Captains Charles L. Helmrich, Joseph L. Pinkerton and 
Lieutenants Brachmann and Weterer, the only commissioned 
officers present with the regiment unhurt, rendered efficient 
aid in the various assaults. The Second Division lost in this 
desperate struggle that day one third of the entire force it 
had engaged, and the 47th Ohio lost all but 97 men, part of 
whom went to Andersonville Prison, and the rest were on the 
battle-field killed or wounded." 

"The line met by General Taylor on a ridge, advancing with 
which he made a second assault. This was the 127th Illinois 
of the First Brigade Second Division, which was returning 
from the Sixteenth Army Corps. It had double-quicked four 
miles to re-enforce the Sixteenth Army Corps, and had been 
at once ordered to return, making eight miles on the double- 
quick. Lieutenant-Colonel Curtis, who commanded it, joined 
Major Taylor's command, and observed his orders, as he was 
not acquainted with the field." 

General Charles R. Woods' Division of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps was on the extreme right of the Army of the Tennessee 
between the railroad and the Howard House, where he connect- 
ed with Schofield's troops. He reported to General Sherman 
in person that the line on his left had been swept back, and 
that his connection with General Logan on Leggett's Hill was 
broken. General Sherman says: "I ordered him to wheel his 



284 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

brigade to the left, to advance in echelon, and to catch the en- 
emy in Hank. General Schofield brought forward all his availa- 
ble batteries to the number of twenty guns, to the left front of 
the Howard House, where we could overlook the field of act inn. 
and directed a heavy fire over the heads of Woods' men against 
the enemy, and we saw Woods' troops advance and encounter 
the enemy, who had secured possession of the old line of para- 
pet which he swept back, taking it in flank, and at the same 
time, the division which had been driven back along the rail- 
road, was rallied by General Logan in person and fought for 
their former ground. These combined forces drove the enemy 
into Atlanta, recovering possession of the twenty pound Par- 
rott guns. 

"By direction of Major General Logan, (General Smith being 
at the time on another part of the line) General Woods com- 
manding First Division, caused the guns of a battery in his 
front to open upon the animals of the captured battery of De 
Gross, and the troops of the enemy surrounding it, to prevent 
it from being withdrawn from the position where it was cap- 
tured, and immediately afterwards organized a body of his 
troops from his reserves not in position, and led them for- 
ward to the recapture of the battery, and that part of our line 
situated near his own, then in possession of the enemy. The 
movement of the troops under General Woods in this action 
was pronounced splendid by General Logan, who witnessed it. 
It was made suddenly and with the greatest vigor, and struck 
the enemies' left immediately in flank. General Woods di- 
rected it in person. The battery and line were re-taken, and 
the enemy compelled to retire precipitately. Capt De Gross 
was present to re-take possession of the guns, and turn them on 
the discomfited enemy, which he did with the most terrible 
effect as they were moving off the field in confusion. It was 
not surprising, since the line had been so much weakened by 
the withdrawal of Col. Martin's Brigade, to re-enforce Gen. 
Dodge, commanding the Sixteenth Army Corps, that he should 
gain advantage over this part of the line. Gen. Smith, who 
was present at the time, on the center of the line where Bat- 
tery A was posted soon caused the troops to rally at that 
point, and almost immediately recovered the position abandoned 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 285 

by us a few minutes before." Report of Lieutenant-Colonel 
R. R. Towne, Chief of Staff, Fifteenth Army Corps, page 117, 
Volume 38, Official Record, Part 3. 

Speaking of this affair General Sherman says, "We saw 
Woods' troops advance and encounter the enemy, who had 
secured possession of the old line of parapets, which he swept 
back, taking it in flank, and at the same time the division 
which had been driven back along the railroad, rallied and 
fought for their former ground. These combined forces drove 
the enemy into Atlanta, recovering the twenty pound Parrott 
guns." 

Sherman made the order and watched its execution. 

The fact is, Major Taylor sent Captain Pinkerton and Lieu- 
tenant Brachmann of the 47th Ohio, at each charge, to the as- 
sault with their respective companies, on the north or the 
right-hand side of the railroad, their deployment reaching at 
least one hundred and twenty yards beyond it toward DeGross' 
Battery; and when the enemy received the fire of General 
Woods on the right, and of this detachment on the left flank, 
he at once fled over the works, and left the celebrated battery 
and the works deserted and unoccupied. This was the move- 
ment on the right spoken of by General Clayton. 

When the final charge was made by Major Taylor, command- 
ing the 47th Ohio, he had under him not only his own regi- 
ment, but detachments from several others; the 127th Illinois, 
of the first brigade, and many who had become seperated from 
their commands. To many of them he gave certificates of 
good conduct for the part they performed. The shot which 
wounded Col Mersey was fired in the last struggle made by the 
enemy on the right, or north side of the railroad, to repel 
Taylor's charge. The Major crossed from the section of 
Battery A. which had been firing, to Capt. Pinkerton on the 
north side of the road, and saw the Mersey Brigade in the act 
of deployment almost half a mile to the east and rear of his 
position. 

Not only the Major, but scores of officers and men stood on 
the elevation at the railroad cut with him, and watched the 
deployment of that brigade, the road being blue with the 
mass of soldiers, and the writer remembers distinctly to have 



286 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V^JV^L 

heard one of the Confederate prisoner, say: "Our officers 

thought you had set a trap for them, that they had run into 

he sack, andwere being closed in upon from each sxde, and 

hy got out when you began to press the flanks just as quick 

as they could, and that heavy column shows they were right 

Col.A. C. Fisk, the A. A. G. of the Second Bngade^ Second 
Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, referring to the 22nd day of 
July, 1864. in reply to a letter of inquiry, says: 

'Gen. Logan called my attention to the fact that Mersey 
Brigade was formed just in our rear, and that it would support 
ou Troops. Apart of the Second Division had previously 
gone forward Jthe assault, and the remainder of t- division 
was re-formed within thirty minutes of the time it had been 
compelled to withdraw, and marched back to the position w» 
had lost, but the enemy had retreated. Gen. C. R. Woods on 
our right, and a part of the Second Division on our left, with 
a severe enfilading fire, had already driven the enemy from the 
field Mersey's Brigade took on part in the matter except to 
follow, which it did and deployed in the rear of our division; 
but it did not fire a shot nor lose a man, except when the de- 
ployment be,an at the railroad, as it moved to the right along a 
plank fence. No one had a better opportunity than myself 
for knowing the facts, and none of them materially disagree 
with what I have given." . 

Col Wells S. Jones, who succeeded Gen. Lightburn in the 
command of the Second Brigade, Second Division, says : ' 1 
advanced part of my line nearly to the works, but was driven 
back some 400 yards. We soon again advanced and recovered 
our works, turning the artillery that the enemy had taken from 
us on them, and capturing some eighty prisoners. Official 
Records, Volume 38, Part 3, Page 224. 

The reports of Gen. Lightburn, and of Maj. ^afland A. A. 
G of the Second Division, and of every other officer who made 
a report, refers to them as supporting the ™>™ me ^ ® xc «f 
one, Capt. Moritz, of the 37th Ohio, who says: ' With the 
assistance of Mersey's Brigade." 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 287 



INCIDENTS OF THE BATTLE 

Major Taylor of the 47th Ohio had sent his horse to the 
rear when the line became stationary, and when the Confeder- 
ate advance was made was on foot. The band of the 53rd 
Ohio was cooking supper when the reserve picket retreated, 
and retreated with its regiment without their supper, leaving 
it standing invitingly by the fire. The Major had had no 
breakfast, and had eaten only a light lunch during the day. 
Hence, making a beefsteak sandwich, he ate it as he walked 
leisurely up the hill toward the main line. But the enemy 
having recovered from the check, marched down the opposite 
side of the slope in skirmish order, and seeing him in easy 
range, called to him to 'halt, and they would not hurt him.' 
Instead of halting he emptied his mouth and hands, and made 
a race on the broad highway for freedom. What a race it was. 
Six pieces of artillery belching forth their fire in front of him 
at the enemy, and the whole Confederate skirmish line in 
rifle range of him in his rear shooting at him, their hail of 
balls converging and striking the earth at his heels. Oh, 
what inspiration! How he reached and gathered! It was the 
most exciting foot race the armies had seen, and shouted and 
shot, the one side to relieve him, the other to 'wing' him. 
Still he ran. To him a halt meant Libby or Charleston prison. 
Presently a ricochet ball struck his left thigh, and it seemed 
he swayed twenty feet ahead, but still he went onward to his 
line, which he reached in a few seconds, amid vociferous 
cheering from both armies. 

Later, an officer in an attempt to escape, took a bridle in 
hand, and placing foot in stirrup, was just raising the other 
over the back of a horse, when, behold, an anxious fellow, 
who had climbed up from the off side, seated himself in the 
saddle in his very face. The disappointed man let his foot 
drop out of the stirrup, saying, "I guess you've got the older 
right," and ran alongside the horse by the head of the enemies' 
column, and thus escaped. 

Private Bedall, of Company D, 47th Ohio, like many others, 
was surrounded in the desperate fight over the colors. His 
Springfield rifle had been broken, but instead of yielding he 



288 HTST0KY0FjrH^jL7TH^^ 

closed in with his immediate antagonists, and with his fist, 
knocked four of them over and thus escaped. 

A drummer boy about fourteen years old belonging to one 
A annum j h j on ,.),„ 

of the German companies of the 47th, who nau 
.tretoher force during the battle, not being able to retreat 
brew I meelf upon the ground and drew a blanket up over 
h m el eaving a bloody arm and hand partly exposed. When 
tH my approached, he said, they turned the blanket down 
and noting his bloody corse and boyish tace, deplored that 
such ch Mren should be saorificed, and tenderly replaced the 
llfnket and .eft him undisturbed, muttering in their syn, - 
thy 'It is too had, too bad.' It was amus.ng to watch his 
delighted antics when he had returned, and narrated the 
wav he fooled them, and narrowly escaped capture 

One of the companies, B of the 47th, had its kettle of coffee 

brought .up just before the assault. It had been placed lb, -the 

ide of a tree near the works when the charge struck the hue. 

When the company returned, it was still standing by the tree, 

and was warm. The writer took a drink of it. 

To „„r withdrawal some of the enemy ran against L.eutu 
aicolonel Mott, of the 57th Ohio and ordered him to h.£ 
He laughingly said, "Can't see it, Johnnie, can t see it. As 
Miinr Taylor ran through the woods to a road to get the basis 
5 Hgnment for a new line, he came squarely ymst acolumn 
on a narrow road, led by a Confederate, mounted on a flea 
^eek d" gray horse, carrying a flag in one hand an la revolv- 
er in the other, who commanded him to "Haiti Haiti to 
which he replied, "Stranger, this is no place for me to halt 
And as he dodged into the bushes, the officer shot at him w.th- 

""Tne^nemy in this battle numbered more than two to our 
on? Opposed to this force was the Sixteenth Army Corps 
Ceneral Dodge 9,625; the Seventeenth Army Corps, General 
B aTr 812? he Fourth Division Fifteenth Army Corps, Gen- 
ell Harrow 2,5CX»; First Brigade Second Dmston Won 
Martin, 1,000 j Colonel Wangel.n's Brigade ^ l' 090 '/"^ for" 
Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, total 22,02, O this .force 
Colonel Martin's Brigade of 1,000 did not enter the hue no 
flre a shot, and General Cox's D.v.s.on, 4,150 stiong, of the 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 289 

Twenty-third Army Corps, was brought on as a support for those 
troops at 3 P. M., but like Stewart, was not called into action. 
So that the battle was fought and won by the Federals, with 
only 21,027 men. Here was a straight fight between the Fed- 
eral Army of the Tennessee and the Confederate Army of the 
Tennessee, and the reports of both armies show that notwith- 
standing the Confederate superiority in numbers, and the com- 
plete surprise of the Federals, the Confederates were most 
disastrously beaten. And this disaster becomes still more 
strongly apparent, and we add to it the assault at the railroad 
of certainly two Divisions of Hood's Old Corps, under Cheat- 
ham, numbering from four to one of the Second Division, of 
the Fifteenth Army Corps, even when the Second Division was 
re-enforced by the two brigades of Wood's First Division, num- 
bering 1,912, and Colonel Adams' Brigade of the Sixteenth 
Army Corps, of 1,100, it only numbered 5,219, and the Confed- 
erate force of Cheatham still out-numbered it almost two to one. 
In the succeeding days, the Division was put to work in real 
earnest, fortifying the works. All the suggestions which had 
been made by Colonel Wells S. Jones upon our retreat from 
the picket line on the 22nd were carried out. 

General Hood says: ''It became apparent almost immediate- 
ly after the battle of the 22nd that Sherman would make an 
attack upon our left in order to destroy the Macon Railroad, 
and from that moment, I may say, began the seige of Atlanta. 
The battles of the 20th and 22nd checked the enemies' reckless 
manner of moving. 

The following is the official reports of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps of the battle of July 22, 1864; then the reports of our 
Division and Brigade Commanders, and several Regimental 
Commanders of our Brigade. Major Taylor did not make his 
report until we came back from Jonesboro to East Point, that 
the 47th Ohio did re-capture a part of the DeGross Battery and 
turned them on the enemy. 

General Logan, as Commander of th^ Army of the Tennessee, 
on pages 25 and 26, Idem, says: "The interval from which 
Martin's Brigade had been withdrawn, was held by a thin line 
of skirmishers. Wangelin's Brigade had been withdrawn from 
the First Division, so that there were no reserves to the Corps. 



290 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

At this point was a deep cut of the railroad on the right, north 
of which four guns of Battery A, First Illinois Artillery, were 
in position, and firing by the right oblique at the broken line 
of the enemy. Under the smoke of Battery A, a Confederate 
column marched rapidly by the flank up the main dirt road, 
and through the deep cut of the railroa.d, and were in rear of 
our lines before the officers or men were aware of their inten- 
tion. The Division at once fell back, the greater part halting 
in a ravine between the two lines." 

Captain Gordon Lafland, Assistant Adjutant General, who 
submitted the report of the operations of the Second Division 
during the campaign, says: "At 2 P. M. three regiments were 
taken out of the line, and sent to protect our train and hospi- 
tal, and the line lengthened t > cover the ground from which 
the regiments had been withdrawn, leaving us without any re- 
serve or support for the batteries. At 2 :30 the enemy advanced 
in three lines; the skirmishers fell back on their support, who 
held their position until the enemy approached quite near, when 
they checked their advance, then fell back to the main line. 
The enemy re-formed and advanced to our main works. The 
first line was handsomely repulsed, and sought cover in a ravin*', 
and behind a large house in front and to our right. This drew 
the fire in that direction, and the artillery was directed to fire 
on the house. The rapid discharges of artillery caused such a 
smoke that the second line advanced along and through the 
railroad cut unobserved, and thus succeeded in breaking our 
line near the center, causing it to break to the right and left, 
leaving all our artillery, ten pieces, in the hands of the enemy.' 7 

Colonel Wells S Jones, commanding Second Brigade, Second 
Division Fifteenth Army Corps says: "All the regiments were 
placed in the front line but seven companies of the 53rd and 
two companies of the 47th Ohio, which were placed in reserve. 
Very soon the entire front line became engaged. The enemy 
was found to be steadily approaching our works, and the re- 
serve companies were all ordered forward into the works. The 
enemy soon seemed to fall back from the right and center of 
the brigade, but about this time moved a heavy force up the 
road, and got another column into the railroad cut. The 
smoke from our battery, it being near the road, entirely hid 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 291 



them from our view, until they were crossing our works on each 
side of the battery. So-ui after this, the head of their column 
began to emerge from the railroad cut, about seventy-rive 
yards in our rear. The men near the road being no longer 
able to hold their position, fell back in considerable confusion. 
I attempted to form a line on my right, but could not succeed " 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hildt, of the 30th Ohio, in his report 
says: "July 22nd Confederate works in our front evacuated 
during the night; posessed them, and employed ourselves 
leisurely during the morning in changing them. At 1 P. M. 
a heavy firing was heard on the left, and the works were order- 
ed to be put in complete order as rapidly as possible. The 
firing came gradually nearer, and at 3:30 an attack was made 
upon us by Hind man's Division of Hardee's Corps. They oc- 
cupied the works on the left of our brigade, and each 
regiment in succession fell back. We being partially sheltered 
by the brick house on our left, remained some time afterward, 
with the hope to save DeGross Battery in position on our right, 
but were compelled finally to leave them in the hands of the 
enemy, and fall back, also to the line of the works we left in 
the morning." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert A. Fulton, commanding 53rd Ohio 
says: "Finding a superior force of the enemy advancing upon 
us from their works and about to flank our position, (as pick- 
et reserve) we retired according to orders, to main line, and 
then seven companies of the regiment were formed in rear of 
the 37th Ohio, as a reserve, and were scarcely in position when 
the enemy charged the works. The 53rd was ordered up to the 
worksr they promptly obeyed, and engaged the enemy, and 
opened a brisk fire on them as they advanced; the lines of the 
enemy in their front fell into confusion, and were retreating, 
when another column of the enemy by a concealed approach 
by the rail and State roads, got in the rear of the battery and 
the 47th and 54th Ohio, who were on the left of the 53rd Ohio, 
and attacked them in the flank, and captured the battery and 
turned the left of those regiments, and they retreated in dis- 
order ; the 53rd then also fell back in confusion." Official 
Records, Volume 38, Part 3, Page 251. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Isreal T. Moore, commanding the 54th 



292 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

Ohio on the immediate right and north of the 47th Ohio, says: 
•'We reserved our fire until they (the enemy) were within 150 or 
l'00 yards of us, when we fired by rank, keeping up a continuous 
fire for about thirty minutes. The enemy in our front broke 
and ran in much confusion. About this time, the regiments 
to our left broke to the rear, and when discovered, the enemy 
with banners dying were marching in through the works by 
the dirt road, which was open. Receiving a fire in the rear 
and left, our regiment changed to rear on right, company tak- 
ing shelter in woods and rear of large brick house on our right. 
A column of the enemy coming rapidly through a deep cut of 
the railroad enfiladed us, and compelled us to abandon this 
position. We fell slowly back through thick woods to the works 
we left in the morning," 

Captain Carl Moritz, of the 37th Ohio, in the absence of 
Major Hypp, who was wounded on the 28th of July, made the 
report of the regiment for the 22nd : "The enemy left his en- 
trenched position early in the morning of the 22nd of July, 
and the regiment with the brigade, took possession of the same, 
and turned them in some manner to use them against the en- 
emy, but not sufficiently, as was shown afterward. About 3 :30 
P. M. the enemy attacked in force, and having been successful 
on the left of the brigade, the regiment being posted on the 
right, advanced on our flank and rear, and the regiment was 
forced to fall back to the entrenchments occupied in the morn- 
ing, though it was successful in repelling the attack of the en- 
emy in its immediate front." 

Francis DeGross, Captain commanding Battery H, First 
Illinois Light Artillery, reported as follows: "July 22nd. Ad- 
vanced again, and occupied the works evacuated by the enemy 
the night previous. I went into position at the extreme right of 
our division, to engage three Confederate batteries which were 
tiring at our advance columns; was ordered to keep up a con- 
tinuous fire. There was a gap of at least 800 yards between 
my battery and the First Division, which fact I reported sev- 
eral times. The enemy charged our works at 4 P. M., was re- 
pulsed in my front but broke through our center, and changing 
front charged my battery, which I was obliged to leave, after 
spiking the guns, and after all my support had left me." 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. -J93 

Lieut. -Colonel R. N. Adams, commanding Second Brigade, 
Second Division, Sixteenth Army Corps, says: ''The brigade 
was then moved to another part of the field, distant one and 
one-half mile, on double-quick time, and ordered to charge 
the enemy from a line of works, from which the Second Brig- 
ade, Second Division, Fifteenth Army Corps had previously 
been driven This charge resulted in the re-taking of the line 
of works, and the. re-capture of four twenty pounder Parrot 
guns (Captain DeGross' Battery,) which had al^o fallen into 
the enemies' hands a few minutes before." Official Records, 
Volume 33, Part 3, Page 449. 



Confederate General Cheatham's Movement 

From the beginning of the conflict, away off to the left, the 
firing against the Second Division skirmish line stretching 
across the Augusta Railroad near the city was very fierce, kill- 
ing and wounding several At 4 P. M. the writer's attention 
was called by Captain Schultz, of the 111th Illinois Infantry, 
to a body of troops which was marching from behind the Con- 
federate works by the shops and buildings on the railroad 
A brigade line was developed and moved forward ; another line 
then began to move out in like manner, and still another fol- 
lowed. An orderly was dispatched to General Smith with the 
information The skirmish line of the Fourth Division, Fif- 
teenth Army Corps, Harrow's, to our left, began to retire, but 
the Second Division was held firmly in its position extending 
across railroad. A mounted officer rode forward from the ad- 
vancing line to communicate with the Confederate skirmishers. 
The Major passed along the line, and had a large number of 
the best marksmen fire at the officer bringing the order, but he 
threw himself on the side of his horse, and it seemed that 
neither man or beast was injured. He delivered his orders to 
the line, and it advanced supported by the charging columns, 
which was composed of Hindman's and Major Henry D. Clay- 
ton's Divisions, (and perhaps Stevenson's — but the writer did 
not see it)of Hood's Corps, commanded by General Cheatham. 
Each division was composed of four brigades. The divisions 
charging were strong, according to their returns made on July 



294 History of the 47th Regiment, 0- V- V- I- 



loth, aggregating 18,713 present. [Official Records, Volume 38, 
I »a it 3, Page 679. ] They were formed in two 1 ines for the assault, 
with a third line moving as a support. Stevenson's Division, 
we believed, remained in the works of Atlanta, as a garrison. 
Major-General Gustavus W. Smith, with a division of Georgia 
Militia, 2,000 strong, advanced of the south, right of Hood's 
Corps then under Cheatham, and still to their right were Smith's, 
Lowry's, Govan's and Mercer's brigades of Cleburn's division 
of Hardee's Corps. [Official Records Union and Confederate 
Forces, Part 3, Volume 38, Pages 730, 732, and 754.] 

When the advance covering this strong charging force press- 
ed it hard, the skirmish line of the Second Division, Fifteenth 
Armv Corps, retreated on its first reserve, and from thence to 
a reserve post commanded by Col. Wells S. Jones, composed of 
the 53rd Ohio, the 111th Illinois, under Major Mabry, and a 
section of Napoleon guns, twelve pounders. 

General Sherman, in his report, says, "This artillery was 
lost at this point." In this he is in error. The above regi- 
ments, with the division skirmishers, made a sharp resistance, 
to the great annoyance and discomfiture of the enemy; the 
111th Illinois lost 145 men, including Major Mabry wounded, 
and one of the regiments assaulting it, 113; but being out- 
flanked, were compelled to retire, the 53rd Ohio, and the skirm- 
ish line' "by the right of companies to the rear." One piece 
of artillery readily limbered up and retired. The other was 
difficult to move, because of sapling which held both hubs. 
However, Colonel Jones took hold of the saplings upon the 
side on which he stood, and the writer did the same with the 
other and with their feet against the spokes of the wheel, sway- 
ed the saplings away from the hubs, so that a few soldiers 
pulled the gun out by the prologue, limbering it up, and took 
it back to the main line in safety, where both of the pieces 
afterwards were served in the battle, having been put in the 
line on the north side of the wagon road, as before mentioned. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 295 

BATTLE OP PEACH TREE CREEK, NEAR ATLANTA, GA 

July 22, : <34. This battle, usually called the Rattle of At- 
lanta, was most determined and bloody The Army of the 
Tennessee, under the command of General John A. Logran, (as 
General McPherson had been killed early in the action) bore 
the brunt of it, and nobly it did its work. Major-General 
John A. Logan reports the losses as follows: 

Union loss, 8,521 

Enemies' loss — dead, buried and reported 8,221) 

Prisoners sent north 1,017 

Wounded prisoners 1,000 

Estimated loss of the enemy 10,000 

Battlefield 

July 23, '64. Atlanta, Georgia. It is said that after the 
storm there is a calm. After the disastrous bloody battle of 
yesterday everything is almost quiet in our front to-day, and 
there is very little skirmishing. Generals VV. T. Sherman and 
Schofield passed along this morning examining our works and 
the several positions of the army. Fatigue parties were sent 
out to bury our dead, and those of the enemy they left on the 
field of battle ; among those of the enemies' wounded was what 
Dr. S. P. Bonner thought to be a little boy. Dr. Bonner had 
to amputate his leg and found out while amputating the leg 
that it was not a boy, but that it was a girl he had found on 
the battle-field among the wounded; she said she was fighting 
in the ranks of the enemy when her leg was shot off by a can- 
non ball. We are glad to state the girl got well and was sent to 
her home in Georgia. 

Continuation of the Battle of Atlanta, Georgia. 

July 24, '64. Companies E and I were detailed as skirmish- 
ers; Company I had three sergeants and two privates only, 
and Company E had twelve privates and only one sergeant fit 
for duty since the battle of the 22nd, and it is reported our 
regiment has something near one hundred men who answered 
at roll call ; it is also reported that Major-General O. O. Howard 
is to command the Army of the Tennessee in place of Major- 
General John A. Logan. Our skirmish line kept up a brisk 



296 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

firing on the enemy but got only a few replies from them. 
There was heavy eonnonading on our right; some cannonad- 
ing in our front. 

July 25, '64. There is some skirmishing in our front but 
no loss. Our brigade tore up the Atlanta and Augusta Rail- 
road last night and burnt the ties. The enemy can't use 
the road again very soon. During the day the regiment with 
our brigade was busily engaged building fortifications. 

July 26, '64. Details from the whole brigade went to work 
buiding a new fortification in rear of our present position; it 
was said it was a better position than the one we now occupy. 
In the evening we received orders to be ready to march at 12 
o'clock to-night ; there is a movement of a part of our army 
moving towards our right and all our wagon trains were moved 
to the rear of the center of the Army of the Cumberland. 



The Movement from the Extreme Left to the Extreme Right 
by the Army of the Tennessee Commenced. 

July 27, '64, Atlanta, Georgia. The 47th Regiment had 
very little sleep last night ; our artillery and wagon trains were 
moving all night. We were called into line of battle before 
midnight, as our skirmishers reported the enemy advancing up- 
on our position, but the Confederates did not come; our brig- 
ade fell into line and marched out towards our right at day- 
light. The enemy shelled us pretty heavy as we moved out, 
but did very little injury, as their shells fell short We march- 
ed until 10 A. M. and halted, and remained there until 5 o'clock 
P. M., then resumed our march passing the Twentieth and 
Fourteenth Army Corps, and went into camp at 11 o'clock P. 
M., very tired and sleepy. We learn we are now on the ex- 
treme right of General Sherman's Army, near what is known 
as Ezra Chapel. 






History or the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 29" 



RATTLE OF EZRA CHAPEL, NEAR ATIANTA, GEORGIA. 



On the morning of the 28th. the movement was resumed at 
sunrise, and after marching and performing many evolutions, 
at 9 A. M., the 47th went into line of battle on a low ridge in 
front of the one which seems to be in the possession of the enemy. 
Major-General 0. 0. Howard, our new department commander, 
rode up the line, and said to General Light burn : "We must 
hav 3 the other hill." 

General Lightbnrn sent the 53rd and 47th Ohio to take it 
These regiments gained the ridge without resistance, and deploy- 
ed across it facing Ezra Church. Companies B, D and K of the 
47th were deployed as skirmishers On the left of the 53rd 
Ohio, but the right of that regiment being strongly pressed, 
t the remaining companies of the 47th were transferred to its 
right, as far as the Sandtown road, and formed at the cross 
roads near Ezra Church. In this advance, the enemy was 
driven from the ridge into the woods beyond the field. But 
about 10 A. M., he sent a column by the flank across the field 
towards the church, which was easily repulsed. The firing from 
the woods, however, increased so greatly we could not advance 
to the church, because our right being already exposed and 
severely enfiladed, a further advance at right angles with that 
fire, unprotected, meant disaster. Therefore the advance was 
discontinued, and the right refused to protect the line. The 
enemy was massing a large number of troops in the woods, 
under cover of that fire, and the 37th and 54th Ohio were sent 
to strengthen our right. 

General Sherman did not believe that General Hood would 
have the temerity to give battle at this point ; but Hood be- 
lieved that war meant battles, and Sherman was learning his 
antagonist. Johnston, as Hood well knew, had been relieved 
because he declined to fight, therefore, it was his(Hood's)duty 
to meet every advance with a counter movement and tender 
of battle, so that there was no lack of work for the surgeons of 
the army. 

In this engagement the Sixteenth Army Corps under General 
G. M. Dodge, formed the left of the line, joining the Army of 



298 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I 



the Cumberland, facing the city; the Seventeenth Army Corps 
prolonged the line and the Fifteenth Army Corps again under 
Gen. Logan almost at right angles with Gen. Blair's line, held 
the extreme right. The battle was again fought by the Army 
of the Tennessee and the brunt of it fell upon the Second. 
Morgan L. Smith's, and the Fourth, General Harrow's Divi- 
sion of the Fifteenth Army Corps, almost exclusively. It 
was an open field fight by both armies. We did not assail the 
rifle pit and battery occupied by the Confederates at the Church 
during the forenoon because of their stong movement to our 
right, and we had no works in front of the Second Division for 

them to assail. • 

At 11 A. M. the enemy advanced a column from the woods 
to our right and at short intervals others were sent forward near 
it The Major had already sent word to General Smith that 
the enemy was forming an assaulting column in his front and 
the Second Division had been placed in position to receive it 
About noon, five lines of battle had been formed by General 
Lee It was a formidable mass, as the soldiers stood in solid 
array paying no attention to us whatever. Presently, it was 
covered by a light line of skirmishers ; a cavalry force protected 
its left. The dispositions were leisurely made, but when com- 
pleted it was seen to be "a thing of life " 

About 1 o'clock P. M. they advanced "by the right of com- 
panies" to the front on the run in magnificent style, sweeping 
like an avalanche over the field and swinging "by company in- 
to line" on the crest of the ridge. It was a grand sight, en- 
trancing to behold. They did not deign to notice our small 
force except to send from another part of the field a column 
by the flank down a narrow valley to co-operate with a force of 
dismounted cavalry, and cut us off from the division. There- 
tore Colonel W. S. Jones ordered a march in retreat, the 
acting Adjutant of the 47th, Henry Bumfoeder, insisted on re- 
maining until he had discharged the loads in his revolver at 
the charging column. To prevent his capture, Major Taylor 
was compelled to forcibly carry him off, and in so doing very 
narrowly escaped being cut off by the converging columns. A 
German belonging to Company C also had to be pulled away. 
In our retreat, the four advance regiments were unable to re- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 299 



join 'he division, hut were driven ;i short distance to its right, 
where they attempted to halt on a ridge at right angles with 
the division line. On account of the strength and impetuosity 
of the charge made by the enemy, thny could not hold the 
ridge, and retired almost to its base, where they gathered the 
men together, rested, and with loud cheers moved back up thn 
hill. The officers gave commands to imaginary battalions, and 
having covered a long line by the deployment, actually misled 
the enemy by the ruse, who retired more on account of the 
noise than the number opposed to them into the adjoining woods. 
The 54th 0. on the right of 37th O., under Maj. Hypp ; the 
47th 0., under command of Major Taylor in the center, and the 
53rd on the left. Col. Wells S. Jones assumed command. Con- 
siderable gaps intervened between the regiments, but because 
of the arrangement of the line, a cross fire at these points made 
them appear to be the least vulnerable part of the line. This 
was an afternoon of desperate fighting. The enemy exhibited 
splendid courage. When the slope of the ridge was reached 
in front of the Second Division line, he came ''by company in- 
to line" in most excellent order, charging down the hill but 
could not cross a low rail fence in the center of a narrow vale 
between the hills. A color-bearer in the assaulting line stuck 
his battle flag in the fence when they halted, and was killed. 
The line was forced to retreat without the colors. At the crest 
of the hill, the Confederates laid down and rested, but covered 
the flag with their unerring rifles. Some of our venturesome 
men tried to capture it, but failed. The Confederates charged 
again to the fence, but could not reach the standard, and 
were again forced to retreat. The Federals again sought to 
take it, but the fire was too scathing. The Confederates made 
a third effort, and were successful. 

Four times the enemy charged our part of the line. When 
they approached the last time, our muskets were so foul and 
hot that they could scarcely be handled on account of prema- 
ture discharges. William Weber of Company F was wounded 
by his ramrod in the hand while loading his gun from this 
cause, and several had their hands blistered while similarly 
engaged. Major Taylor, therefore, ordered the regiment to fix 



300 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. L 



bayonets, await the onset of the charge, and repel it with cold 

5 The order was obeyed, and the regiment was standing quiet- 
ly and resolutely awaiting the charging column when a cheer 
was heard in the rear. It came from the 81st Ohm. Never 
was relief more acceptable. It came to the 47th at 6.60 P. 
M The 81st at once passed between our rank, and opened 
their Springfields while the 47th withdrew from the line, the 
men cleaned their rifles, rested, and at 5 P. M., again came 
into action. After the battle was ovpr, h. front of the bee- 
ond Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps, the dead Confeder- 
ates were lying along the rail fence before mentioned as thick- 
ly as a line of battle at rest. 

General O 0. Howard had command of the Army ol the 
Tennessee for the first time in actual conflict on that day, and 
in an article referring to the conduct of his army, said: -Our 
troops here exhibited nerve and persistency. Logan was cheer- 
ful and hearty, and full of enthusiam. After the last charge 
had been repelled, I went along my lines and felt proud and 
happy to be entrusted with such brave and efficient soldiers. 
Hood having again lost three times as many as we, withdrew 
within his fortified lines. Our skirmishers cleared the field 
and the Battle of Ezra Church was won, and with this result, 1 
am contented, myself. I never saw better conduct in battle. 

General Logan says: "Six successive charges were made be- 
tween 1-30 A. M. and 3 P. M., which were six times gallantly 
repulsed, each time with fearful loss to the enemy." 

-Later in the evening, my lines were several times assaulted 
vigorously, but each time with like result. The troops could 
not have displayed greater courage, nor greater determination 
not to give ground. Had they shown less, they would have 
been driven from their position." 

In the Fifteenth Army Corps the loss was 50 killed, 449 
wounded and 73 missing. 

The enemy lost five battle flags, and 2,000 stand of arms left 
on the ground. We buried 900 of their dead ; sent to our hos- 
pital 73 wounded, and captured besides, 106 prisoners Once 
more the Confederate Army of the Tennessee had hurled itself 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 301 

against the Union Army of the Tennessee, and once more it 
had been most terribly whipped. 

On the 29th of July the entire command was actively engag- 
ed in battle near Ezra Chapel, near Atlanta, Georgia 

July 29, '64. This morning the 47th was up early expecting 
another battle, but on the contrary the enemy had fallen back 
to their main line of works. Slight skirmishing through the 
day. The Confederate dead in our front was buried by our 
army to-day, and the Confederate wounded were brought in 
and taken to our rear and taken care of in our hospitals. Dur- 
ing the duy we were re-enforced by one Division of the Four- 
teenth Army Corps and one Division of the Twentieth Army 
Corps. They formed on our right; the new arrival of troops 
as well as us are busily engaged building strong breastworks. 
It is reported that lightning struck the stacks of arms in the 
54th Ohio and knocked them down, killing some of the men. 

George W. Girton of Company E says in his diary written 
on this date on the battle field: 'T took a walk along 
our lines this morning, as the Confederates had fallen back 
leaving their dead on the field. I never saw the dead lying so 
thick in my life — they arc almost in piles — looking as though 
they had been swept down whole ranks at a time. One place 
charged our lines seven times. 

July 30, '64. Near Ezra Chapel, Atlanta, Georgia. This 
morning all the Confederate dead are not yet buried as all the 
tools obtainable were in use building beastworks and parapets 
for our guns. Orders came to be ready to march at 8 A. M. 
and did not move until 11 A. M. We advanced to (he cross roads 
near Ezra Church, which the 47th Ohio had occupied on the 
28th, and was finally incorporated into the line one-half mile 
to the west, building additional works for greater security. 
General John A. Logan and staff passed along this morning, 
they were inspecting and looking at our position. 

July 31, '64. Near Atlanta, Georgia. Skirmishing still con- 
tinues as it has been every day since we crossed this side of the 
Chattahoochee River. We had a hard rain accompanied with 
fierce lightning and loud peals of thunder ; several men in our 
regiment were knocked down, one man was knocked senseless 



302 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V- V- I- 



and will hardly recover from the shock. We fell into line of 
battle several times during the day, from reports of our skirm- 
ish line that the Confederates were advancing, which proved to 
he false. Thp aggregate Union loss during the month of July, 
was 

KILLED & MISSING. WOUNDED. TOTAL, 

/x 11ft 432 548 

4th Army Corps, 116 ^ im 

ISJ .. 54 1480 2021 

ff\ .. 95 167 262 

2Sr<l 495 31 520 

Ca ? ll f yi n W0 797 1387 

15th Army Corps, 590 < 

i?S ^ jS _^ _2504_ 

Total, 3804 5915 9719 

-The only information in regard to the Confederate loss in 
the engagement beginning with Peach Tree Creek was a state- 
ment in the aggregate in the Memphis- Atlanta Appeal at the 
til which sard « an evidence of General Hood's aggressive- 
ness in the ten days in which he had commanded the army he 
had lost in battle 28,000." 

From Ezra Church to Jonesboro. 
The month of August opened on Monday, and found the 47th 
in the trenches, not far from Ezra Church. At 3 :30 A. M. the 
regimental inspection took place. The skirmish line was ad- 
vanced during the day. Every foot of the line and the ap- 
proaches to it were commanded by the enem.es' muskets, and 
covered approaches were constructed and always used for in- 
gress and egress to and from the rifle pits. Arbors were built 
over the rifle pits to protect their occupants from the sun. 
During the day they were constantly occupied. 

August 2 '64 The regiment was in line at 3 A. M. and ad- 
vanced about 500 yards, With great effort it completed the 
works of defense, finishing them with head logs. The duty 
throughout July has been exceedingly arduous and it still con- 
tinues to be exhausting, and taxed the men to the full extent 
of their endurance. As a precautionary measure of health, 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 303 

the army commander directed a ration of whisky to be issued 
daily. This required the regimental commander to issue a 
stringent order to prevent the non-drinkers from drawing their 
rations in kind and selling it, because the double rations would 
produce intoxication. To further reduce the strain upon the 
men, the regiments composing the brigade were divided into 
reliefs, the same as they had been at the siege of Vicksburg. 
Skirmishing going on as usual, the First Brigade Second Divi- 
sion Fifteenth Army Corps moved and took their position on 
our right in the evening; we worked till late at night to com- 
plete our works. 

August 3, '64. On Wednesday morning the 47th was again 
in line at 3 A. M., and was occupied in enlarging the fortifica- 
tion. The division line of skirmishers, in obedience to orders 
early in the morning, advanced and captured the exterior line 
of the enemies' works. He promptly re-enforced and re-cap- 
tured it. In their turn, the Federals re-enforced their troops 
and re-took it. The enemy again strengthened his force and 
re-occupied it, notwithstanding a stout resistance by the Fed- 
erals, and held it with a strong garrison, repulsing every effort 
made by our troops to re-capture it up to noon. 

At 1 P. M. Major Taylor received orders to take five com- 
panies of the 47th, which under the detail were C, D, E, F and 
G together with a like number from each regiment in the brig- 
ade, and at 4 P. M., make another attack upon the line. He 
was further instructed by the General in command to "re-take 
the line and hold it at all hazards," and it was enjoined upon 
him "that if thirty companies were inadequate to accomplish 
the work, to send for what would be sufficient." He inquired 
if the General meant what the words "all hazards" implied. 
The General replied "Yes, that we had the hardest ground in 
the line to take and the most difficult to hold, and must there- 
fore be prepared for the extra struggle. That troops would ad- 
vance in front of the other division, also simultaneously — that 
the signal would be three consecutive shots from Griffith's bat- 
tery at 4 P. M." 

This was considered by all in the brigade to be a desperate 
undertaking, and every man who knew that he had been includ- 
ed in the detail to attack wrote a "last letter" to the loved ones 



304 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. 



at home a 8 a precaution. In son- instance,* their comrad e 
bade them goodbye, as they passed out of the works 
to report for alignment in the line. The details reported 
promptly, and the disposition, were mad, ander the cover oi 
a woods: In the meantime, a heavy rain began failing on 
account of which the signal of attack was delayed one-half 
hour, when at th« appointed signal the column sped swift > for- 
ward, breaking through the enemies' lines, and moving ; by the 
tight flank, half of the brigade front along the rear of the rifle 
pL captured quite a number of prisoners. This line of troop 
defended the men following it, who prepared the rifle pita tak- 
en for occupation, while the remainder of the troops pressed 
the attack against the portion of the line not yet taken, which 
attac k was most stubbornly resisted. The irregular suiface of 
this portion of the line was swept by several pieces of Confed- 
erate artillery as well as by musketry/ from some parts of 
their main line. It required the highest degree of persona! 
heroism on the part of the troops to carry this badly exposed 
territory, but the commander felt himself peculiarly fortunate 
in having the detail from his own, the 47th Regiment in this 
pressing emergency, and with it, after most earnest appeals to 
their soldierly pride, and the severest struggle, won success. 
' The First Brigade of the Second Division, from some cause 
failed to drive the enemy from its front, and in order to hold 
the front of our Second Brigade, it became necessary to extend 
the line of our attacking column, so as to cover its nght flank. 
which was -left in the air" by their failure. During the en- 
gagement, General Sherman dishonorably dismissed two of the 
temporary commanders of that, the First Brigade, from he 
army on account of cowardice. Three efforts were afterwards 
made by the enemy to retake the works without success The 
loss during the afternoon and night was quite severe. Among 
the officers, Captain Pinkerton, one of the best officers m -the 
47th, was wounded. At midnight, the command was relieved. 
The regiment was highly complimented for its gallant achieve- 
ment. 

Seige of Atlanta, Georgia. 

August 4, '04. To-day Colonel Theadore Jones of the 30th 



History of the -ATth Regiment 0. V. V. I. 1505 

Ohio was assigned to the command of the First Brigade of the 
Second Division Fifteenth Army Corps, and he took his regiment 
with him, the 30th Ohio, and sent in its place the 111th Illinois 
to our Brigade ; Colonel Wells S Jones took the command of 
our brigade, known as the Second Brigade, Second Division 
Fifteenth Army Corps: was called into line at 2:30 P. M., to 
make a demonstration supposed to be in aid of some movement 
on our right ; cannonading became quite furious. During the 
afternoon, Lieutenant Kimball of Company B returned from 
leave of absence, and reported for duty. He was advised, as his 
"leave" would not expire until the next day, "not to report 
until that time, but in the meantime, to acquaint himself with 
the line and its exposures, so he would know how to protect 
himself;" he answered, "that the officers of the regiment who 
were present were nearly all exhausted, and he felt it to be his 
duty to relieve them as far as he was able at once." Accord- 
ingly he was detailed, and in less than two hours after he went 
upon the line he was wounded and one of his legs amputated. 
On this date General Morgan L. Smith was, on account of his 
wounds received at Vicksburg compelled to take leave of 
absence, and the commander of the division then devolved up- 
on General J. A. J. Lightburn. 

General Sherman says of the operations at this time: "In 
early August, Atlanta was in a state of siege ; the weather was 
hot, but my men were in good spirits ; the skirmishers kept 
close to the enemy, and every day brought its continuous clat- 
ter of musketry ; the movement to the right was continued, and 
Hood kept even pace with it, by extending his entrenched left, 
and by degrees General Schofield's whole army was moved to his 
right extending his line almost to East Point." 

Now that our army is moving to the right, is will soon again 
outflank the enemy, cut off Atlanta, and we will be in posession 
of the Gate City in the heart of the so-called Confederacy. We 
will now resume with our diary. 

August 5, '64. Siege of Atlanta continued. A brisk skirm- 
ish commenced early and continued all day. The same din 
and roar still prevailed. The regiment was "point blank" and 
the troops seemed to be as fierce as hornets. There was no sen- 
timent in it. Constant vigilance alone prevented surprise. 



306 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 



The officers and men were full of enterprise, and remarkable 
deeds of daring were performed. The sharp skirmish lasted 
nearly all night, and artillery firing at intervals which kept 
us up nearly all of the night, Sometimes when the firing would 
.-ease for a short time, we could distinctly hear the Confederate 
1 .andsplay Dixie and the Bonny Blue Flag,etc. There were hard 
showers of rain during the night, 

Vugust 6 '64. Siege of Atlanta still continues. This morn- 
ing our skirmishers were relieved at daylight, The skirmishing 
continued very briskly the whole day ; in the afternoon artillery 
firing raged on both sides; the Confederates shelled our skirm- 
ish line quite heavy. We heard of no h-ss on our front, and 
at 5 PM. we were ordered to make all the demonstrations by 
firing and hallooing we could, as they were going to push in 
on the right towards the Macon Railroad. (Let us now see 
why this demonstration was made. General Sherman says 
General Schofield's extension struck an outwork of the enemy 
which he attacked, but unfortunately got entangled in the 
trees and bushes and lost 500 men killed and wounded Tins 
defeat was not without its value, however, for it showed that 
the enemy was extending their entrenchments as fast as Gen- 
eral Sherman forged to the right.) So the reader will readily 
see we were drawing the enemy out of his stronghold every day 
and soon our forces will march into Atlanta. 
August 7, '64, Siege of Atlanta still continues. 
To-day we learned that the railroad bridge across the Chat- 
tahoochee River had been rebuilt, and that the trains now 
run to our lines, but the enemy fire on it with their artillery. 
We heard very heavy fighting to our right; during the day we 
were called into line at 10 P. M. It was a false alarm, and at 
near 12, midnight, our regiment went on fatigue duty to throw 
up works in front of our skirmish line; we worked there until 
daylight, and returned to our old position. Skirmishing all 

day as usual. ... £ . 

August 8, '64. We had a very heavy ram in the afternoon. 
During the day we advanced onr skirmish pits some 150 yards 
which brought on heavy skirmish. Lieutenant O. G. feherwm 
returned to-day from his leave of absence. 

August 9, '64. A brisk skirmish in the morning, me en- 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 



mi 



emies' skirmish line is in the woods, while our skirmish linn is 
m an open field below them, and they have a cross fire on us 
both right and left. About 1 o'clock P. M. we had tremendous 
hard ram; it poured down and filled our works ankle deep with 
water ; we were well soaked and had no grub, only seme few had 
hardtack. A man by the name of McCabe, Company F was 
shot through the head in the skirmish pit. Soon after dark 
<»ur brigade moved forward up to the line of breastworks thrown 
up by us night before last; this placed our lines within 60 rods 
of the enemies', and make it hot for any one who does not keep 
behind the works by sending showers of minie balls. The duty 
with the spade and the Springfield musket continued daily 
The only change to-day from the usual order on the succeeding 
day, was in the tender of resignations by Captains Webster 
and Thomas, of Co. E; Sinclair, of Company G; and Halten- 
hof, of Company K, and Lieutenant Sam Campbell of Company 
G. The conditions of the siege were continued as usual 

August 10, '64. One man of Company H,47th Regiment was 
wounded in the leg while walking along in the rear of our works 
The Confederate artillery opened on one of our batteries to our 
right; done some very close work; we drew some rations. At 
night we, were engaged in bringing brush to place in front of 
.our works. At 11 P. M. there was an alarm which came from 
the skirmish line, they believing the enemy was advancing, which 
alarm proved to be false, but no doubt the enemy was making 
some move. On this date two more enlisted men were perma- 
nently detached from the regiment, and assigned to Captain 
DeGross's battery. The state of the siege was unchanged. 

Let us now see what General Sherman dispatched to General 
Grant on this date; he says: "Since July 28th Hood has not 
attempted to meet us outside of his parapet ; in order to possess 
and destroy effectually his communications,! may have to leave 
a corps at the railroad bridge well entrenched, and cut loose 
with the balance to make a circle of desolation around Atlanta ; 
I do not propose to assault his works, which are too strong, nor 
t« . proceed by regular approaches. I have lost a good many regi- 
ments and will lose more by expiration of service, and this is 
the only reason I ask for re-enforcements; we have crippled, 
killed and captured more of the enemy than we have lost by 



308 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



his acta " Here then,are indications that Gen >ral Sherman had 
changed his plans, a - I .v ml 1 once m >re jp to his old tactics. 
of a think movement. . 

August 1.1, '64. The enemy advanced their skirmish line m 
our front last night, the usual skirmishing to-day; about 10 P. 
M last night there occured one other false alarm. 

August 12 '(54. The usual skirmishing occurred. Orders at 
dusk for every man to be in his place with accoutrements on 
but we have slept with them on for a long time; the cause ot 
this order was because the Fourth Division Fifteenth Army Corps 
were going to advance theskirmish line ; the Confederates again 
advanced their skirmish line, and tried to drive in our skirm- 
ishers. The minie balls flew thick-almost m volleys-but the 
enemy failed in their designs. 

Uigust 13, '64. Still in the same position. The regiment 
drew some whisky to-day on account it is said of our exposure 
in the ditches so long and so much rani. The First Division 
Fifteenth Army Corps, and the First Brigade of our Division 
(the Second) advanced their skirmish line this afternoon and 
they captured eighty prisoners; there occurred heavy artillery 
firing in the evening. In the meantime our regiment dug an 
angling ditch over the hill for a safe approach to and from the 

works in our front. 

Unuist 14 '64. The usual skirmishing took place ; there was 
brisk tiring of artillery on our left during the day, and some 
artillery tiring late in the evening; the regiment drew some 

more whisky. _ . 

August 15, '64. The skirmishing is going on as usual. Kain 
during the day. The weather was unusually hot. 

August 16' -64. We still remained in the same old position. 
The skirmishing still continues, the enemy was very vigilant, 
and kept up a very brisk fire with their skirmishers and sharp- 
shooters; several of our boys had very narrow escapes from the 
sharp-shooters of the enemy. 

\ueust 17 '64. The usual skirmishing still continued. 

August 18, '64. At 10 A. M. the regiment fell m line and 

made all the demonstrations we could by hallowing, etc. The 

skirmish line kept up a heavy tire on the enemy for some .tame, 

which made the Confederates run double-quick to their ditches , 



Histoky of the 47th Kegiment O. V. V. I. 809 

the 47th fell in line again at about 4 P. M. and made anotheT 
demonstration, same as we had done in the morning; these dem- 
onstrations were made as we understood, to draw the attention 
of the enemy while some portion of our army were making a 
fi an k movement to our right; the regiment drew some more 
whisky which made fools of some of our boys. The enemies' 
sharpshooters kept us close in our trenches during part of the 
day. 

August 19, '64. The skirmishing was quite brisk last night, 
so much so that it was thought the enemy was advancing and 
our regiment fell into line of battle. The enemy made a sortie 
for the purpose of capturing a working detail and destroying 
the work on which the detail was engaged but was easily repulsed. 
During the engagement, General Lightburn was struck by a 
spt-nt ball in the forehead. The force of the ball was such that 
it partly imbedded itself in his skull. It disabled him from 
active duty, and he was succeeded by General W. B. Hazen as 
Division Commander. General Lightburn was restored to the 
Second Brigade. Here again the West Pointer relegated the 
practical volunteer to his brigade, and West Point prepon- 
derated. 

The friends of General Lightburn thought that if he had been 
disabled for duty as Division Commander, he was also disabled 
for duty as Brigade Commander, and perceived in it a subter- 
fuge through which to score a point in favor of the military 
academician, as had been done in the case of the McPherson 
succession. It perhaps gave the army more science, but it also 
gave it more procrastination. But General Hazen, although he 
was not liked by the division after that, was a good fighter. 

August 20, '64- The non-veterans of the regiment were mus- 
tered out of service by Lieutenant C. J. Disky, Commissary of 
Muster. There were ninety-five non-veterans present and sixty- 
six absent. All the wounded and sick in the hospital were dis- 
charged, bua the prisoners would be diecharged only upon their 
arrival in the States. This reduced the number of effectives 
for duty to fifty-nine privates, sixteen corporals, and fourteen 
sergeants. Total eighty-nine. Yet the 47th was still a fighting 
regiment. We had a very hard rain last night, so much that 
our bed and all our clothing were soaked through, and we had 



310 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



another hard rain in the afternoon. Our regiment moved to 
the let! to close up tlie gap made by the non-veterans, and two 
companies of the 111th 111. moved on our rigid to till thatgap. 

August 21, '64. No unusal happenings, the regular skirmish- 
ing still continues. We had another rain last night, and rained 
to-day, continued until about noon. 

August ,22, '64. The usual skirmishing still continues. The 
regiment drew some rations ; we had another rain last night; 
we are getting somewhat tired lying in the same posit ion so long. 

August 23, '04. There were two men of the 111th Illinois on 
our right mortally wounded behind our main breastworks. 
The enemies' skirmishers kept up the firing very briskly during 

the <1ay. 

August 24, '64. We are still in the same position, but there 
are rumors of marching soon; there is quite brisk skirmishing. 
General W. T. Sherman says on the 24th I telegraphed to 
Halleck : "Heavy fires in Atlanta all day, caused by our artillery ; 
will be ready to commence movement around Atlanta by the 
south by to-morrow night, and for some days you will hear 
little of ns; we will keep open a courier line back to Chatta- 
hooche Bridge by way of Sandtown; the Twentieth Army Corps 
will hold the bridge; will move with the balance of the army 
provisioned for twenty days." There were several wounded in 
our brigade to-day. There occurred an incident to-day. one 
member of Company F who was himself wounded quite severely 
while going to the field hospital had yielded to the touching 
appeal of a comrade who had a badly shattered ankle and foot 
and had taken him upon his back and carried him to the hos- 
pital. Upon his arrival, he called, 

"Docther I Assist me to lay him down aisy, for he's badly 
hurt,he says, and I guess he's clean fainted; Aisy, now, Docther, 
aisy! Haste, haste, for it's mesilf is sufferin' too. What's the 
matter wid yer? Lay hould now." The doctor said, 

"Mike, what in Heaven's name did you carry that dead man 

here for?" 

"Faith, Docther, he's not dead. 1 brought him here at his 

own request." 

Not dead? You call a man not dead whose head's been shot 

clean off?" 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 811 

Mike laid him down, and looking in great astonishment, at 
the headless body, said : 

And, faith, what a liar he was! He tonld me it was in his 
ankle and fut he was hurt, he did, — the dihrty blackguard, and 
it was mesilf that thried to do him a favor, and he's decaved 
me so, the villian." The man's head had been shot off while 
he was being carried to the hospital. 

General Hazen at once began to hunt up the men belonging 
to his Division, and to try to bring the detached men from the 
■Quartermaster, the Commissary, the Staff, and the Railroad 
Departments, back to their regiments. The 47th had one Cap- 
tain who was on detached service as a conductor on the railway 
line between Nashville and Chattanooga. The Government 
ran everything in the field of millitary operations by details 
from the army, and while our regiments seemed large, their 
■effective force was in reality small. The man who hunted for 
a detail usually found the place he sought. 

August 25, '64. Orders were issued for all cooks and non- 
combatants to join their respective companies ; orders were al- 
so issued for the officers to strike their tents, and send them to 
the wagon trains, which were sent to the rear of the center of 
the army; this meant that our siege work was over for the pres- 
ent at least; thus ended our seventeen days of the Siege of At- 
lanta ; at this point, eight more non-veterans were mustered 
out to-day. We learned that three more men in the 47th Ohio 
were wounded to-day on the skirmish line, as the skirmish was 
very brisk. Orders were issued to be ready to march at a 
moments notice. Late in the day there were six more men 
wounded belonging to the 111th Illinois, while they were passing 
along in the rear of our regiment; weather extremely hot. 



Movement of the Army by the Right Flank Towards Jones- 
boro. Georgia. 

August 26, '64. The siege still continues, this being the 
eighteenth day; the enemy shelled us in the forenoon. We 
drew three days half rations and got orders to be ready to 



812 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

march at 8 P. M., and at 9 P. M. fell into line and marched 
towards Sandtown, leaving nothing but the skirmish line, which 
will soon follow, as we are evacuating our works. We started 
away from his mailed embrace, the enemies', but nevertheless, 
when we struck the forest in our rear we restfully straightened 
ourselves up and out to an all night march, crossing l't ox- 
Creek at daylight, a little later, the forks of it, camped on 
Camp Creek and built another line, after having marched 
fifteer miles. 

During the morning the enemy appeared in considerable 
force and contested the advance ; three times during the fore- 
noon our division was forced to deploy in line of battle, and 
each time we drove the enemy in our front in confusion, and 
at 12 M. our regiment was sent to the front from thp rear of 
our brigade, and deployed on the right of the road. We were 
supported by the 37th Ohio on our right with the 83rd Indiana 
on our left. We advanced in line of battle, driving the enemy 
before us, until they crossed Plain Creek, when the enemy 
made a stand and opened a battery on us ; here we halted until 
some troops were sent around to outflank the enemy, but the 
enemy retreated, when our line moved forward, and again 
drove them steadily before us to Flint River; here the enemy 
again tried to make another stand, but the crossing being com- 
paratively good, with some help by our cavalry, it was soon made 
and we resumed our advance and drove the enemy, and they 
were compelled to retire. We drove them to within one-half 
mile of Jonesboro; night coming on put an end to the skirm- 
ishing for the day. During the afternoon the enemy was driv- 
en by us some seven miles, At about 10 P. M. our regimeut 
was relieved by the 30th Ohio, and placed in reserve to our 
Brigade, the Second; the most of the boys were very tired after 
having run through the woods, over hills and across fences 
most of the day, and the weather being very hot; at night we 
worked throwing up a strong line of breastworks. The enemy 
shelled us as we were leaving our works and wounded one man 
in the leg which had to be amputated; he died before morning. 
The night was very dark, as it was cloudy. 

August 27, '64. The 47th having the advance of the brigade, 
marched on at 9 o'clock A. M. and crossed Camp Creek, but 



History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 313 

the First Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps had the head of 
column. It struck the enemy at noon, and after an engage- 
ment of one and one-half hour, the enemy having been driven 
from the field, the march was resumed, and continued until 
the regiment had crossed the railroad eighteen miles west of 
Atlanta, on the A. & M. R. R. and went into line again on the 
left of the First Division, which was engaged in destroying the 
railroad. There was right smart of straggling; Wm. A. R — 
Company C, wrote in his diary as follows : The pickets or the 
skirmishers remained until 3 A. M. ; the 27th I was on picket 
duty, the Confederates followed right at ou 1 ' heels, we caught 
up with the regiment at daylight. General Sherman dexteri- 
ously shifted his army by successive movements from left to 
right and from north to south. Schofield held on at or near East 
Point, and presented a bold front, while the armies of Thomas 
and Howard, pivoting on him, reached the West Point Railroad, 
breaking it up thoroughly. 

August 28, '64. The 47th marched out at 8 A. M. and only 
moved a short distance, and stacked arms and lay in the hot 
sun for near an hour in an open field ; then again moved on 
very slowly until 11 A. M., then again stacked arms and re- 
mained there until 1 o'clock P. M., then again moved forward, 
and arrived at the West Point and Atlanta Railroad at 3 P. M. 
and went into line of battle at 4 P. M. and threw up breast- 
works and there remained for the night, having marched only 
four miles. We drew some beef after dark; we had con- 
siderable artillery firing off to our right. We suppose our 
troops are moving in on our right. 

August 29, '64. We lay still to-day where we stopped last 
night, on the north side of the East Point Railroad to Macon, 
which our men effectually destroyed by burning the ties and 
twisting the railing, and throwing brush into the cut, and cov- 
ering up the brush with dirt. General Sherman and stall pass- 
ed our position to-day, so we may look for a battle in a day or 
two, and we will whip the Confederates thoroughly, and Atlan- 
ta will be ours. 



314 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

RATTLE OF PLAIN CREEK AND FLINT RIVER, NEAR 
JONESBORO, AUG. 30, '64. 

The regiment early in the morning had orders to march and 
to be no straggling; marched at 7 A. M. following the railroad 
south near a mile, then turned east on the Flat Shoal Road, 
marched on until it intersected the Jonesboro and Fayetteville 
road, on which the column moved towards Jonesboro, the Sec- 
ond Brigade of the Second Division, of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps being in the advance. During the morning, the enemy 
compelled the division to halt, form line of battle, and bring 
batteries into position three times, before he would yield his 
position. 

General Howard says : "My command described an arc of 
twenty-five miles radius, aiming at Jonesboro, while Thomas 
followed the middle course. Both southern railways were to 
be siezed, and the stations and roads to be destroyed." 

Preceded by Kilpatrick, we made the march rapidly enough, 
considering the endless plague of the enemies' horse artillery, 
supported by Wheeler's Cavalry, and the time it took us to 
break up the West Point Railroad. At Renfro Place we were 
to encamp on the night of the 30th of August. Finding no 
water there, and also hoping to secure the Flint River Bridge, 
six miles ahead, I called to Kilpatrick for a squadron. He sent 
me a most energetic young man, Captain Estes, and the horse- 
man needed. I asked Estes if he could keep the enemy in mo- 
tion. He gave a sanguine reply, and galloped off at the head 
of his men. Wheeler's rear guard was surprised and hurried 
to the river. Hazen's infantry followed, forgetting their fatigue 
in the excitement of pursuit. We reached the bridge as it was 
burning, extinguished the fire and crossed over in the dusk of 
the evening, under an increasing fire from hostile cavalry and 
infantry, but did not stop until Logan had reached the wooded 
ridge beyond, near Jonesboro. 

We find the following roport made by General J. B. Hood, 
who commanded the army of the enemy at that time. General 
Hood says on the 27th "It became at once evident that Sherman 
was moving his main body to destroy the Macon Road, and that 
the fate of Atlanta depended upon our ability to defeat this 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 815 

movement. Reynold's and Lewis' brigades were dispatched to 
Jonesboro to co-operate with Armstrong at Fairburn. * * "Gen- 
eral Hardee who was at this junction in the vicinity of East 
Point was instructed to make such disposition of his troops as 
lie considered most favorable for defense, and in addition to 
hold his corps in readiness to march at the word of command." 

'•The morning of the 30th found our general line extended 
further to the left. Hardee being in the vicinity of Rough and 
Ready, with Lee's corps on his right, near East Point. Infor- 
mation from our cavalry clearly indicated that the enemy would 
strike our road at Jonesboro. After consultation with the corps 
commanders, I determined upon the fol'owing operations as 
the last hope of holding on to Atlanta." 

A Federal corps crossed Flint River at about 6 P. M. near 
Jonesboro, and made an attack upon Lewis' brigade which was 
gallantly repulsed. This action became the signal for battle. 
General Hardee was instructed to move rapidly with his troops, 
while Lieutenant-General Lee, with his corps was ordered to 
follow during the night. Hardee was to attack with the entire 
force early on the morning of the 31st, and drive the enemy at 
all hazards into the river in their rear. I impressed upon Gen- 
eral Hardee that the fate of Atlanta rested upon his ability, 
with the aid of two corps, to drive the enemy across Flint River 
at Jonesboro. The attack was not made until 2 P. M., and then 
resulted in our inability to dislodge the enemy. The Federals 
had been allowed time by the delay to strongly entrench, 
whereas had the assault been made at an earlier hour in the 
morning, the enemy would have been found but partially pro- 
tected by works. The command was soon put into position, 
and worked all night and during the next morning to entrench 
and build the required bridges. 

At noon of the 30th, Major G. C. Lafland and the A. A. Gen. 
of the Second Division Fifteenth Army Corps brought the com- 
pliments of General Hazen to Major Taylor, saying, the Gen- 
eral desired him to say that at the speed the division had mad'' 
during the morning they would not be able bo reach the Renfro 
Place, where it was to encamp, until after dark — that he must 
have dash and spirit in the line, and therefore, wished t he 47th 
to take the front, regardless of the fact that it had preformed 



316 History of the 47th -Regiment (). V. V. I 



that duty on the preceding day. Of course, fiis compliment 
could not pass unheeded. The Major submitted it to the regi- 
ment, which responded with cheers. The 87th Ohio was like- 
wise ordered to report to Major Taylor for the same duty. 
Captain H. M. King was placed in command of the regiment, 
and Major Taylor commanded the line. As soon as the 47th 
struck the enemy, it was found that his line overlapped the 
Federals. Two companies of the 87th was deployed on the left 
of the 17th, and the question of delay was settled. The enemies' 
line gave way as soon as it was touched in the flank, with an 
enfilade fire, and thenceforth at every place at which the enemy 
made a stand which was on the crest of every little ridge, be- 
hind every fence at right angles with 'the road, and at every 
little stream his flank was turned, when with a cheer and dash 
on our part the enemy would be driven westward in search of 
a new position. It was fatiguing service, because the mounted 
command had to be pursued on the run by the infantry. It 
was an exhilirating chase, and highly enjoyable to the pursuers. 
In keeping up the line thi Major ran down two horses before 
he reached Plain Creek. On the east bank of this stream, the 
enemy had a good position, and a battery of artillery Some 
of the 47th forded the creek, some swam it, and some crossed 
it on a water gate. In this manner, the enemy were surprised 
by an attack in flank by those who swam and crossed on the 
water gate, and Company K captured among other animals a 
fine mule. The men turned the mule and saddle over to the 
Major, who, mounting him, again pushed the pursuit. The 
enemy made his last stand west of Flint River, at the Renfro 
Place, and as the Union line approached gave it a sharp fire, 
but it did not even stop to return the fire. With a cheer the 
men made a charge without fixing bayonets, and the enemy 
was again off on the fly. 

A detachment of cavalry under Captain Estes then took up 
the pursuit, while the infantry filled canteens and took breath. 
Then they clamored to go forward, because it would doubtless 
save numberless lives to cross Flint River and surround Jones- 
boro before the enemy had time to construct exterior lines. 

The infantry reached Flint River soon after the javalry had 
arrived, when the Major ordered Captain Estes to dismount 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. ^17 



his command, march to the river, and opened with their Spen- 
cer repeating carbines, while his infantry drove the enemy from 
the bridge which they were in the act of destroying. 
They extinguished the fire, and with their bayonets fixed, 
which they used as spears, caught and lifted the floating plank- 
to the bridge, which was quickly repaired. General Howard 
and staff came up and crowded closely against our skirmish linn, 
as it began to ascend the Jonesboro ridge. The General was 
cautioned on account of his great exposure, and because he was 
in the way of the troops, but declined to heed the suggestion 
until he reached a turn in the road that was swept by the hos- 
tile fire, when he and his staff got out of range lively to the 
great merriment of the men. At the top of the ridge the enemy 
made another stand, but without heeding their resistance, a 
large number of our boys dashed among the Confederates after 
some chickens, which had been frightened from their corn. 
The Confederates retired precipitately behind their fortified 
lines, about three-eighths of a mile from the railroad depot, and 
our line skirmished to within 75 or 100 yards of it, when dark- 
ness stopped our further advance. It had been a glorious after- 
noon, filled as it was with successes to us. It seemed to the 
writer more like a grand hunting party and chase than any- 
thing in which he had engaged during the war, although it was 
fatiguing beyond degree. The excitement and enthusiasm lift- 
ed the mind clear beyond the physical sensations of fatigue. 
There had not been a single repulse, not even a check, except 
at Plain Creek, until it could be swam; but it was an establish- 
ed fact that we had advanced six miles nearer Jonesboro than 
had been designed when the 47th went into line. 

When the Major endeavored to show Captian Estes of the 
division staff, his line to the south, on reaching the wagon road, 
the mule he was upon balked To the left of him about 75 or 
100 yards were seen the hostile rifle pits with their active gar- 
rison, when the writer heard the familiar "Z-i-p" "Z-i-p" "Z-i-p 
as the bullets just missed him in their flight. To him the oc- 
casion was replete with interest. The plagued mule stood with 
legs pointing forward, well-braced, stock still, his nose in air, 
sniffing the zephyrs of the east, his long ears laid back, and 
with his matured bass voice, braying for his quondam owner 



818 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V T. 

unsuccessfully, while the Major was spurring him with all his 
might, and swearing like the "whole army in Flanders" him- 
self, and the other fellows were shooting a pattering fiiv. It 
was a splendid mule. If the Major dismounted, he knew the 
"pesky critter" would gallop into the Confederate lines, and 
they would enjoy a jolly good laugh at his expense. So he sat 
on him quite as stubborn as the mule. It was as good as a 
comedy for the line, and every one in sightenjoyed it heartily. 
Finally, Captain Estes grasped the serious side of the scene 
and came to his relief with a gad and their combined efforts 
•"whopped" him out. A little later, a member of Company K 
took an Irishman, whom they had captured, to the Major, who 
asked the prisoner how he came to be taken. 

"You sa I was sint as a vedet, and jist got behind a big oak 
tree, when some one from the tother side cotch me by 
me shirt on the one side, and somebody cotch me by the shirt 
on the tother side, and they pulled and shoved me until I was 
clasped in their embrace on tother side of the tree, fornist I was 
and wanted to be. They were Dutch Yankees that pulled me 
in." When asked as to the force at that point, he said: 

"You sa-a now, I belong to the Flower of the Confiderate 
Army, the Bluidy Ninth, of Kentucky, under Colonel W . C. 
Brickinridge, the bist man in Kentucky. Troth, I'm not goin, 
to til yez a blissid thing else, sir, and it will do yez little good 
to ax mesilf for it." 

At 10 P. M. the line was relieved, and the 47th was placed in 
reserve. General Hazen personally complimented the regiment 
for "its splendid service, and the great credit it had done the 
division in securing the extra distance during the afternoon, and 
said that as a reward he would have the other troops dig and 
construct fortifications for it, and would not call it into line 
until it was absolutely necessary, as he wanted the men to rest." 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 319 



BATTLE OF JONESBORO, GEORGIA. 



August 81, '64. Wednesday. This morning on account of 
the movements of the enemy our regiment was again ordered 
forward and placed in line. It became evident that the enemy 
was preparing to assault our line, and the 47th was ordered in- 
to the most commanding position on the entire line, on a cone 
shaped hill on the extreme left of the brigade and division. 
This gave it a magnificent view (if the entire field. A short 
distance in the rear DeGross and Rumsey's guns were in bat- 
tery for action. The works were admirably constructed, and 
the regiment entered them the men expressed their apprecia- 
tion of their treatment. There was a considerable gap between 
the left of the 47th and other troops. The gap was across a 
narrow valley, at the head of which had been planted some ar- 
tillery with its supports, which formed a cul de sac. In front 
of the center and left of the regiment was a grove in which stood 
a church edifice, and through which a highway led to Jonesboro. 
West of the depot, perhaps 1000 yards to our right, we saw the 
enemy massing for an assault. Some of his officers were very 
conspicuous, and the Major had the reserve of Company F, and 
some of the best marksmen in the regiment singled them out 
during the affair, and attended solely to them. After a time 
we concluded from their movements that some injury had been 
inflicted upon them or their staff officers. 

The storm cloud which had been gathering leisurely so long 
burst furiously at 3 P. M. upon our devoted heads From our 
elevated position we had an unobstructed and close view of the 
advancing column; it was a magnificent spectacle to behold 
the seried lints bristling with gleaming bayonets, their bright 
battle flags flaunting defiance in the breeze, come swiftly and 
steadily on to the charge. But it was a still grander sight to 
us to see them strike against our solid unwavering line, which 
stood as impassable and immovable as a mountain on its base, 
and roll back like the driven clouds of a terrible thunder storm 
a broken confused and swirling mass of disorganized and demor- 
alized men and officers. They began to rally a part of the 



320 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

force in the grove before descrilx-d, when the Major requested 
Captain DeGross to permit him to bring two of his guns to the 
right of the regiment, as it would afford him a better opprtuni- 
ty to reach them. Captian DeGross afterwards said, "He came 
over to see the condition of the regiment before deciding the 
matter, but seeing the men cool and quietly and promptly 
obeying orders, was satisfied his pieces woulb be safe, and gave 
the solicited order." The range permitted the successful use 
of cannister. The fire of the regiment and those pieces swept 
through that grove like a fierce hurricane, and prevented their 
re-organization. After the first assault, the attacks were like 
the dashing of an infuriated mob. Every semblance of organiza- 
tion had disappeared. The colors advanced without guards, 
following a few stragglers, and being followed in straggling 
order by a few others. What had been the second line stopped 
at the roadside. To them the interveuing space, open as a 
plain, swept by the sheeted fire of the second division, looked 
like a slaughter field. A sheltering ravine about midway be- 
tweed the road and Union line was filled to overflowing with 
stragglers from the first line. The Confederate officers, the 
Generals and their respective staffs, bravely and recklessly 
sought to organize the scattered columns, and hurled them 
forcibly forward, but in vain. The assault lasted an hour. 
But so far as the enlisted men were concerned, it was the last 
determined attack we ever saw them make. The burial party 
of the 47th found 200 killed and badly wounded, about the 
Church, in the grove in front of their regiments, and the two 
Parrotts. 

General Hood himself says of this affair "The General's 
attack must have been rather feeble, as the loss incurred was 
only about 1,400 in killed and wounded, a small number in 
comparison to the numbers engaged. Among the wounded 
were General Patton Anderson, and General Cummings, who 
were disabled, while gallantly leading their troops into action." 

"This failure gave to the Federal Army, the control of the 
Macon road, and thus necessitated the evacuation of Atlanta 
at the earliest possible hour." — Battles and Leaders, Part 2, 
Page 243. 

General Logan was present and cheered up the old Fifteenth 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 321 

Army Corps. Our loss was small as we had pretty good breast- 
works for protection. It was reported our regiment had two 
killed and two wounded. 

Second Day Battle of Jonesboro, Georgia. 

September 1, '64. Our regiment held its position skirmish- 
ing with the enemy. During the day we took a survey of the 
field in front, and seeing a column of the enemy with the men 
in crouching form, moving to the south, Captian DeGross, who 
located the movement, loaded one of his guns with percussion 
shells, sighted it and ordered "Fire!" We watched the course 
of the shot, and soon saw a musket fly whirling in the air, and 
saw the column scatter and disappear. The shot had perform- 
ed its mission, and we shouted over its accuracy and effect. 
The morning thereafter was comparatively quiet. 

About 2 P. M., Generals Sherman and Blair came over to 
the regiment and a little later were joined by Generals Thomas 
and Howard, and still later by General John A. Logan. They 
stood under a clump of honey locust trees, and enjoyed the 
shade while observing the field. At the request of Generals 
Thomas and Blair, the flag of the 47th was placed on the left 
of the regiment to give a definite point to the Fourteenth Army 
Corps, which was massing one-half mile away, by which to 
guide or align their movement. To secure a full view of another 
part of the enemies' line, Generals Sherman and Thomas walked 
to the right of the regiment, and began a careful scrutiny with 
their field glasses. The position they occupied being greatly 
exposed, the Major called their attention to the fact that it 
was commanded by sharpshooters, and was exceedingly danger- 
ous. General Thomas replied to this suggestion, "'Oh lit is 
our profession to be shot at. Is it not, Sherman?" Sherman 
said, 'Yes." The Major then insisted that at "that junction 
the army could not afford to have either of them killed, as it 
might occasion an unfortunate alteration in the plan of the 
campaign." By the time the sharpshooters had caught the 
range, and the bullets were whistling quite close about the 
ears of the group ; General Thomas queried, "Sherman, they 
do shoot rather close, don't they?" and Sherman answered, 
"Yes, I think we had better be going," and they walked away 



H'2'2 History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 

to their recent position to the left, through rifle pits crouching 
low. Standing slightly apart from the othurs under the trees, 
the examination of the field was farther continued by them. 
Wlwn looking away from the front of the position to the point 
where the troops were massing, General Sherman looked at 
his watch which was lying in his open hand and which marked 
8 P. M., and said, '"General, we ought to hear Stanley's firing 
over there" — pointing with his right hand to Hardee's left 
and rear. "I don't know what is detaining him," and still 
holding his watch in his hand said, "if he comes up, we'll have 
him. We'll have him just like this," closing his fingers an<1 
thumb convulsively over the watch so a c to completely envelwp 
it his hand. Then listened and we watched a little longer, when 
General Sherman finally said, "General, you will have to go 
and begin the movement. I dare not wait any longer." Gen- 
eral Thomas mounted and galloped over to General Jeff. C. 
Davis, commanding the Fourteenth Army Corps, and set the 
troops in motion. Gennral Sherman directed the 47th Ohio to 
begin a demonstration to attract the enemy. General Blair 
moved to the right and south, for the purpose of co-operating 
with Stanley and the cavalry for the purpose of preventing 
the retreat of Hardee in that direction The others remained 
to watch the onset of the Fourteenth Army Corps. 

The first brigade which struck the enemies' works was hurled 
back on its support, which however did not waver, or check its 
speed, but rushed on quickly, mounted and crossed the parapet. 
The struggle seamed desperate; the smoke of the battle hid 
friend and foe from our view. The din of the conflict was 
terrific, but we saw that our men did not come back. That was 
enough They were pressing the conflict hard. In a few min- 
utes a body of prisoners came straggling disorderly over the 
works. This showed that our troops were prevailing. The 
assaulting column had struck General Cleburne's Division of 
Hardee's Corps. Brigadier-General D. C. Govan was captured, 
together with his brigade, including two batteries of artillery, 
and two stands of colors. At sundown, the battle was still 
raging like a fierce tempest. Occasionally a caisson exploded 
in the wood, adding to the confusion immensely by an aggrega- 
tion of the explosion of its contents. We never before realized 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 323 



so t'nl 1 v the tremendous advantage enjoyed by the commander 
of the army of Israel, when as ! he fight was progressing satis- 
factotily to himself, he was able to hook Old Time up in the 
heavens, until he could win a crushing victory over his enemies. 
It appeared that an hour more of sunlight would have been 
sufficient to have enabled the Fourteenth Army Corps to have 
captured all of Hardee's Corps, weather Stanley came or not. 
But darkness brought quiet until between 11 and 12 o'clock 
when there was a heavy cannonade accompanied by musketry 
to the left, which continued until almost to 3 A. M. of next 
day. 

General Sherman says on this date, September 1, 1864, that 
was a night of anxiety to all the Union Generals. They had 
taken awful risks; were faraway from communications, and 
were playing a game whose winning or losing must turn on a 
very few hours, at length, and about midnight the Union camp 
was awakened by sounds of heavy explosions in the direction 
of Atlanta. General Sherman had ordered General Slocum to 
fall forward from the Chattahoochee Bridge toward the north 
of Atlanta to observe the effects of the rearward movement on 
that front. At first General Sherman thought that Slocum had 
been acting rashly and had become terribly engaged, or that 
perhaps Hood had attacked in force. But there came a lull in 
the explosions; at 4 A. M. they broke out again, and louder 
than before; they were now of a nature to be understood; the 
enemy was blowing up his magazines, store houses and trains. 
Soon Atlanta burst into flame ; Hood's rear guard had done its 
work, and Hood himself has made his escape in the night to- 
wards Macon. When Sherman struck Hardee at Jonesboro, he 
really atruck the force Hood had placed there to cover his re- 
treat. The pursuit was joined in the morning and continued 
to near Lovejoy Station ; here word reached Sherman that 
Slocum had heard the same explosions in the night ; had marched 
rapidly forward to find Atlanta evacuated, and had entered 
the city unopposed. General Sherman wrote "Atlanta is ours, 
and fairly won." We now resume our diary written at that time. 



H24 History of the 47th Reoimext 0. V. V. I. 

Skirmish at Lovejoy, Georgia. 

September 2, '(54. Jonesboro, Ga. This morning long be- 
fore daylight there was some heavy firing some where to our 
left. About daylight we received orders to be ready to march 
at a moments notice as the enemy were retreating. At 9 A. M. 
the 47th started on the march in pursuit of Hood's Army in 
full retreat, passed through Jonesboro at 10 A. M. Our divi- 
sion was in the rear of our Corps, the Fifteenth. The advance 
skirmished with the enemy, all the time pressing them. All 
of the enemies' wounded had been abandoned to the mercy and 
the skill of our surgeons. 

The 47th, together with the Second Division of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps, marched in pursuit at 8 A. M., and found the 
enemy strongly posted and entrenched at a point just above 
Lovejoy's Station. A sharp fight ensued in which we captured 
two batteries and a stand of colors. It was suspended because 
of the report of the evacuation of Atlanta until orders might 
be received from General Sherman, yet the columns of troops 
hurried rapidly into position. Under a standing order, the 
work of destroying the railroad was continued energetically. 
Company K of the 47th formed a part of this force of organized 
destruction. 

During the pursuit, the Army of the Cumberland marched 
on the left or east side of the railroad, and the Army of the 
Tennessee on the right or west side. We found Jonesboro to 
be a very nice little town. The 47th destroyed the railroad as 
fast as we advanced to-day, and burnt all the railroad property 
and bridges on the way. We understand that the enemies are 
entrenched in our front at Lovejoy Station. 

September 3, '64. Lovejoy Station, Ga. On this day, Gen- 
eral Sherman, in a congratulatory order, terminated the pur- 
suit, and annouced the results of the campaign, stating in sub- 
stance that the enemy evacuated Atlanta on the night of Sep- 
tember 1, 1864; that he had destroyed eighty carloads of ammu- 
nition, several arsenals and a vast quantity of other stores, 
that the primary object of the campaign having been attained, 
the destruction of the railroad and other property would cease. 

The losses of the army under General Sherman fromChatta- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 825 

nooga, including Lovejoy, on this memorable campaign, were 
killed, 4,423; wounded, 22,822; missing, 4,442. Total, 31,C>s7. 

In the Southern army, according to the reports of Surgeon 
Ford, pages 576 — 577, Johnston's Narrative, killed under John- 
ston, 1,221; killed under Hood, 1,823. Total. 3,044. Wound- 
ed under Johnston, 8,299. Under Hood, 10,723. Total 21,996. 
Prisoners actually captured by Union Army, 12,983. Total loss 
shown by these reports, 34,979. 

But we know that the number of the dead reported above is 
not complete, because we turned over, and buried together 
3,220 after the Battle of Atlanta, by actual count. The dead 
reported by Surgeon Ford were only those buried by them. 

On Sunday, fatigue details were ordered and a line of works 
were constructed on a ridge in our rear, into which the division 
moved on the following day; but the campaign being over, the 
command was ordered to East Point, where Captain Thomas, 
of Company E laid out the camp of the 47th, and military life 
once more rolled on with regularity and preciseness. The long 
omitted " Guard Mount," dress parade, and company and bat- 
talion drill were resumed, the reports were written up, the re- 
turns made, and the army placed in condition for the *next 
campaign, to which every man looked forward eagerly, believ- 
ing it would be the last of the war. The balancing of the 
reports showed the casualties, the last of the 47th, from May 3rd 
to the close of the campaign, to have been 177. 

After the regiment had once more settled down to the routine 
life and duty of the camp, the plaudits of General Grant and 
the President were received as follows : 

Camp Point, Fa., Sept., If, , 6'4. 
Major- General Sherman . 

1 have just received your dispatch announcing the capture 
of Atlanta. In honor of your great victory, I have ordered a 
salute to be fired with shotted guns from every battery bearing 
on the enemy. The salute will be fired within an hour amid 
great rejoicing. 

U. S. Grant, Lieutenant -Genera I. 

In a letter to General Sherman dated September 12, General 



326 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

Grant further says "I feel that you have accomplished the mosl 
gigantic undertaking given to any General in this war." 

Executive. Mansion, 
Washington, D. C, Septembers,, 'GJf.. 

The National thanks are rendered by the President to Major- 
General W . T. Sherman, and the gallant officers and soldiers 
of his command before Atlanta, for the distinguished abilty 
and perseverance displayed in the campaign in Georgia, which 
under the Divine favor has resulted in the capture of Atlanta. 
The marches, battles, sieges, and other military operation's 
that have signalized the campaign, must render it famous in 
the annals of war, and have entitled those who have participated 
therein to the applause of the Nation. 

Abraham Lincoln. 
President of the United States. 

In closing this sketch of the services of the 47th, to give due 
credit to our non-veterans whose connection with its history 
was closed before the movement upon Jonesboro, it is necessary 
to add testimonials to their service given by others at the con- 
clusion of another prior campaign, to-wit : 

Headquarters, Army of the Ohio, 
Knoxville, Deconber 7, '63. 
Major- General W. T. Sherman, 

General: — I desire to express to you and your command, my 
most hearty thanks and gratitude for your promptness in com- 
ing to our relief during the siege of Knoxville, and I am satis- 
fied your approach served to raise the siege. I aiiij General, 
Very respe^fully, your obedient servant, 

A. E. Burnside.s. 
Major- General, Commanding. 

Major-General W. T. Sherman expresses his appreciation of 
their services upon that campaign, as follows: 

''1 would do justice to the men of my command for the pa- 
tience, cheerfulness and courage which officers and men have 
displayed thoughout, in battle, on march and in camp. For 
long periods, without regular rations, or supplies of any kind, 
they have marched through mud and over rocks, sometimes 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 327 

barefooted, without a murmur. Without a moments' rest after 
a march of four hundred miles, without sleep for three succes- 
sive nights we crossed the Tennessee, fought our part of the 
battle of Chattanooga, pursued the enemy out of Tennessee, 
and then turned more than 120 miles north, and compelled 
Longstreet to raise the siege of Knoxville, which gave so much 
anxiety to the whole country. It is hard to realize the impor- 
tance of these events without recalling the memory of the gen- 
eral feeling which pervaded all minds at Chattanooga prior to 
our arrival. I cannot speak of the Fifteenth Army Corps 
without a seeming vanity, but as I am no longer its commander, 
I assert there is no better body of soldiers in America than it. 
I wish all to feel a just pride in its real honors." — Extract 
from Sherman's report to General Grant. 

To which testimonials the Congress of the United States also 
added the following : 

''Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That 
the thanks of Congress and of the people of the United States 
are due, and the same are hereby tendered to Major-General 
W. T. Sherman Commander of the Department and Army of 
the Tennessee, and the officers and soldiers who served under 
him, for their gallant and arduous service in marching to the 
relief ot the Army of the Cumberland, and for their gallantry 
and heroism in the battle of Chattanooga, which contributed 
in a great degree to the success of our arms in that glorious 
victory — Approved, February 19, 1864. 

We find the following in Official Reports, War Department: 

Headquarters 47th Ohio Infantry Volunteers, 
East Point, Georgia, Sept. 10, '64.. 

Sir: — I have the honor to submit the following account of 
the operations of the 47th Ohio since May 3, '64, until Septem- 
ber 8, '64, in pursuance of orders heretofore received. May 3 
the regiment returned from veteran furlough, rejoined the Sec- 
ond Division Fifteenth Army Corps between Stevenson and 
Bridgeport, Alabama, at 2 P. M., and encamped at Bridgeport 
at 6 P. M. From this day until the 10th of May, the advance 
was steadily maintained, having marched via Bridgeport, Chat- 



328 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

tanooga, Rossvill, Gorden's Mills and Gordon and Snake Creek 
Gap to Sugar Valley, where the enemy was found in consider- 
able force. A line of battle was formed and a spirited skir- 
mish ensued, in which four companies <>f the regiment were en- 
gaged. During the afternoon a light line of works was con- 
structed in our front. May 11, retired about one mile to the 
mouth of Snake Creek Gap, and assisted in the construction of 
light field work; the following day returned to the position 
formerly occupied at Sugar Valley on the 13th of May, at 6 A. 
M.. and again moved forward and being in the advance were 
continually engaged in skirmishing. At the intersection of the 
Calhoun Ferry and Resaca and Sugar Valley Road, the enemy 
was encountered in such force as to render it impossible to 
proceed farther with a skirmish line; accordingly, a line of 
battle was formed along the Calhoun Ferry Road, the regiment 
on the left of the Second Brigade, Second Division, Fifteenth 
Army Corps, with four companies deployed as skirmishers, and 
relieved throughout the afternoon. At 1 P. M. the advance 
was resumed, and the enemy driven from ridge to ridge, until 
forced behind their works at Resaca, where at 5 P. M. the line 
halted on the slope of a ridge facing the enemies' works ; in the 
engagement five men were wounded. Saturday, May 14, de- 
tails were engaged in heavy skirmishing; at 12 M. assisted in 
making a demonstration, which continued until 4 P. M., again 
made a demonstration, which continued until 7:10 P. M., when 
we advanced under a heavy artillery fire to the support of the 
First Brigade, Second Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, which 
had stormed a hill occupied by the enemy; during the night 
assisted in fortifying the new position ; the day following was 
occupied in skirmishing On Monday, the 16th, the skirmish- 
ers advanced and the enemy had evacuated at sunrise advanced 
to the railroad bridge across the Oustenaula River. The loss 
in the entire engagement was 10 wounded. The same day at 
9 A. M. began the pursuit, via the Calhoun and Lay's Ferry 
Road, crossed Lay's Ferry and encamped two miles east of the 
river. On the 17th, being in the advance was engaged the en- 
tire day in skirmishing, and drove the enemy steadily until 
near McGuires, when they made a stand in a dense woods and 
opened a battery ; the division was then deployed and the entire 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I, 



329 



line advanced when the enemy retired; encamped at sundown 
about one mile from McGuires, on the Adairsville and Romp 
Road; arrived at Kingston on the 19th, and encamped on the 
Connaaene Creek near its confluence with Etowah River: re- 
sumed the advance May 23rd, and marched via Blacksville 
and VanWe.rt to Dallas, at which place the command 
arrived on the 26th, having experienced no opposition 
except slight skirmishing. The same day, about one mile east 
of Dallas, the enemy was strongly posted on the Powder Springs 
Road; during the night the regiment was placed in a position 
in the second line, and details therefrom were occup.ed on the 
27th and 28th in skirmishing and constructing rifle pits; at 4 
P M. on the 28th the enemy opened with a heavy cannonade; 
at 4:50 P. M. made a terriffic assault upon our line which last- 
ed until 5:15 P. M., when they were completely repulsed. The 
charge was followed by heavy skirmishing which continued 
until the 1st day of June. On June 1, at 5 A. M. moved out 
of the works to Dallas, and from thence at 9 A. M. to Newhope 
Church, where we relieved Major-General Butterfield's Division 
of the Twentieth Army Corps, and was engaged in continual 
skirmishing until the morning of the 5th, when it was discover- 
ed the enemy had evacuated; at 10 A. M. marched via Burnt 
Church two and one-half miles beyond Acworth,Ga., where we 
arrived on the 6th and remained until the 10th, when the ad- 
vance was resumed. A short distance south r>f Big Shanty the 
enemy was encountered in force; immediately we formed line, 
erected light works, re-enforced the skirmish line with details' 
and pressed the enemy; the 11th and 12th were likewise occu- 
pied in skirmishing. On the 13th moved in reserve to support 
the Seventeenth Army Corps and remained in this position 
until the 15th, when we moved to the support of the Fourth 
Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, then engaged on the left in a 
demonstration against the enemy ; returned to its old position. 
On the 16th of June relieved Gresham's Division of the Seven- 
teenth Army Corps, and was placed in the second line of works 
on the right of the Second Brigade, Second Division Fifteenth 
Army Corps, where we remained until the enemy retired from 
their works and occupied a position on Kennesaw Mountain, 
when we advanced to the vicinity of Green's Station, went in- 



330 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

to line, assisted in constructing works and participated in the 
daily skirmishing until the nigrht of the 26th of June, when we 
moved to the front of Little Kennesaw Mountain 

On the 27th of June the Second Brigade, Second Division, 
Fifteenth Army Corps was formed behind the exterior line of 
the Federal works in two lines, the 47th Ohio on t th^ right of 
the second line and supporting the 53rd Ohio. At 8 A. M. the 
brigade thus formed advanced to storm the works of the enemy 
upon Little Kennesaw Mountain, crossing the open field com- 
pletely swept by the enemies 1 artillery, in the most excellent 
order, and passing through an almost impenetrable morass, 
came unexpectedly upon the first line of the enemies' works, 
which was occupied by Georgia volunteers. The 53rd was al- 
ready engaged in a fierce hand-to-hand conflict with the troops, 
and the 47th to a limited extent likewise became engaged with 
the same troops ; this line was quickly carried and the charge 
continued up the bare knoll beyond, but on account of the 
exposed position, murderous front and flank fire of the enemy 
was unable to proceed, and finally retired to the morass, where 
we remained until dark, when we moved to the rear of the 
First Division Fifteenth Army Corps and encamped. In this 
assault Colonel A. C. Parry commanding the regiment received 
a severe wound and was borne from the field, as the regiment 
was returning from the morass, from which time the command 
devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace. 

On July 2 marched with the Division to the vicinity of Ruff's 
mills and relieved Colonel Strickland's Brigade of the Twenty- 
third Army Corps and completed works on the front. The 
following day at 12 M. was sent out to re-enforce a detachment 
of the Second Brigade, then engaged in making a reconnaisance. 
The entire detachment was then ordered forward after advanc- 
ing about three-quarters of a mile through a woods thick with 
undergrowth. We came upon an extensive field almost one-half 
mile in width beyond which the enemy with one battery were 
strongly posted behind hastily constructed works on the east 
bank of Nickajack Creek; a brief rest and we again advanced, 
crossing the field on the double-quick under a severe fire of the 
enemies' artillery and infantry; upon reaching the creek, was 
ordered to cross over ; having crossed and made connections 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V, V. 1. 881 

with the 54th Ohio on the left. We advanced and occupied 
the works of the enemy, and continued in the possession of 
them until relieved by the Sixteenth Army Corps. On the 4th 
of July supported the Sixteenth Army Corps in an attack upon 
the enemies' works. At 7 A M. on the 5th marched via Sand- 
town road to the intersection of the Turner's Ferry road, thence 
down the Ferry road to within three and one-half miles of the 
Chattahooche River, where we encamped and remained until 
4 P. M. of the 8th, when we again moved forward, halted in 
front of the enemies works and went into line on the west side 
of Nickajack Creek near its mouth, where we constructed light 
works and engaged the enemies' skirmishers until the morning 
of the 11th, when the enemy retreated beyond the river, and was 
pursued by skirmishers from all regiments to its north bank; 
at 11 A. M. of the same day, marched via the Ferry and Sand- 
town road, within a short distance of Sweet Water and camped 
at 5 P. M. The day following, at 5 P. M., resumed the march 
and proceeded via Marietta and Rosswell Factory to the south 
of the, Chattahooche and encamped at G P. M. On the 14th, 
and during the next two days assisted in the construction of 
works. Sunday, the 17th, marched at 7 o'clock on the road 
to Cross Keys, and crossing Nancy's Creek and passing Cross 
Keys, struck the Augusta Railroad two miles west of Stone 
Mountain, and destroyed between a quarter and one-half mile 
of it ; after one hour's labor on the railway rejoined the division 
and encamped on Peach Tree Creek: the day following at 5 A. 
M. took up the line of march to Decatur, at which place we 
arrived at 3 P. M. ; at 5 P. M. formed line of battle and halted 
for the night. On the 20th advanced upon the direct road to- 
wards Atlanta, deployed on the north side of the railroad con- 
necting on the left with the 80th Ohio, driving the enemies' 
force, which consisted of mounted infantry and cavalry, steadily 
back a distance of about three and one-half miles when a halt 
was ordered ; during the night, was relieved by a regiment of 
the First Division Fifteenth Army Corps; went into line, and 
on the 21st assisted in the construction of rifle pits. On the 
morning of the 22nd nothing but a mere skirmish line of the 
enemy having been formed in our front, our skirmish line mov- 
ed forward driving the enemy from their skirmish pits to their 



332 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. Y I. 

main works, and compelling them to retire under cover of the 
guns <>t the principal works on the east part of the city of At- 
lanta, within a very short distance of which our line halted: 
the entire division advanced and occupied the lines abandoned 
by the enemy; a few minutes after 4 P. M. the skirm- 
ish line was driven in by an assault of the enemy; upon arriv- 
ing within the works occupied by the Second Division Fifteenth 
Army Corps, I saw the regiment first in the following order: 
Three companies behind the works on the right of a section of 
artillery, on the right of the Decatur Road; subsequently Com- 
pany K was ordered to support a section of artillery between 
the wagon and railroads, posted behind a low earthwork termi- 
nating a few feet from the right bank of a cut in the railway ; 
said cut is about fifteen feet deep, dry and firm at the bottom, 
and on the 22nd was open and clear, neither occupied by troops 
nor blockaded. 

The wagon road on the right of said section and company is 
about twenty-five feet in width, and was likewise open and un- 
occupied by troops. The distance between the wagon road and 
railway is four rods; one platoon of said company consisting 
of sixteen men, was ordered between the guns composing the 
last named section; the other platoon to lie down in rear of it; 
the remainder of the regiment was in a few moments ordered 
into position behind the works on the right of the artillery, on 
the right of said wagon road. Two columns of the enemy ad- 
vanced up a ravine in front of the works, but were repulsed and 
retired behind a house and some out buildings a short distance 
therefrom, while apparently a third advanced by the flank, 
concealed by the dense smoke of the artillery up the rail and 
wagon roads; this advance was not discovered until the head of 
the column was about to enter the gap made by the open wagon 
road in the works, mount the works in front of and pass around 
the last named section of the artillery; the platoon between 
said guns fought desperately, and all except four were killed 
wounded and captured. The other platoon of said company 
being in the rear of said guns could not fire without killing 
our men in their front, but received a heavy fire in front and 
on the flank, and when the enemy decouched from the said cut 
in their rear, to avoid capture they retired simultaneously; the 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 333 

' entire line began moving back ; at the works a fierce struggle 
and hand-to-hand conflict occurred over our colors, in which 
the enemy was punished most severely in the struggle. Corporal 
McCarthy of the color guard was captured, Corporal Abraham 
Craig of the color guard was wounded and captured and Henry 
Beckman color sergeant wounded. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Wallace commanding the regiment 
and Captain H. 0. Pugh were captured while bravely laboring 
to form a new line. Upon the arrival of the regiment at the 
second line of works, by an order of the Division Commander, 
I was relieved from duty as picket officer of the division to take 
command of it; behind these works I reformed the regiment 
and in accordance with orders from the Corps and Division 
commanders advanced in line of battle with bayonets fixed to 
re-capture the works taken by the enemy. After proceeding a 
short distance one small company and men k from various regi- 
ments joined my line, swelling the number to about 250, with 
whom wholly unsupported, I charged and succeeded in approach- 
ing within a few feet of the works, when, such was the storm 
of fire which swept over this gallant band, that both flag staffs 
were shot off, and the regimental standard torn from the staff 
by the fragment of a shell. One of the color-bearers, Corporal 
Joseph Lud borough was killed, Corporal Romhild was wounded. 
Finding my command flanked both on the right and left, to 
avoid capture I retired ; in retiring over an entanglement and 
through a dense undergrowth, the command became to some 
extent separated ; meeting a line in the rear advancing I halted 
and with them made a second assault. Captain Pinkerton. 
Company D, and Lieutenant Brachman, Company G, with a 
portion of the right wing, moved forward on the right of the 
railroad, while I with men from both wings moved on the left 
of it; but being again outflanked all were compelled to retire; 
this time we withdrew to an open field and reformed as rapidly 
as possible. Captain Pinkerton and Lieutenant Brachman, as 
before moved on the right of the railway and I on the left of 
it, pouring a continous and deadly fire into the enemy, driving 
them from the works and retaking a section of artillery. Stand- 
ing upon the left of the railroad which the enemy had turned 
upon us and which with the assistance of Sergeant Seidel, Serg- 



334 History of the 47th Regi ment O. V. V- I- 

eant-Major Henry Bremfoeder, and Private Louis Walker, Com- 
, m „y K and Isaac N Silver; Company D, and other men of the 
47th, with a few from the 58rd Ohio, I turned upon and served 
against them until they withdrew from range. 
°In the third assault the regiment captured 17 prisoners ot 
war Captain Charles N. Helmerich and Joseph L Pinkertoii 
andYieutenantsBraehmana^dWetterer, the only commission- 
ed officers present with the regiment unhurt, rendered efficient 
aid in the various assaults; owing to the reasons already stated 
it was imp .Bible to preserve organization intact in such a rapid 
advance, and regiments were completely intermixed and mingled 
but everywhere on all sides the men and officers exhibited the 
greatest gallantry, and most daring courage, fighting m what- 
ever organization they found themselves and doing their whole 
duty as soldiers and as American citizens. 

From this time until the morning of the 27th we were engaged 
in akirmishingand destroying the railroad. At daylight on the 
27th marched in rear of the army to the right,which point was 
reached on the morning of the 28th, when the division took up 
a position on a ridge before Ezra Chapel. At 10 A. M of the 
28th was ordered to support the 53rd Ohio in an attack upon 
a force of the enemy posted on the ridge in front of the one 
occupied bv the division, and moved on the left of he 53rd 
and deployed Companies B D and K as skirmishers, which ad- 
vanced to the summit of the ridge. The enemy then moved in 
considerable force to the right and threatened that flank of he 
58rd Ohio, when the remainder of my command moved to the 
right, deployed as skirmishers and advanced to the Sandtown 
road. By this joint advance of the two regiments, the enemy 
was driven from the greater part of the ridge into the woods 
beyond At 12 M. a column of the enemy moved from the 
woods, bv the Hank across oxv front as though designing to 
drive us back, but were easily repulsed by our fire. In about 
one-half hour the enemy was discovered massing in the woods 
and moving to the right, in a brief space they advanced from it 
in line of battle, but quickly breaking into columns swept like 
an avalanche over the field, attempting by columns on the 
right and left, the heads of which were converging in a hollow 
in our rear, to completely envelop us, when, to avoid cadture, 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 335 



Colonel Jones ordered us to march in retreat, which movement 
we executed with the utmost dispatch, and in the best possible 
manner When the enemy perceived the movement, a body of 
cavalry moving on their extreme left, also charged upon us. 
The fierceness and impetuosity of the charge of the column on 
the immediate left of the 53rd Ohio, rendered it impossible 
for us to rejoin the line of the division, and we came into posi- 
tion a considerable distance therefrom on the right. Against 
this point the column which had charged against us made a com- 
bined assault driving us beyond the ridge and occupying it, 
halting again on the side of the ridge, we reformed and with 
loud and prolonged huzzas advanced against the enemy and 
driving them more by noise than number from the ridge into 
the adjoining woods. Immediately Colonel Jones of the 53rd 
Ohio assumed command and by his judicious orders the troops 
were most advantageously posted, and although many gaps in- 
tervened between the regiments, the line of battle was so formed 
as to enable us to cover with our fire every inch of ground in 
our front. Four times during the afternoon the enemy charged 
our line, and each time was repulsed with heavy loss. At 3:30 
P. M. the 81st Ohio relieved us, but at 5 P. M. we again entered 
the line. During the engagement there were no works of any 
description in front of my regiment, but the following night we 
assisted in the construction of an excellent line, which we com- 
pleted on the 30th; at 11 A. M. of the 30th marched to the 
ridge occupied by the regiment as skirmishers on the 28th, and 
relieved a division of ths Twentieth Army Corps, and completed 
and strengthened the works. 

The following days until August 2nd were engaged in light 
skirmishing ; on that day at 3 A. M., we moved forward, occupied 
a new line, and constructed another line of works. August 3rd 
five companies of the regiment were engaged in a very heavy 
skirmish incident to advancing the line and repelling the repeat- 
ed attempts of the enemy to recapture their pits ; the following 
day engaged in making a demonstration. From this day until 
the morning of the 9th were occupied in constant skirmishing, 
when the regiment was ordered to take an advanced position, 
and complete a line of works. From this day until the 26th of 
August remained in same works, occasionally making demon- 



336 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

<t rations and continually engaged in lively skirmishing: August 
2 »t h about 9 P. M. evacuated works and marched via Sandtown 
road, crossing Utoy Creek, the north and south forks of CJtoy, 
to the Fairburn road, and thence by Neighborhood road to the 
West Point and Montgomery railroad and encamped near the 
road on Camp Creek on the 28th, and held the left flank until 
a considerable distance of said road had been demolished. On 
the 30th moved from camp upon the Flat Shoals raad, on which 
the column marched until it intersected the Jonesboro and 
Fayetteville road, on which the column moved towards Jones- 
boro. During the morning the enemy approached inconsidera- 
ble force and contested the advance. Three times during the 
morning the division was forced to deploy, and by regular lines 
drive them back from our front. At about noon I was ordered 
to move forward and deploy on the right of said road, and was 
supported by the 87th Ohio. Two companies of which I caused 
to be deployed on the right flank; on the left I connected with 
the 83rd Indiana. We advanced, driving the enemy steadily 
before us until they had crossed Plain Creek, when they halted 
and opened a battery upon the line; we were then halted until 
a regiment was sent around on the right; when this was accom- 
plished, the line again moved forward, driving them steadily 
back until they had crossed Flint River, when they attempted 
to make another stand, but the crossing being comparatively 
good ; with the assistance of the cavalry a crossing was quickly 
effected and the advance was resumed. Again the enemy was 
compelled to retire, and when once started were driven steadily 
back until we had approached within one-half mile of Jonesboro ; 
when, night coming on, the darkness rendered it impracticable 
to proceed further. During the afternoon the enemy was driv- 
en over seven miles; at 10 P. M. the regiment was relieved by 
the 30th Ohio, and placed in reserve to the Second Brigade. 
At 10 A. M. of the 31st on account of the movements of the 
enemy, the regiment was again ordered forward and placed 
into line on the left of the brigade; at 3 P. M. the columns 
of the enemy moved from the woods along the Jonesboro road, 
and made an impetuous assault upon our line. We reserved 
our tire until their columns were moving in the open field in 
front, to our right, when at the command an increasing sheet 






History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 387 

of fire and lead was hurled to the right oblique with splendid 
effect into the ranks; the force of the assault was broken in one- 
half hour, but the firing was continued much longer, as they 
were in range during the entire line of retreat. September 1st 
was occupied in skirmishing and making demonstrations to aid 
our left. During the night of the 1st the enemy retreated from 
Jonesboro,and in the morning were pursued to Lovejoy's Station, 
where they were strongly fortified; encamped a short distance 
north-west from the station, and remained in reserve until the 
afternoon of the 4th instant, when the regiment assisted in 
constructing a line of rifle pits a short distance in the rear, 
which was occupied by the division on the night of the 5th in- 
stant; at 10 P. M of the 5th the regiment marched to Jonesboro, 
at which place we remained throughout the 6th. 

On the 7th marched via Morrow's Mill to East Point, at which 
place we arrived at 12 M., and encamped near the station on 
the Macon Railroad. I herewith append a list of causualities 
of the regiment throughout the campaign in the operations 
hereinbefore specified. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Thomas T. Taylor 
Major Commanding 47th Regiment Ohio. 
Captain Archie C. Fisk 

Assistant Adjutant General, Second Brigade, Second 
Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. 

From War of the Rebellion Official Records, First Series, 
V.dumn 38, Part 3, Pages 243 to 249 

Return of casualities in the 47th Ohio from May 3rd to 
September 7th, 1864. 

Killed, Officers none, Men 17 ; Wounded, Officer* 7, Men SI ; 
Captured or Missing, Officers 2, Men 62 ; Aggregate, 169. 

The total loss by the brigade in killed, wounded and missing 
for the above time was 972, and for the division was 1,898, and 
for the Fifteenth Army Corps was 4,758. 

From War of the Rebellion Official Records, First Series, 
Volume 38, Part 3, Page 114. 

We now again resume our diary written at East Point. Ga., 
September 1864. 



838 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

September 11, '64. Orders for inspection at 9 A. M., every 
man to be out except those in the hospital : afternoon the order 
was countermanded, andatG P M. the brigade fell in line, and 
had our company grounds staked off, about thirty steps in front 
of where we were. 

September 12, '64. After our new camp was nearly all 
arranged orders came to move twenty steps farther to the 
fight; our duty in this camp is light; we have drill twice each 
day, when not too rainy. Picket and Camp Police, and the 
work of building breastworks is done by details from the whole 
brigade. From this time on to October 3rd only a few important 
events took place as follows: 

September 14, '64. The 47th regiment had built by detail a 
bake oven, to bake bread for the regiment. Colonel A. C. Parry 
of the 47th returned from leave of absence ; on account of his 
wounds he recieved June 27th, he is still a little lame; the boys 
were all glad to see him return again. A congratulatory ad- 
dress was read to us in the evening from General O. O. Howard 
in commendation of the Army of the Tennessee, and one from 
General John A. Logan in commendation of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps. 

It was stated in order that during the Atlanta campaign just 
closed, our Corps has marched four hundred miles, met the 
enemy thirteen times in battle, and taken 2,200 prisoners, and 
buried more dead in our front than the Fifteenth Corps numbers. 

September 15, '64. East Point, Ga. The 47th had general 
inspection at 4 P. M. General Hood Confederate States Army, 
was reported to be below Boonsboro, at or near Lovejoy Station, 
and up to this date had given no indications of his future plans ; 
his bushwackers are prowling around our picket post every once 
in a while, but they are careful not to come too close, and every 
once in awhile we can hear the blood hounds on the track of 
escaped prisoners. On September 18th late in the evening 
there was quite an excitment at the railroad junction, near 
this camp. A train load of our men, exchanged, came in from 
Andersonville; they were taken the 22nd of July, last, and the 
poor souls looked like they had been there more than a year, 
for they are almost starved to death, and they are nothing but 
skin and bones ; their clothing, such as it was, was in rags. 






History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 389 

September 22nd. A large detail from the 47th Brigade 
are out to-day cleaning off the drill grounds, and building 
fortifications. Major-General Peter J. Osterhaus assumed com- 
mand of the Fifteenth Army Corps, on account that General 
John A. Logan has gone home on leave of abspnce. The Corps 
was re-organized; our division is now as follows: Second Divi- 
sion commanded by Brigadier-General Wm. B. Hazen ; our 
Brigade(the Second)Colonel Wells S. Jones commanding, is 
composed of the following regiments; the 37th, 47th. 53rd and 
54th Ohio, 83rd Indiana and 111th Illinois. 

September 23, '64. More of our men were exchanged at Ruff 
and Ready Station ; six exchanged men from the 47th Ohio 
came to-day. It is said that all the prisoners of our regi- 
ment have been exchanged but those or some from Companies 
E and H. The enemy it is said still holds Lieutenant-Colonel 
John Wallace, and Captain H. D. Pugh. We are still at work 
building fortifications. - 

September 25, '64. There was a brigade inspection and in 
the afternoon there was a review by General Wm. B. Hazen of 
our division, and on September 26th there were furloughs given 
to some of our men who were taken prisoners July 22nd and 
exchanged. 

September 28. '64. East Point, Ga. On this date a comrade 
of Company E 47th Regiment wrote in his diary: Was on pick- 
et post one mile from camp on the Macon Railroad, and while 
there saw a train load of Confederate prisoners come down the 
road past us ; there were seven hundred of them; they went 
beyond us under a flag of truce to be exchanged for seven hun- 
dred of our men, principally officers. Two captains of our 
men broke past the Confederate guards and made their escape. 
They passed our post, one was from an Indiana Regiment, the 
other from a Michigan Regiment. 

September 29, '64. Last night was very dark. The Confed- 
erates were lurking around our pickets nearly all night with 
bloodhounds, trying to recapture escaped prisoners, and the 
pickets fired on them. Drill every day still continues. 

September 30, '64. In the afternoon about 4 P. M. there 
was a general review of our division by General Wm. B. Hazen. 
Orders received to issue no more furloughs. 

October 1, '64. The 47th ordered to be ready for general in- 



840 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

gpection and review at 1 P. M. The regiment was formed at 
1 P. M. and inspected by Colonel A. C Parry, and at 3 P. M. 
was reviewed by Major-Generals O. O. Howard and P. J. Oster- 
haus. These reviews mean business soon ; rumors say Hood 
will give trouble. 

October 3, '64. East Point, Ga. Last night after midnight 
the drums beat and the bugles blew in every direction. At 8 
A. M. orders issued to be ready to march at 8 A. M., which 
was soon countermanded. All the baggage and camp equipage 
was sent to the rear during the day, and orders to march to- 
morrow morning. The enemy have marched around our army 
and are in our rear, and is reported to have destroyed the 
railroad at Aeworth. 



Campaign in Pursuit oe Hood's Army, From Atlanta, Ga., 
Towards Chattanooga, in Our Rear. A Force March, 
and Return to Atlata, Ga. Skirmish at Gadsden Ala. 

October 1, '64. East Point. Ga. About this time General 
Sherman learned that Hood's Confederates States Army had 
crossed, the Chattahooche River September 29, 1864, and was 
evidently marching around to reach the rear of our army, and 
was forced to follow. Accordingly, General Sherman ordered 
General Slocum into Atlanta with his Twentieth Army Corps 
to hold the city that had cost so much blood to capture, and 
with the remainder of his army he hastened on a forced march 
back by way of Marietta, Ga. 

October 8, '64, Orders had been issued yesterday to march 
to-day at 8 A. M., the order was countermanded ; we drew rations 
and was ordered to be ready to move at a moments notice. We 
think there is something wrong as there seems to be a right 
smart of activity at brigade headquarters. We fear Hood has 
marched around us to make us evacuate Atlanta. 

October 4, '64. The 47th got ordei'6 this morning at 3 A. M. 
to be ready to march at 5 A. M.; at 7 A. M. we marched up 
the railroad toward Atlanta from East Point some three miles 
then took the Sandtown Road, and passed our old battle field 
of July 28 at Ezra Chapel, from there we marched to the rail- 
road bridge, crossed the Chattahooche River, and marched to- 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 341 

wards Marietta about one mile; there rested from 4 P. M. un- 
til dark, then resumed our march until 11 P. M., and camped 
two miles from Marietta, having marched twenty miles. 

October 5, '64 Thn 47th resumed the march after Hood at 
7 A.M.; marched about one mile and turned to the left, marched 
to and crossed Nickajack Creek, where we had been July 4th: 
there again took the Marietta Road, and again turned to the 
left, and marched into the Confederate works south-west of 
Kennesaw Mountain at 3 P. M., having marched some twenty 
miles. The boys straggled badly to-day. 

October 6, '64. It rained all the forenoon; at 1 P. M. orders 
to be ready to march at a moments notice, but we did not march. 

October 7, '64. The 47th were awakened last night at mid- 
night to draw rations of beef. This morning is gloomy and 
foggy; w T e remained in camp until 4 P. M., when we got orders 
to be ready to march at a moments notice; at dark fell into 
line and stacked arms but did not march and remained there 
for the night. " We can hear the boom of artillery towards 
Allatoona. 

October 8, '64. Still in same camp. At 3 P. M. orders to 
march immediately; marched at 4 P. M. and passed through 
Marietta, then took the road toward Big Shanty, and marched 
within two miles of the place and went into camp at 10 P. M. 
having marched about twelve miles. 

October 9, '64. The 47th fell into line at 9 A. M., moved a 
short distance and put up our tents, and at 11 A. M. had to 
tear them down , and again moved to the left a short dsstance, 
where our officers laid out a camp; there we remained all night 
in the rain ; turned very cool. 

October 10, '64. At 4 P. M. got orders to march immediately ; 
fell into line and marched in the direction of Kingston : passed 
Big Shinty and Acworth; at the latter place the enemy had 
torn up the railroad badly. We had marched over twelve miles 
and went into camp at midnight not far from Allatoona. Gen- 
eral Sherman says it will be impossible to protect the roads, 
now that Hood, Forrest, Wheeler and the whole batch of devils 
are turned loose without home or habitation. 

October 11, '64. Near Allatoona, Ga. The 47th marched 
without breakfast, passed through Allatoona about sunrise; 



5U2 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. 1. 

we found the place full of the Confederate wounded. Our First 
Brigade went aboard a train here; they are going ahead of us 
to defend the railroad somewhere; but we marched on towards 
Kingston aud crossed the Etowah River, then had a short rest; 
then we marched on, passed through Cartersville at 10 A. M., 
and rested one and one-half hour, where we held our State 
election, then proceeded on our march and went into camp one 
and one-half miles from Kingston, Ga. Had marched eighteen 
miles. 

October 12, '64. Kingston, Ga. The 47th is still in pursuit 
of Hood. We left camp at 8 A. M., marched to Kingston and 
remained until noon, after which we resumed our march on 
the Rome Road, and marched within four miles of Rome; went 
into camp after dark, having made over fifteen miles. We 
heard artillery firing during the day on our right. 

October 13, '64. Rome, Ga. The 47th drew beef at midnight 
last night, the first meat we have had for the last three days. 
Orders to march at 4 P. M. and we inarched immediately, and 
went back on the road we came for some two miles, then turned 
to our left and went some six miles, then struck the main road 
leading from Resaca to Rome; here we came to a halt for one 
hour, then resumed our march towards Resaca and went into 
camp about midnight. 

October 14, '64. On the march in pursuit of Hood. The 
47th marched out at 7 A. M., our brigade in the rear, our regi- 
ment in the rear of the brigade ; our march to-day is very slow 
but kept going. General Sherman passed about 10 A. M. We 
went into camp after dark within four miles of Resaca, at a 
place called Calhoun ; marched twelve miles. Rations scarce, 
drew some beef again after night. From the direction of our 
march it would appear that Hood must be at or near Dalton 
going towards Chattanooga or LaFayette, Ga. 

October 15, '64. Calhoun, Ga. The 47th was called up at 
4 A. M., to be ready to march immediately; started on our 
march without breakfast, passed through Calhoun at sunrise, 
and marched on to Resaca, four miles across the River Ostenaula, 
and stacked arms; got our breakfast while the Seventeenth 
Army Corps was moving out; that done, the 47th Ohio marched 
in the direction of Snake Creek Gap, when we halted and re- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. B4B 



mained until 3 P. M., while the Fourteenth Army Corps march- 
ed around to gobble up the enemy in the gap. The enemy left 
six dead and many wounded in the skirmish with the Seven- 
teenth Army Corps in Snake Creek Gap. The 47th resumed 
the pursuit of Hood's Army at 3 P. M., through Snake Creek 
Gap, which we found badly obstructed by fallen timber. We 
went into camp at 9 o'clock. Rained to-night. 

October 16, '64. Drew some hard tack for the first time in 
a long while. Resumed our march in pursuit of Hood towards 
LaFayette, Ga. Our Corps (the Fifteenth) took the advance; 
about 10 A. M. had a skirmish with the enemy. In this skirm- 
ish we captured thirty prisoners and among the number there 
were four captains and one lieutenant. Marched about eight 
miles, and went into camp at 3 P. M. for the night. 

October 17, '64. The 47th Ohio lay in camp on a mountain 
until 4 P. M. then we marched to LaFayette, about six miles 
and went into camp at 8 P. M. This part of Georgia seems to 
be all mountains ; it is nearly as bad as Western Virginia. 
There are a good many of our men about barefooted. 

October 18, '64. LaFavette, Ga. The 47th inarched in pur- 
suit of Hood at 8 A. M. in the direction of Summerville; march- 
ed fourteen miles, and went into camp at 3 P. M. Our division 
being in the advance and captured eleven prisoners, and at 5 P. 
M. our regiment with two other regiments was ordered to 
inarch to Summerville, a distance of three miles. Our duty 
here was to guard the place. 

October 19, '64. Summerville, Ga. The 47th marched at 
6:30 A. M. into Summerville and stacked arms near the Court 
House, where we remained to let the Seventeenth Army Corps 
pass. About 12 M. we marched in the direction of Gaylesville, 
Alabama; marched about six miles, and went into camp for 
the night. 

October 20, '64. The 47th marched in pursuit of Hood in 
same direction; marched at 7 A. M., our division in the ad- 
vance. Our regiment put out flankers in the thick brush; 
marched about fourteen miles, and went into camp near Gayles- 
ville, Alabama. 

October 21, '64. The 47th only marched about five miles, 
and went into camp near Little River, Alabama. We are try- 



:i44 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

Lug to find Hood's Army, but have not succeeded. Yesterday 
and to-day it is supposed they are going south-west, and trying 
to get away from us. 

October 22 and 2%, '(54. We remained almost inactive, noth- 
ing doing but some foraging parties being, sent out to gather 
in provisions. In the meantime our cavalry are scouting around 
to try and find out the whereabouts of Hood's Army. 

October 24, '64. This morning foraging parties were sent 
from all the regiments in the brigade under competent officers, 
as our provisions are very short; we must live off the country. 
In the meantime, the regiment mar.med in the direction of 
Gadsden, Alabama, on the Coosa River, and marched about ten 
miles, went into camp at Blue Pond, Alabama, for the night. 



BATTLE AT GADSDEN, ALABAMA. 



October 25, '64. The 47th resumed the march towards Gads- 
den, Alabama, and about 2 P.M. found the enemy under Wheeler 
in position on a small hill with a battery of artillery, and be- 
hind a rail breastworks. Our brigade was formed into line of 
battle, and the skirmishers sent out. We advanced about a 
quarter of a mile under the fire of the enemies battery; then 
we were ordered to charge the battery, which we did through an 
open field when the enemy opened a brisk fire, but they soon 
tied, as they were nothing but dismounted cavalry. Three men in 
our regiment were wounded, one of these, Criss Lin, of Company 
C had his eye shot out. We rested at the Confederate works 
about one hour; here we saw the enemy had retreated westward. 
After this rest we marched back over the same road we had 
come and went into the same camp we were in yesterday. 



COMMENCMENT OF THE MARCH BACK TO ATLANTA, GEORGIA. 

October 26, '64. The 47th started on the march at 7 A. M. 
We are marching back on the same road we came a day or two 
ago, and marched back to Coosa River, Alabama, and went in- 
to the same camp w r e had been in some days ago. We wonder 
if we are not going to march back to Atlanta, Ga. General 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V, V. I. 845 

Sherman says, I followed in pursuit of Hood to Gaylesville 
and Gadsden, Alabama. On the 26th he learned that Hood 
had made his appearance about Decatur: this was evidence to 
Sherman that he(Hood) intended to invade Tennessee. The 
fact left him free to makn the march through Georgia. We 
will now return to our diary. 



On our Return March to Atlanta, Georgia. 

October 27 and '28, '64. We lay in camp near Coosa River 
Alabama. We remained here to get provisions from the coun- 
try on the bottoms of the river. 

October 29, '64. Sherman's Army began moving out about 
sunrise this morning. Our brigade brought up the rear, and 
marching at 8 A. M., we went back about three miles towards 
Gaylesville, then turned to the right, and crossed the Chatta- 
nooga River, marched three miles further and came to Cedar 
Bluff, where we remained five hours for the pontoon bridge to 
be across Coosa River, then crossed the river at 4 P. M., and 
marched until 7 P M. and went into camp. The roads rough 
and bad; weather quite cool; marched about twelve miles. 

October 30, '64. Cedar Bluff, Alabama. The 47th Ohio 
resumed the march in an eastern direction. Our brigade still 
has the post of honor, the rear; marched out at 8:30 A. M. 
The Confederate cavalry are lurking in our rear, and killed one 
man, took some of. our men prisoners. All stragglers. We 
marched some fifteen miles, then went into camp for the night ; 
drew some rations of beef at night. 

October 31, '64. We only marched some four or five miles, 
then went into camp at Cave Springs, Georgia, where we were 
mustered for two months pay. 

November 1, '64. Cave Springs, Georgia. The 47th Ohio 
resumed the march at 7 A. M., passed through a very rich piece 
of country; marched about ten miles, then went into camp at 
Cedartown, Georgia, where we had a terrible rain, and it poured 
down all night, like unto Noah's flood. We learn that we are 
marching in the direction of Atlanta. This march is made 
easy, and were it not for the bad roads and rainy weather, we 
would not think it much more than childs play, for who has 



346 History ok the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 

ever heard of the Fifteenth Army Corps, but knows they are 
nearly always marching or fighting. 

November 2, '64. The 47th resumed the march at 8:30 
A. M., the roads l»eing extremely had, and a cold drizzly rain 
fell nearly all day; went into camp at 2 P. M. After a rest, 
marched eight miles more, making fifteen miles of our march- 
ing to-day. 

November 3, '04. The 47th resumed the march at 7 a. m. 
Our brigade is in the rear to-day. The roads are worse than 
yesterday, and very hilly and many of the teams stalled in the 
muddy mads. We marched about fifteen miles, getting to camp 
after dark. Many of our men gave out. 

November 4, '64. We resumed our march at 7 a. m., and 
started out briskly, as though wewere wanted ahead somewhere 
quickly. We had more rain to-day. We marched about four- 
teen miles, and went into camp at Powder Springs, Georgia ; 
turned very cool through the day. 

November 5, '64. Powder Springs, Georgia. The 47th re- 
sumed the march at 7 a m,, crossed Nickajack Creek at the 
same place where our brigade made a charge on July 3rd, last. 
We left Marietta to our left, marched to Vinning Station six 
miles south of Marietta, and there went into camp. Our regi- 
ment was deployed along the railroad for one-half mile from 
camp, to gather in all the horses and mules that had been cap- 
tured on our march back to this point. We only marched 
about ten miles to-day; we are again near Atlanta, Georgia. 

November 6, '64. Vinning Station, Georgia. This place is 
about six miles south of Marietta, and on the railroad running 
from Chattanooga to Atlanta. We came here yesterday, and 
it looks like we are to remain here a while ; our camp is be- 
ing laid out in regular order. There was about one hundred 
men came to our regiment to-day ; they are recruits to replenish 
our depleted ranks. They were assigned to the several com- 
panies in the regiment which will give the sergeants plenty of 
work to drill them. The regiment was paid off. 

November 7, '64. To-day, one hundred more recruits came 
to our regiment ; they have the appearance of good sound men 
and no doubt when they are drilled they will make good sol- 
diers We learn that some of them have been serving in the 






History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 847 

army before they came to us. Rained last night and part of 
to-day; got cooler. 

We will now resume our diary written at that time. 

November 8, '64. Vinning Station, Georgia. We are still 
in camp doing police duty, etc. We held our election to-day 
for President and Vice President of the United States. Presi- 
dent Lincoln received 144 votes over McClellan in our regiment. 

November 9, '64. Received notice that the last train would 
leave for Chattanooga on the 11th, and all who desired to write 
a letter home must do so before that time. 

November 10, '64. Vinning Station, Georgia. To-day the 
boys all seem to be writing letters for th ; last mail to go to- 
morrow. Everything is being run out of Atlanta towards 
Chattanooga, and we were impressed with the question, Where 
are we going to? but no one could tell them. 

November 11, '64. The 47th received one hundred more re- 
cruits to replenish our ranks. In the afternoon wp saw and 
watched tha last train going north, and afterwards large fatigue 
parties were sent out to tear up the railroad and pile up the 
ties and burn them, and thoroughly twisted the rails. We 
will now tell those who may read this and who were not in the 
army how railroads were destroyed and the rails twisted. It 
was like this: First, a party would go along and draw the 
railroad spikes ; the second squad came along rolled off the 
rails and took up the railaoad ties and piled them up in nice 
square piles; first turn one tier of ties across the road bed, then 
the next tier across that until the pile of ties would be some 
two or two and one-half feet high; the next squad of men came 
along and placed the rails on the pile of ties thus made: this 
done, another squad of men came along and piled the ties on 
top of the iron rails; this done, they were fired(the ties being 
pitch pine) they made a very hot fire ; the last squad then 
came and the iron rails were twisted like a rope and they could 
never be used again, without first going through the rolling 
mill. Thus all the railroads around Atlanta were destroyed 
for many miles, except the railroad to Chattanooga was destroy- 
ed the whole length. 

November 12, '64. Vinning Station, Ga. Our regiment fell 
in at 5 P. M. with arms and accoutrements and marched to the 



848 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

Chattahooche River, about f ur miles, to destroy the railroad: 
returned to camp at 9 P. M. General Sh'-rman says, on Novem- 
ber 12th, 1864, he cut off all communications to his rear, and 
threw his army into that campaign whose destination he did 
not, know, whose direction was to be controlled by circum- 
stances, whose support was to be resources which the country 
provided; he would make all the tim« possible, meet emergen- 
cies as they arose, conform as nearly as possible to his ideal 
plan, co-operate as effectively as he could with his chief. It 
was a bold undertaking and if executed successfnly would prove 
as useful in results as it, was brilliant in conception. 

We now return to our diary. 

November 13, "64. Vinning Station, Ga, The 47th wen- 
awakened early this morning, and marched at 6 a m., followed 
the railroad to the Chattahooche Kiver, crossed the river, and 
marched to Atlanta, and went into camp one mile beyond the 
city. 

November 14, '04. Atlanta, Ga. We remained in camp: 
had general inspection in the afternoon; orders received to 
march to-morrow morning. Our army in and around Atlanta 
are destroying all the railroads, and all the public property. 
It is said our army consists of 55,255 infantry, 4,584 cavalry 
and 1,759 artillery ; being a total of 60,598 men of all arms, 
with 2,500 wagons, 600 ambulances, with. 60 pieces of artillery. 
Our Corps(the Fifteenth) is commanded by P. J. Osterhaus. 

General orders were read as follows, viz. 

Headquarters Millitary Division of the Mississippi, in the Field. 

Atlanta, Ga., November 14., '&£• 

The General commanding deems it proper to inform the men 
of the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Seventeenth and Twentieth Corps, 
that he has organized them into an army for a special purpose, 
well known to the War Department and to General Grant ; it is 
sufficient for you to know that it involves a departure from our 
present base, and a long and difficult march to a new one. All 
the chances of war have been considered and provided for, as 
far as human sagacity can ; all he asks of you is to maintain 
that discipline, patience and courage which have characterized 
you in the past, and he hopes through you to strike a blow at 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 849 

our enemy that will have a material effect in producing what 
we all so much desire, his complete overthrow of all things; 
the most important ia that the men during the marches and in 
camp keep their places, and do not scatter about as stragglers 
or foragers to b" picked up by a hostile people in detail; it is 
also of the utmost importance that our wagons should not lie 
loaded with anything but rations and ammunition; with these 
simple cautions he hopes to lead you to achievements equal in 
importance to those of the past. 

W. T. Sherman, Major-General Commanding 



Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi. 
Atlanta, Ga., November 1£, '&£. 

First, for the purpose of military operations this army is 
divided into two wings, viz. — right wing General 0. 0. Howard 
commanding, composed of the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Army 
Corps; left wing General H. W. Slocum commanding, composed 
of the Fourteenth and Twentieth Army Corps. 

Second, the habitual order of march will be, whenever prac- 
ticable, by four roads as nearly parallel as possible, and con- 
verging at points hereafter to be indicated in orders. The caval- 
ry, General Kilpatrick, will receive special orders from the Com- 
mander in Chief. 

Third, there will be no general train of supplies, but each 
corps will have its ammunition and provision train, distributed 
habitually as follows: — behind each regiment should follow one 
wagon and one ambulance; behind each brigade should follow 
a due proportion of ambulances, ammunition and provision 
wagons. In case of danger, each Corps Commander should 
change this order of march, by having his advance and rear 
brigades unincumbered by wheels. The separate columns will 
start habitually at 7 A. M., and make about fifteen miles a day, 
unless otherwise fixed in orders. 

Fourth, the army will forage liberally on the country during 
the march. To this end each Brigade Commander will organize 
a sufficient foraging party, under the command of one or more 
discreet officers, who will gather near the route traveled corn 
or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, vegetables, corn-meal 



350 History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 

or whatever is needed by the command, aiming at all times to 
keep in the wagons at least ten day's provisions for his com- 
mand, and three day's forage; soldiers must not enter the 
dwellings of the inhabitants, or commit any trespass; but dur- 
ing a halt or camp, they may be permitted to gather turnips, 
potatoes or other vegetables, and to drive in stock in sight of 
camp ; to regular foraging parties must be entrusted the gather- 
ing of provisions and forage, at any distance from the road 
traveled. 

Fifth, to Corps Commanders alone is entrusted the power to 
destroy mills, houses and cotton gins, etc., and for them this 
general principle is laid down in districts and neighborhood.* 
where the army is unmolested ; no destruction of such property 
should be permitted; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers 
molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, 
obstruct roads or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army 
commanders should order and enforce devastation more or less 
relentless, according to the measure of such hostility. 

Sixth, As for horses, mules, wagons etc., belonging to the 
inhabitants, the cavalry and artillery may appropriate freely 
and without limit; discriminating however, between the rich, 
who are usually hostile, and the poor and industrious, usually 
neutral or friendly ; foraging parties may also take mules or 
horses to replace the jaded animals of their train, or to serve 
as pack mules for their regiments or brigades; in all foraging, 
of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive 
or threatening language, and ma)', when the officer in command 
thinks proper, give written certificates of the facts but no 
receipts: and they will endeavor to leave with each family a 
reasonable portion for their maintenance. 

Seventh, Negroes who are able bodied and can be of service 
to the several columns may be taken along; but each army 
commander will bear in mind that the question of supplies is 
a very important one, and that his first duty is to see to those 
who bear arms. 

Eighth, The organization at once of a good pioneer batallion 
for each army corps comprised, if possible, of negroes should be 
attended to ; this batallion should follow the advance guard, 
repair roads and double them if possible, so that the columns 






History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 851 

will not l>e delayed after reaching bad places; also army com- 
manders should practice the habit of giving the artillery and 
wagons the roads, marching their troops on one side, and in- 
struct troops to assist wagons at steep hills or at the crossing 
of streams. Captain Pae, Chief Engineer, will assign to each 
wing of the army, pontoon trains fully equipped and organized, 
and the commander thereof will see that they are fully pro- 
tected at all times. 

By order, W. T. Sherman, Major-General Commanding. 

General Sherman says we have marched 400 miles this year 
up to the present time. We will now undertake tu describe 
this memorial march to the sea, but before we start out we 
want to state to the reader that we were in the right wing under 
Major-General O. 0. Howard. Our Corps (the Fifteneth) was 
then commanded by Major-General P. J. Osterhaus. Our Di- 
vision (the Second) commanded by General Wm. B. Hazen. 
Our Brigade (the Second) was commanded by Colonel Wells 
S. Jones of the 53rd Ohio. 



THE GRAND MARCH TO THE SEA, COMMENCED. 



November 15, '64. Atlanta, Ga. The army is now cut off 
from all our friends at home. We were called this morning 
long before daylight to be ready to march, no one knows where ; 
if the officers know they will not tell. The men are all jovial 
and hope we will come out on the sea coast somewhere; some 
think we will march across the country and go help to take 
Richmond, Va. We all know Uncle Billy will take us through 
all right whereever we may go, and not suffer any defeat. 
The 47th with the brigade started on the grand march at 7 A. 
M., on the extreme right of the army. We followed the rail- 
road toward Macon. We leave Atlanta behind us smoldering 
and in ruins, the black smoke rising high in the air and hanging 
like a pall over the ruined city. We were cheery and marching 
quite rapidly, and the boys struck up the anthem, John Brown's 
soul goes marching on, and other National airs. We marched 
some ten miles on the railroad, then left it to our right; we 



852 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

marched about sixteen miles in all and went into camp after 
dark in some pine woods. 

November 16. '64. The 47th with the brigade started on. 
our march towards Macon, Georiga, at about 6:30 A. M. 
Our boys as on yesterday sung John Brown and Rally 'Round 
the Flag, and are all very cheerful. On our inarch we passed 
Jonesboro and the town of McDonough. Our brigade was in 
the advance of the corps; we marched some seventeen miles 
and went into camp just beyond McDonough at 3 P. M. It 
was a hard days march ; a good many of our recruits gave out, 
on account they are not used to marching yet, but the march 
was hard on some of the veterans. The boys went out and got 
plenty of sweet potatoes, beans and corn and the like; we find 
plenty to eat thus far. Some of the boys helped some of the 
recruits to carry their things, to help them along. The whole 
country is on fire to our left as far as we can see. 

November 17, '64. Camp near McDonough, Ga. The 47th 
with the brigade remained in camp until 3:30 P. M., for our 
corps to pass; they have been on the march since early this 
morning; after they passed, we marched about twelve miles in 
the direction of Macon, Ga., and went into camp at midnight. 
While marching the white people came out to look at us, and 
the stars and stripes; no doubt some of them still love the old 
Flag, while many of them hate it. The negroes are wild with 
joy, and many of them loud in their prayers of thanks for the 
arrival of the day that betokens liberty to them; they fairly 
went wild with joy when our boys sung Rally 'round the Flag. 
Fires can be seen in all directions, the whole country is on fire. 

November 18, '64. The 47th resumed their mareh at 8 A. M., 
in the direction of Macon. We only marched about ten or 
twelve miles and went into camp at 1 P. M. Here many of 
our boys went out foraging, and some got sweet potatoes, others 
turnips; some found whisky, and those were pretty well corned. 
It was reported some of the boys found bee-hives hid in sweet 
potato patches. General Sherman's order is obeyed by all, 
who have respect for themselves and the welfare of our cause. 
This camp is on the road to Indian Springs and but a few miles 
from it. There was rain during the afternoon, and a portion 
of the night, making the roads very muddy. It was along here 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 353 

that we were ordered to take only the top rails The men all 
understood that part. There are great fires in the pine woods. 

November 19, '64. Indian Springs, Ga. The 47th was called 
up at 2 A. M., and resumed our march toward Macon at 3 A. 
M. We waded a creek knee deep at Indian Springs, marched 
four miles before daylight. Oh, how cold that water was before 
daylight and pouring down rain at the same time. We crossed 
the Ocmulgee River at Ocmulgee mills, marched fourteen miles 
and went into camp at 3 P. M. We are camped where General 
Stoneman was captured last summer. 

November 20. '64. The 47th resumed our march at 10 A. M. 
The 47th Regiment marched in the rear of the wagon train to 
protect it. We passed through Hillsboro at 2P.M. Our regi- 
ment was halted to help the wagon train up the hill ; one ammu- 
nition wagon broke and they burned it and buried the shells. 
It began to rain at dark and rained all night. We kept on 
marching in the mud and rain and dark as pitch until 11 o'clock 
at night, when we went into camp. The roads were so slippery 
it was hard work to stand up and march ; it is the hardest 
marching we have done yet since leaving Atlanta. Fires are 
seen in all directions. We are making Georgia suffer, but the 
enemy, too, are setting things on fire in advance of us. 

November 21 '64. The 47th resumed the march and went 
five miles before breakfast; we made this five miles in a very 
hard rain and deep mud. We then halted for nearly one hour, 
when the march was resumed to Clinton, Ga., where we again 
halted for some time, then again resumed the march, and march- 
ed on until after dark. Rained all day and turned cold at 
night; marched thirteen miles We camped toward the left of 
Macon, Ga. The cavalry are skirmishing on our right. 

November 22, '64. Near Macon, Ga. Snowed this morning 
before day, was very cold and windy, and the 47th resumed 
the march at 8 A. M., marched some two miles, when we heard 
brisk skirmishing to our right, which we learned was done by 
General Kilpatrick's cavalry who is protecting our flank and 
making a feint on the enemy near Macon. Here we were 
ordered to load our muskets and be ready for any emergency. 
We marched on and crossed the Milledgeville and Macon Rail- 
road near Griswald Station. The railroad was torn up and 



354 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

burning hero. We inarched a short distance further and came 
to where ourmen had thrown up breastworks <>f logs and rails; 
here we were halted until 1 P. M. While here Louis Walker 
of Company K. 47th Ohio brought in a Confederate courier 
which he had captured while out foraging. Our Division 
marcher! on three miles farther and went into camp near Gor- 
don Station where the Milledgeville branch of the Macon and 
Savannah Railroad started, while th<^ First Division of our 
Corps remained at the breastworks at Griswald Station, where 
the Confederates attacked them, making two charges, and were 
repulsed each time with considerable loss; our loss wa« several 
killed and wounded The cannonading pretty brisk for near 
one hour, when the enemy retreated Marched nine miles to- 
day. 

November 23, '64. Near Gordon, Ga The 47th resumed 
the march at 8:30 A. M., passed Gordon Station, went some 
five miles when our regiment was left to guard the wagon train. 
Here we remained until afternoon and went into camp on the 
road to Irvington at 3 P. M.. and threw up breastworks. We 
marched about nine miles to-day, found plenty of sweet potatoes 
In order that we may know the state of affairs in Georgia at 
this bine on page 360 — 

General W. T. Sherman says, his two wings were then (Nov- 
ember 23rd) practically together; the left at Milledgeville. 
and the right at Gorden's Station, twelve miles distant, and 
he regarded the first stage of his grand march as successfully 
accomplished. It was here that General Sherman learned 
from Southern newspapers something of the consternation 
which his bold movement and invasion was creating. The 
calls for aid were most frantic, and they demanded that the 
entire South should rise up in its majesty and attack the foe, 
front, flank and rear; that it should be starved by the destruc- 
tion of provisions of every kind; that all bridges should be 
burned and all roads obstructed; that nothing should be left 
of the independent host, which at any rate, was only covering 
up a tricky design for escape with its life by fleeing across 
country to the protection of the Union fleets on the coast. On 
the 18th Govenor Brown informed Jeff Davis that "a heavy 
force of the en^my was marching on Macon, burning towns and 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 355 

laying waste the country. We have not sufficient force, I hope 
you will send re-enforcements till the emergency is past." 

We found the following printed in the Confederate newspaper 
captured. The following was General Beauregard's Proclama- 
tion to the People of Georgia : 

"People of Georgia — Arise for the defense of your native soil. 
Rally around your patriotic govenor and gallant soldiers. Ob- 
struct and destroy all the roads in Sherman's front, flank and 
rear, and his army will soon starve in your midst. Be confident, 
be resolute, trust in the overruling Providence and success will 
crown your efforts. I hasten to join you in defense of your 
homes and fire-sides." 

Senator Hill's appeal read thus : 

People of Georgia — You now have the best opportunity 
ever yet presented to destroy the enemy; put everything at the 
disposal of our Generals, remove all provisions from the path 
of the invaders and put till obstructions in his path ; every 
citizen with his gun and every negro with his spade and axe 
can do the work of a soldier; you can destroy the enemy by 
retarding his march. Georgians, be firm! act promptly and 
fear not 1 ' ' 

Six members of Congress at Richmond joined in the follow- 
ing appeal : 

''We have had a special conference with President Davis 
and the Secretary of War, and are able to assure you they 
have done and are doing all they can to meet the emergen- 
cy that presses upon you; let every man fiy to arms. 
Remove all negroes, horses, cattle and provisions from Sher- 
man's Army and burn what you cannot carry; burn all 
bridges and block up the roads in his route, assail the invader 
in front tiank, and rear; and let him have no rest. 

We will now proceed with our march through Georgia JTlie 
orders were for the right wing under General Howard to follow 
the line of the Central or the Savannah Railroad, by roads 
to the south of it, and for the left wing under Slocum to move 
by roads to the north of said railroad, and threaten Millen 
and Augusta, Ga. And now we go with the right wing; see how 
the enemy destroyed provisions, burned bridges and obstructed 
roads. We will see how treason fled before us on this march. 



856 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 

November 24, '64. Very frosty and cool morning for Dixie. 
Resumed our march at 11:30 A. M., marched some six miles 
and encamped in sight of Irvington ; went into camp just before 
getting to the place, and threw up breastworks of logs and 
rails; found plenty of sweet potatoes and vegetables. We only 
marched about six miles, and some of our boys are singing 
Tramp, Tramp, the boys are marching on, and John Brown's body 
lies moldering in the grave, while others are bringing an abun- 
ance of forage, etc. The following has been kindly furnished 
by Louis Walker, of Company K, 47th Regiment Ohio. 

Headquarters Department Army of the Tennessee 
Gordon, Ga., November 2£, '64- 

Major-General W. T. Sherman 

Commanding Military Division of the Mississippi 

1 have dispatches this moment received, which I enclose. 

0. 0. Howard, Major-General 

The above refers to important dispatches captured by Louis 
Walker of Company K on the person of Lieutenant Crisp, cap- 
tured at Cross Keys by Comrade Walker and no doubt saved 
the left wing of our army, for had the enemy got this dispatch 
as intended they would have concentrated in front of our left 
wing, and perhaps would have been beaten or driven away from 
us, and no one could predict the outcome. But as it was, 
Comrade Walker captured the dispatch and Lieutenant Crisp, 
who had been Speaker of the House of Representatives at 
Washington, D. C. 

Copy of Dispatch. 

General Beauregard, care of W. M. Brown, Govenor. 
m Augusta, Ga. 

Yours of the 24th November received. It is possible that 
the enemy if short of supplies may make directly for the coast. 
When that is made manifest, you will be able to concentrate 
your forces upon the one object, and I hope if you cannot de- 
feat his attempt, that you may reduce his army to such condi- 
tions as to be inefficient for further operations until Hood 
reaches the country proper of the enemy. He can scarcely 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 357 

change the plans for Sherman's or Grant's campaigns. They 
would, I think, regard the occupation of Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky as of minor importance. 

President J. Deivis. 

The reader will readily observe from the above dispatches 
and appeals from the leading Confederates that they were do- 
ing every thing in their power to check Sherman's Army, and 
all their appeals thus tar have not amounted to anything, and 
we have every reason to believe that General Sherman will lead 
us safely and victoriously to the sea coast at some point . 

November 25, '64. Near Irvington, Ga. The 47th resumed 
the march at 7:30 A. M. We moved a short distance, then 
came to a halt for one hour, then again resumed the march and 
passed through irvington, Ga., then passed the First Division 
of the b ifteenth Army Corps and part of the wagon train of 
the Seventeenth Army Corps. We marched some fifteen miles 
and encamped in a pine forest. At 3:30 P. M., while passing 
through Irvington the slaves fiocked to see us (the Yanks) and 
they sang and danced for joy, De Kingdom Comin'. Our boys 
still found plenty of sweet potatoes, some chickens and geese. 
Oh, how the slaves shouted when they heard our band playing 
and saw Old Glory. We heard artillery and musketry tiring in 
our front before and after dark. It is, we suppose, at the 
O'Conee River; the enemy's cavalry are trying to dispute our 
crossing the River. Great fires still prevail in all directions. 

November 26, '64. Camp in Pine Swamp, Ga. The 47th 
lay in camp until nearly dark, when we resumed our march 
and went some six miles and crossed the O'Conee River about 
10 P. M., marched a short distance beyond the river and again 
went into camp in a Pine Swamp Georgia now seems to be all 
swamps. The reason why we lay in camp to-day until night 
was because our men had to corduroy each side of O'Conee River 
for a half mile on either side and then lay a pontoon 
across it. 

November 27 to 30, '64. The first two days we marched 
twelve miles each day. On the 29th we marched about twenty 
miles. We started each day at the usual hour of 7 A. M. ; we 
saw nothing of importance those three days but wild pine woods 



•'!•> History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

interspersed here and there with almost impenetrable swamps, 
with here and there a lonely cabin, and we found no opposition 
by the enemy. We are marching, we are told, towards the 
Ogeechee River, or towards Savannah. 

November 30 to December 2, '(34. The march commenced 
each day at 7 A. M., and making our fifteen miles daily. 
The scene was wilder than heretofore; we saw nothing but wild 
pine woods and great swamps. The writer put it down in his 
diary: Saw nothing but five cabins in the days above named; 
the pine timber seemed to be one hundred feet high without a 
limb, and the tops did not look larger than an umbrella. The 
pine straw was deep and hard to march over, and in this pine 
straw there were American scorpions; some of the boys found 
some in their knapsacks or in their beds. Dr. S. P. Bonner 
caught two in a bottle and sent them to his home in Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

December 3, '64. The 47th only marched four or five miles 
and arrived at Scarboro, Ga. ; here we rested the greater part 
of the day, and learned that the enemies' cavalry was again in 
our front. General Sherman says, by December 3rd the Four- 
teenth Corps was at Lumpkin's Station, fourteen miles north of 
Millen. On the same day, Sherman entered Millen with the 
Seventeenth Corps, and halted to hear from his other corps. 
General Slocum came in with the Twentieth at Buckhead Church 
four miles north of Millen, while General Howard was really 
further east than Millen, at a point- opposite Scarboro, on the 
Ogeechee with his Fifteenth Corps; General Sherman therefore 
had his whole army once more concentrated in and around an 
important objective; heretofore he had drawn but little on his 
army stores, having found abundance in the country; his men 
and teams were in excellent condition ; he had traveled two- 
thirds of the distance to the sea; that the gradually changing 
aspect of the country from a richer to a poorer and sandier soil 
would cause him to rely more and more on the stores he carried 
along General Sherman started from Millen, Ga., direct for 
Savannah, Ga., his army marching by four roads, and by right 
and left wing as before. All that looked like war was the occa- 
sional picket firing in our front as we moved forward. 

December 4, '64. Near Mill Creek, Ga. Our army still 



I 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 859 

retain all their old spirits, for as we started out on our march 
this morning they started to sing, Rally 'round the Flag, and 
John Brown's body goes marching nn, etc , but we learned the 
enemy is not very far ahead of us. The 47th Ohio marched at 
7 A. M. We moved in the direction of Savannah; went about 
three miles from Statesboro, Ga., where our foragers were at- 
tacked by the Confederate cavalry and driven back in a perfect 
stampede to our advance; the enemy were some five hundred 
strong. The 17th Ohio formed line of battle and advanced on 
the enemy and received on° volley from the enemy, and 
lost a few killed and some wounded. The 17th Ohio fired 
into the enemy killing and wounding several of their men, who 
left them in our possession ; the enemy took some of our foragers 
as prisoners, and killed some after they had surrendered. We 
marched in all about fifteen miles and went into camp at or 
near Statesboro, Ga. At every swamp we are put to work to 
build corduroy roads for the artillery by chopping the pine 
timber, etc. 

December 5, '64. We are now nearing Savannah. Our ad- 
vance skirmished with the enemy who retreated towards Savan- 
nah, who, as it were, are leading the way there. We did not 
resume our march until 10 A. M., and we marched fifteen miles 
and went into camp at 7 P. M. Were called up in the middle 
of the night; drew four days rations to last six days. Still 
building corduroy roads. A soldier who can't chop will soon 
learn, here. 

December 6, '64. There was reveille at 3:30 A. M. and had 
roll call. The 47th were ordered to be ready to move at 5 A.M., 
but did not move; then marched at 7 A. M., moved forward 
two miles and went into camp in a pine woods, where we threw 
up temporary breastworks of logs ; here we had plenty of sweet 
potatoes and black beans and rice, unhulled. Our advance is 
continually skirmishing and driving the enemy towards Savan- 
nah. The country is very flat and swampy. We began to see 
some live oaks and palm leaves, as we are nearing the sea coast. 

December 7, '64. Camp in a pine woods, Ga. The march 
was resumed at 7 A. M., inarched twelve miles through this 
low flat region, -and went into camp at 4 P. M. We had a very 
hard rain last night; rained again this morning for three hours 



360 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

very hard. Our clothing is nearly all wet, but it will put out 
the firea which are raging from the right to the left wings; 
thousands of acres of pine woods are on fire, fences and every- 
thing in its path is swept by fire, which is done by unprincipled 
men in both armies. The sandy roads were extremely muddy 
and in places very slippery on account of so much rain to-day 
and last night. We drew rations of meat, meal and sweet 
pototoes, collected by our foragers. Rained again after dark. 
Some skirmishing in front by the advance. Some of the boys 
would like to hear from home and what is going on in the 
world and the armies under Lieutenant-General Grant. 

December 8, '64. The 47th resumed the march at 7 : 30 A. 
M. and soon crossed a creek where the Confederates had burned 
the bridge to keep our wagons and artillery from crossing it. 
Our regiment crossed the stream on the sleepers of the bridge. 
We marched very fast in the forenoon, halted one-half hour at 
noon, then resumed the march and waded a. swamp knee deep, 
and about a quarter of a mile wide, then passed Eden Court 
House, went into camp at 3:30 P. M., having marched fourteen 
miles. Our camp was in a pine woods, where we put up breast- 
works of logs. There was skirmishing in front. We are Hear- 
ing Savannah. 

December 9, '64. Camp in a pine woods, Ga. There was an 
alarm last night at about midnight by the enemy firing on our 
pickets. We were called up and fell into line of battle After 
some time, quiet was restored and we stacked arms. The 
skirmishing had been quite brisk for a short time, and a few shots 
with artillery; at 5 A. M. the bugle blew to get ready for the 
march; at 7:30 A. M. started on the march, went on to the 
Canouche River, where the Confederates had partly destroyed 
the bridge, and which our pioneers had to patch with pontoons, 
and about noon our brigade (the Second) and the Third Brigade 
of the Second Division Fifteenth Army Corps, crossed over and 
marched seven miles, then reached the Savannah and Gulf 
Railroad; this was near twenty miles south of Savannah, Ga. 
Our brigade was marched alongside of the railroad at about 
3 P. M., and then came to a halt and the order was for every 
man to take hold of a railroad tie ; then at the command we 
turned the railroad upside down ; while this was being done, 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. B63 

tine man in Company E wis struck in the bowels by a tie, 
some of the spikes coming out. We threw rails of pine in the 
track then set the whole mass on fire. After we had destroyed 
four or five milesofthe railroad in this manner, we moved. alone 
the railroad towards Savannah about five miles and burned 
several bridges and trussel works, then we turned to our left on 
a road and marched back and crossed on the same bridge we 
had crossed at noon, and went into camp at 10 P. M. Drew 
■some sweet potatoes and got orders to be ready to march at day- 
light. 



BATTLE OF SAVANNAH, GEORGIA. 

December 10, '61. The 47th was called up at 4 A. M., to be 
ready to march at daylight, but marched at 8 A. M., when 
we re-crossed the Canouchee River, and marched down the same 
stream and crossed the Ogeechee River just above the mouth 
of the Canouchee River on a long bridge which had been 
destroyed by the enemy, only the bents of the bridge remained. 
On these boards were laid for the foot bridge ; this was done 
by our pioneers. We inarched one mile after crossing the river 
and halted for dinner, then resumed the march on the direct 
road for Savannah, and marched some four miles, then again 
halted until near dark, then again marched and passed the 
Fifteenth Corps headquarters, and went into line of battle at 
7 P. M. Our position was in reserve to our corps, and within 
ten miles from Savannah. Artillery firing all day. The posi- 
t ion of our army is as follows : the Fourteem h \rmy Corps on the 
extreme left on the Savannah River, on the right of the Four- 
teenth is the Twentieth Army Corps, on the right of the Twen- 
tieth is the Seventeenth Army Corps, and on the extreme right 
was the Fifteenth Army Corps, thus completing the invest- 
ment of the city of Savannah, and we think in a few days 
Savannah will be in our possession, and we will once more be 
in communication with our friends, and will have the Confed- 
eracy cut in two, again. It looks like the war would soon end, 
as it seems the enemy is demoralized and are losing all their 
territory. 



362 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

Rattle of Savannah. Georgia — Continued. 

December 11, "04. At daylight the skirmishing began in our 
front, and soon after the artillery opened on both sides and so 
continued from time to time during the day: we got orders to 
wash as we could not move to-day. It rained very hard last 
riighl and this forenoon, so much so that our clothing and 
blankets are wet; turned cool in the afternoon and gave us a 
chance to gel them partly dried. 

December 12, '64:. Savannah, Ga. Monday. We are still 
in the saint* position to our corps (the Fifteenth.) The skir- 
mishing and artillery firing is continued. Our army is pressing 
the enemy closer each day ; quite a large foraging party was 
sent out this morning from our regiment, and at 5:30 P. M., 
marched to the Ogeechee River and encamped. 

Now, in order that the reader may understand the situation 
here, we will see what General Sherman says : — The Savannah is 
twenty miles from the sea, s< uith-westof it ; and twelve miles dis- 
tant runs the Ogeechee River, paralleling the Savannah River. 
The Ogeechee River empties into Ossabaw Sound; on its high 
banks is Fort McAllister commanding the river and sound. All 
the country about Savannah is low and marshy. The Confeder- 
ate entrenchments extended with windings to conform to the 
sluggish creeks all tfte way from Fort McAllister to above 
Savannah on the river. The only land approaches to the city 
were by five narrow causeways, two of which were devoted to 
railroads ; all these were commanded by artillery and obstructed 
by fallen trees, by means of reconnoitering parties, and by dint 
of great perseverance, General Sherman made out the lines 
of defence and found them all backed and fronted by canals, 
ditches, and bayous; an assault could only be made at great 
disadvantage and with possibility of failure. General Sherman 
therefore saw that it was of vital importance to open up com- 
munications with the fleet, which he had reasons to believe 
was somewhere near in some of the sounds, and perhaps in 
Ossabaw. So, on December 18th, he ordered General Slocum 
to press the Siege of Savannah, and ordered General Howard 
to send a division to take Fort McAllister. 

Now we will return to our diary, and will see that our Division, 
the Second of the Fifteenth Corps was the one sent. 



History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 86B 



THE BATTLE OF FORT MCALLISTER, GEORGIA. 

December 13, '64. Near Ogeechee River. The Sh<> »nd Divi- 
sion of the Fifteenth Army Corps, commanded by General Win. 
B. Hazen, came here List night and went into c imp nearOgen- 
chee River Bridge. This morning at 7 A M. th • division fell 
in line, and crossed the Ogeechee River on King's Bridge to the 
right bank, then marched down the right bank toward Fort 
McAllister, which was about ten miles down the river, and only 
4i few miles above, where the river empties into Ossabaw Sound 
After marching down some six mile*, we came to General 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry; some of the men told us there was a lit- 
tle' sand fort down there for us to take. We marched on quite 
rapidly and cheerfully and confident of taking the fort, and 
thereby open communications with our fleet, which we were 
told was just below the fort. The 47th Ohio was in the advance 
•of the division. When we were within about one-half mile of the 
fort, we .captured one or two prisoners of the enemies' out- 
post: these prisoners were marched in the advance in front, and 
they showed us where they Cj had planted torpedoes to blow 
up the Yankees with, and Colonel Parry placed a guard 
and the column was marched around that place, and thereby 
saved many lives. At about 12 M. our regiment arrived within 
about one-half mile of the fort, in a piece of timber. The rejn- 
ment was immediately formed in line of battle and ordered to 
remain th^re on the banks of Ogeechee River, and the division 
formed on us. Captain Win. E. Brachmann of Company F. 
was ordered by Colonel Parry to take his company out and de- 
ploy as skirmishers. Accordingly we deployed, and Captain 
Brachman advanced on the fort, but not a shot was fired until 
the writer got his platoon of said company within gun shot 
range and under the enemies guns bearing directly on our brig- 
ade, he fired his musket (which was the first shot) at a gray 
mule and killed the mule : that shot opened the skirmish, which 
was continued until about 5 P. M. The ground between the 
47th and the fort was open ; the order of battle was : The 47th 
Ohio on the extreme left, its flank resting on the Ogeechee 
River; in the center of the brigade the 54th Ohio; on the right 
the 111th Illinois; in the center of the division was the Third 



864 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

Brigade, and on the extreme right of the division was the First 
Brigade. Fort McAllister had over twenty guns, which with 
the exception of those on the river front wereenbarbette; thir- 
teen of them could be brought to bear on our brigade. Captain 
Brachmann seeing the division formed for the charge at 5 P. 
M., passed th" order along his skirmish line to fire on the enemy 
as fast as possible, and when the regiment came up to our skir- 
mish line every one m Company F was to come together and 
take their place in the regimental line, which order was strict- 
ly obeyed, and at 10 minutes to 5 o'clock P. M. the bugle was 
sounded, and the division advanced on the double-quick; with 
cheers the enemy opened rapidly with his inland guns, but so 
effective was the fire of our skirmish line under Captain Brach- 
mann, that altogether our regiment had to pass over the cleared 
ground and climb the fence; very little damage was done, but 
many in the division were blown up with torpedoes which the 
enemy had planted around the fort. But we went right on, 
and as the 47th regiment approached the fort it was discovered 
by our officers that the enemy had neglected to construct his 
line of abattis to low water mark, and it being ebb tide, there 
was an unobstructed passage on the beach. 

Colonel A. C. Parry immediately swung the wings of the 
regiment together, and the Colonol and Major Taylor leading, 
we scaled the parapets from that front with a cheer, and tak- 
ing the land batteries in flank and reverse; it required two vol- 
leys from the regiment before the enemy abandoned his guns, 
and he retreated to the bomb proofs within the fort. In our 
pursuit of the enemy into their bomb proofs, Major Thos. T. 
Taylor was severely wounded in his right hand. The division 
was now all within the Fort, and for a short time were all en- 
gaged in fierce hand-to-hand encounter, fighting with the bayonet 
and the butt of muskets. The enemy surrendered only as they 
were overpowered; the commander of the Fort, together with 
250 men, surrendered. We captured 14 siege guns and 12 field 
pieces and 300 muskets and a large amount of ammunition and 
two month's provisions, and we have gained another base and 
opened up our cracker line, and communication with our fleet 
and the world, and given General Wm. B. Hazen another star. 
The loss in the 47th Ohio was reported as two killed and sixteen 



History of the 47th Uegiment O. V. V. I. 365 

wounded — among them was our gallant Major. The loss of 
the division was 24 killed and 110 wounded ; among the wounded 
was Colonel Wells S. Jones, commanding our brigade. General 
Sherman soon came over and shook General Hazen by the 
hand; that night they communicated with our fleet, and sent 
the glorious news to Washington. At about 7 P. M. we marched 
back up the river near one mile and encamped for the night. 
A contest arose between the 47th and the 70th Ohio as to 
whose colors were first planted on Fort McAllister ; the witnesses 
of the assault, while at the Fort inquired into the matter; 
several of General Hazen's staff who were overlooking the en- 
tire movement, decided that the colors came up first from the 
river front, and as the 47th Ohio alone assaulted from that 
front, it was its colors that first reached the Fort. 

Captain Bremfoeder of Company B writes February 10th, as 
follows : ''I had the pleasure, although it was not a very pleasant 
outlook, previous to the assault ! o be one of the very first to 
mount the fortifications of Fort McAllister, Ga., where our 
flag was certainly the first Union Flag planted, or rather, cross- 
ing the parapets." General Sherman says ; it was a memorable 
night, that of December 13, 1864; General Sherman felt that 
his March to the Sea had really ended; he took advantage of 
his time while aboard of the boat (below Fort McAllister) to 
telegraph the Secretary of War, that Ossabaw Sound had been 
opened by the capture of Fort McAllister ; that he had opened 
communications with the fleet ; that he had completely destroyed 
all railroad communications, and had invested Savannah ; that 
his men were in good trim ; that now Fort McAllister was taken 
he could go ahead ; that already two gunboats had been captured 
on the Savannah River, and the rest prevented from coming 
down, and the opening of communications with the fleet dis- 
sipated all the Confederate boasts to head him off and starve 
his army; that he regarded Savannah as already gained. The 
same night he met General Foster who had come up the sound 
to communicate with him, and he promised to forward with 
all speed the clothing and supplies destined for Sherman's 
Army, together with heavy guns for the reduction of the city 
of Savannah. On the 15th, General Sherman returned to his 
lines. One month had elapsed since he had started from 



866 Hr story op the 47th Reoimknt O. V. V. I. 

Atlanta on the grand March to the Sea : in that eventful month 
we had broken up the connection lietween the Confederate 
forces east and west of Georgia by the destruction of over 200 
miles of railroads; had consumed the available provisions in a 
territory 50 miles wide hy 800 in length : had liberated a count- 
less number of slaves and carried away 10,000 horses and mules; 
ha 1 destroyed one hundred million dollars worth of property; 
our herd of 5000 rattle at the start had augmented to 10,000. 
Our total loss during the entire march was only 103 killed, 42S 
wounded and 278 missing 



Incidents of Fort McAllister, Ga. 

One of the bravest acts that came under ray observation 
during the war was performed by Louis Shuttinger of Company 
A. He was on the skirmish line just before the assault on 
Fort McAllister, and the skirmishers ran out of cartridges. 
Shuttinger volunteered to go for s^me ; when he got to where 
the ammunition was, he pulled off his blouse and filled it with 
packages of cartridges, and returned under cover of the River 
bank until reached the end of the line, which deployed at 
right angles to the river; here he was compelled to get on top 
of the bank, and in full view of the enemy, so he called 
out, "Keep them down, boys, here I come" and deliberately 
walked along the line dropping the cartridges to the men as he 
passed. Even the Confederates seemed to think him too brave 
to shoot at. Shuttinger was our smallest man, but he had the 
heart of a lion. 

Statement by Captain J. H. Brown Company A 47th Regi- 
ment Ohio, as to the 47th Regiment Ohio's flag being the first 
flag on Fort McAllister Ga. : 

There was a dispute among the officers of the different regi- 
ments as to who went into the Fort first, and as several claimed 
the honor, it was decided to leave it to the Confederates. Ac- 
cordingly we went down to where the prisoners were and asked 
them about it. The officer who surrendered said to Captain 
Brown, that, of course, they could not tell anything about the 
different regiments, but that the captain and the men with him 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 367 

were the first Yankees in the Fort. Major Anderson, the com- 
mander, confirms this decision. 

The flag of the 47th is the one spoken of by General Sherman 
as the first to meet his view from his post of observation, on 
the old rice mill across the river. (See the account by George 
Ward Nickals in his book, The Story of the Great March. 

The following incidents of our march to the sea coast from 
Atlanta, Ga., to Savannah, and incident of the Battle of Fort 
McAllister was written by one of the recruits who came to th^ 
47th Ohio Regiment in October A. D. 1864. 

"I know I am speaking the sentiments of every recruit when 
I say that there was nothing that could be done to make 
us feel at home, and to impart to us the true spirit of a 
soldier that you boys did not do ; when I remember how patient 
you were in drilling us, how you advised us in al' that was 
manly, and especially us young boys who were not yet eighteen 
years old and needed the care and influence of matured minds 
to advise and instruct — and how well you did this ; I 
recall a circumstance that took place soon after leaving 
Atlanta for the sea. When our rations were issued late in the 
night after a hard days march, when one of our company who 
had veteranized, and whose business it was to draw the rations 
for the company and when he returned to where the b:>ys were 
sleeping and dreaming of home, etc., instead of awakening the 
boys and distributing to each his allowance, he said, "Let them 
sleep; they are tired; they have not toughened yet as we have, 
and I will stand guard over them until morning," thus 
depriving himself of sleep and rest the whole night that 
we might sleep, and in the morning distributing to each his 
rations with a word of caution to not eat the five day's rations 
the first day. This is only one of hundreds of such acts of 
kindnesses — and our commanders, how they sought our welfare 
and always made it as easy for us as was possible. I shall 
never forget our advance on Fort McAllister; how Company F 
to which I belonged was advanced as skirmishers, and how 
Sergeant J. A. Saunier, when we reached a point near enough 
to fire, said, "Watch me make the Johnnies get off the works," 
and he brought to his shoulder his trusty rifle and opened the 
fight, that later in the same day when the smoke of battle 



(568 History of the 47'nr Regiment <>. V. V. I. 

cleared away, it was found that our cracker line was opened 
and soon we began to draw rations; thus ended our (recruits) 
first campaign, viz: Sherman's March to the Sea. A few we°ke 
was now spent in drilling and grooming us for another march 
through the Carolinas. Many times when our feet were blister- 
ed and we were unable to keep up. yon old Vets, would take 
our loads and carry them for long distances in order to rest us 
Have seen our Captain Brachman do this many times, and how 
you divided your rations with us. We recruits owe you, old 
comrades. (God bless you) a debt of gratitude that can only bo 
rewarded when you shall be gathered home in glory; and you, 
my dear Comrade Saunier, did not only do your duty as a 
brave soldier at the front but ever since as Secretary and Histor- 
ian you have labored long and hard in keeping the grand old 47th 
Ohio organization together, and to you more than anyone we 
owe this history that shall go down to our posterity as a grand 
memento to our memory, as having belonged to a regiment 
that did as much to save this, the grandest country an undivid- 
ed Union of States with but one emblem, viz; the Glorious 
Red White and Blue, under which we fought, and now, may 
God bless us all and may our declining years be our happiest, 
when we answer to the last roll call, may we be gathered to 
that happy camping ground prepared for the finely faithful 
is the prayer of your unworthy servant." 



REPORT OF THE BATTLE OF FORT McALLISTER, GA 

December, 13, 1864. 

Extract from report of Captain 0. M. Pugh, Chief Engineer Mil- 
lilfirt/ Dirision of the Mississippi. 

Washington, D. C, October 8, 1865. 
On the 11th of December it was decided to attack Fort 
McAllister, as that was the only obstacle to our free communi- 
cation with the fleet in Ossabaw Sound. The enemy had de- 
stroyed the bridge over the Ogeechee, on the Darien wad, com- 
monly known as the "King's Bridge." This was rebuilt by 
by the First Missouri Engineers, under the direction of Captain 
C. B. Reese Corps of Engineers, and Chief Engineer Depart- 



History of the 47th Kegiment 0. V. V. I. 369 

merit and Army of the Tennessee, and on the morning of the 
13th, the Second Division Fifteenth Army Corps crossed over 
and moved along the south bank of the river, reaching the 
vicinity of Fort McAllister in the afternoon. 

As soon as the troops could be properly formed, the assault 
was made and the fort was carried in handsome style. Fort 
McAllister stood on the right bank of the Ogeechee River, 
at the first point of "fast land" met with in ascending the 
stream, and perfectly commanding the channel. The trace of 
the fur was irregular, the water front conforming to the shore 
line and the line of "fast land," while the land front was on 
a regular bastioned trace. The guns, of which there were 
twenty-two, were generally mounted in barbette. The fort 
was provided ®n its land front with a good ditch, having a 
row of stout palisades at its bottom, well built glacis and a 
row of excellent abattis, exterior to which was planted a row 
of eight inch shells arranged to explode when trodden upon. 
These shells were arranged in a single row just outside the 
abattis, and were about three feet from center to center. It 
was impossible to move an assaulting force upon the fort 
without suffering from the explosion of these shells. The 
fact that nearly all the guns were mounted in barbette render- 
ed it much easier to carry it by assault, since our skirmish 
line advancing at a run readily approached within 200 yards, 
and by throwing themselves flat on the ground were well con- 
cealed by the high grass, and could pick off the Confederate 
gumners at their leisure, readily silencing the fire of the fort, 
after which our assaulting force was formed in full view of, 
and not more than 500 yards from, the parapet. 

Official Reports Volume 44 Page 61. 

Report of Colonel James S. Martin, 111th Illinois Infantry 
commanding Second Brigade. 



370 History of the 47th Regiment (). V. V I. 

Headquarters Second ttritj<i<l< , Second Division, 15th Army Corps. 

Savannah^ Ga., January 4' 1865. 

Captain * * broke camp on the morning of the 15th, and 
entered upon the great campaign of the war. Our line of 
march was through McDonough, Hillsborough, Clinton. Irwin- 
ton, Summersville. Statesboro and Eden; crossed the Cannou- 
chee River on the 9th day of December: marched for and 
struck the Gulf Railroad at 3 P. M., partially destroying abou! 
four miles of the same; returned and went into camp near the 
river. On the following morning marched for Savannah, and 
went into camp at cross roads, nine miles west of same, mak- 
ing distance marched 340 miles. 

The march was almost void of the usual hardships, and might 
be termed a pleasure trip. The men were abundantly supplied, 
and manifested no reluctance in obeying General Sherman's 
order, to forage liberally of the country. Remained in camp 
until 4 P. M. of the 12th, when we broke camp and marched 
in the direction of King's Bridge; bivouaced for the night near 
the same, broke camp at 6 o'clock on the following morning, 
and marched for Fort McAllister; halted at 12 M., formed 
line, composed of the 111th Illinois, 54th and 47th Ohio, 37th 
and 53rd Ohio, and 83rd Indiana being held in reserve. Threw 
out skirmishers and advanced to within (500 yards of the fort, 
where the main line was halted and the skirmishers pushed for- 
ward to within range of the fort; remained in this position 
under (ire of the enemies' artillery until 3:30 P. M., when 
Colonel YV. S. Jones, commanding brigade, being in advance 
of the line, was severely wounded, and Captain John H. Groce. 
Acting Assistant Inspector-General, instantly killed — the same 
fnial ball killing Captain Groce and wounding Colonel Jones — 
thereby depriving us of the service of two brave and good 
officers and casting a gloom over the command. I was ordered 
t<> take command and notified to make all necessary prepara- 
tions for an assault, and at the sound of the bugle to charge 
i he works and take the fort. Forward was sounded at 4:30 
and within ten minutes the fort was ours. 

The conduct of the regiments engaged deserve the highest 
praise — not a falter, but steadily on under a withering tire 
until three starry banners waved from the parapets; the gar- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 871 



rison surrendered and Fort McAllister was ours. The Second 
Brigade has a right to claim the honor of planting the first flag 
upon the fort. The 47th Ohio and 111th Illinois each in good 
faith claiming the honor. Each regiment having performed 
their part so nobly, I forbear to make particular mention of 
any. I entered the fort with the advance of my brigade, and 
being the first brigade commander in the works, the same was 
surrendered to me by Major Anderson, and the garrison claimed 
as our prisoners. No flag was found flying in the fort, and 
Major Anderson pledged me his word that he had none ; though 
I learned that afterwards a garrison flag was found hid in the 
bomb-proof. This surrender opened up communications with 
our fleet, and the question of supplies for our army was no longer 
discussed. Casualities in this assault— killed, 4, wounded, 34. 
Marched two miles back and went into camp where we remained 
until the 17th, received orders to march to Mcintosh on Gulf 
Railroad, with instructions to destroy same from Walthourville 
to a point two miles east of Mcintosh. Reached the road at 11 
o'clock on the 18th, went into camp and commenced work, de- 
stroying nine miles of track, twisting every rail and burning 
every tie. Broke camp at 5 :30 o'clock on the morning of the 
21st, marched to cross roads near King's Bridge; receiving 
orders to report with my brigade to General Osterhaus' com- 
manding Corps; halted to issue rations that had been sent, me; 
resumed the march, crossed the river, received official informa- 
tion while on the march that Savannah had been evacuated by 
the enemy and was now in possession of our troops. I bivouaced 
for the night, the campaign being closed. Enclosed you will 
please find list of casualities. I have the honor to be, 
Very respectfully, Your obedient servant 

James S. Martin 
Colonel Commanding 
Captain Gordon Lafland, 

Assistant Adjutant Second Division Fifteenth Army Corps. 
Official Reports Volume 44 Pages 114 and 115. 



M2 



History of the 47th Regiment 0- V- v - L 



Incident of the Battle of Fort McAllister, Ga., Dec. 13, 
1864, as Related by Captain J. H. Brown, of Company A. 
47th Regiment Ohio. 
He says: The assault on Fort McAllister, was the first battle 
of importance our regiment participated in since the regiment 
was filled up with four hundred recruits, near Atlanta, b-a., in 
October last. Captain Brown says he cautioned his m-n to 
keep clo«e to the Veterans (and we know the recruits were all 
thus cautioned.) Then Captain Brown goes on and says when 
the charge was sounded they all started off in fine style some- 
what like old soldiers, and when we reached the fort, which 
was surrounded by a strong chevaw de frieze or abattis a few 
were somewhat scared. The regiment charged around to the 
water front up the fort it being ebb tide, and at the command 
the 47th went up the fort and the old 47th colors were the first 
on the fort. Colonel Parry's and Major Taylor's brave boys 
went on into the fort with a yell. The Confederates were some- 
what panic stricken as the Yanks were coming on in the fort 
in a dozen places on them with bayonets and the butt of our 
muskets,and the hand to hand fighting was terrible for a short 
time and as we drove them from one boom proof to the other 
Captain Brown seeing a fine looking Confederate officer, and 
thinking he was the commander of the fort, demanded his sur- 
render, (but he was not.) The officer handed his sword to the 
Captain, who asked the Confederate officer where the fort flag 
was it having been lowered from the flag staff ; for some reason 
he said he did not know; a Confederate soldier said it was m 
the magazine and went and got it and gave it to Captain 
Brown, who sent it to Cincinnati, Ohio, where it remained 
until our final discharge in August, 1865, when it was sent to 
Columbus Ohio, for safe keeping, where it still remains as 
evidence of the gallantry and bravery of the grand old 47th 

Regiment Ohio. _, «,. 

December 14, '64. Near Fort McAllister, Ga. The 47th 
Ohio Regiment fell into line at 8:30 A. M., and moved some 
fifty yards and went into camp in regular order, with orders to 
remain four days. We went to work and put up our tents and 
the camp was arranged in regular order. Some of the boys 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 378 

made coffee from the Ogeechee River, not knowing the tide was 
up and the coffee was so salty they could not drink it, and 
thereafter they got their water when the tide was out. We took 
the Confederate prisoners back to Fort McAllister to-day, and 
made them take up all the torpedoes placed around the fort 
and the road. 

December 15, '64. In same camp near Fort McAllister, Ga. 
Our transports were at work to-day taking the obstructions out 
of Ogeechee River below Fort McAllister which were placed 
there by the Confederates against our naval vessels. There 
were apples to sell here, three for twenty-five cents. 

December 16, '61. Near Fort McAllister, Ga. To-day our 
gunboats passed Fort McAllister. The river is now free from 
obstructions, and the boats brought the supplies for our army ; 
the boats also brought to us the welcome news, the mail from 
our friends at home: it was the first mail we received for a long 
time, for a month ago yesterday we left Atlanta; the mail from 
our friends brought great rejoicing throughout our army, the 
joy was indeed unbounded. 

December 17, '64. Near Fort McAllister, Ga. This morn- 
ing at 10:80 A. M., the bugles blew to fall in ; we at once struck 
tents, and at 11 :30 A. M., the 47th fell in and marched up the 
Ogeechee Riv<r over the same road we had come down. We 
marched up until we came to the Savannah and Gulf Railroad, 
where we turned to our left and inarched about twelve miles. 
One man in Company B gave out on this march and died to- 
night. We went into camp about sundown with orders to 
march at 6 A. M. to-morrow morning. All of our division is 
in this camp to-night. 

December 18, '64. On the Savannah and Gult Railroad, Ga. 
The 47th had reveille at 4:30 A. M. Started on our march 
about sunrise, marched back nearly one mile, then turned to 
our left and got on a road near the railroad and passed over 
some very bad roads, having two slews nearly a quarter of a 
mile wide, and knee deep to wade through. We went to Station 
No. 8 about thirty miles from Savannah, and here we went in- 
to camp at 1 P. M. Our brigade had six and one-fourth miles 
of the railroad to tear up. In the evening we again received 
mail. The weather very warm for this time of year. The 



:i74 History of the 47tii Regiment, <>. V. V. I. 

brigade went to work at once tearing, burning the railroad, 
twistiug the iron railing and destroying the telegraph wires and 
poles. All this is done to cut off the enemies' communication 
at Savannah. 

December 19, '64. Station No 3, Savannah and Gulf Railroad. 
The 47th Ohio is still destroying the railroad, and we have 
scarcely anything to eat. We drew a few small sweet potatoes 
and something they called beef but looked like mule meat; the 
boys are g tting quite hungry. We heard artillery west of ns 
frequently during the day. It was the First Division of the 
Seventeenth Army Corps who were engaged in destroying the 
railroad like we are. The enemy attacked them but were 
repulsed. 

December 20, '64. Station No. 3. Savannah and Gulf Hail- 
road. The 47th was called up at 4:30 A. M. and marched at 
6 A. M. Marched four miles up the railroad, then halted and 
went to work destroying the railroad, and finished tearing and 
burning our portion of the road; to-night it made a very beau- 
tiful sight to see the railroad on fire as far as one could see 
either way. We burned the ties and heated and twisted the 
iron until it was entirely worthless until the same goes through 
the rolling mill again. 

December 21, '64. At Station No. 3, Savannah and Gulf Rail- 
road. The 47th got orders to be ready to march this morning. 
We fell into line and marched at 7 A. M towards Savannah. 
There was right smart of rain fell in the forenoon, then turned 
cold and very windy. We learned in the evening that the 
Confederates had evacuated Savannah hut we thought the news 
was too good to be true. We marched until we crossed the 
Savannah and Gulf Railroad, and within three miles of King's 
bridge on the Ogeechee River; here we halted to draw rations, 
then marched to King's Bridge, crossed it at dark and halted 
tor the brigade to close up, then again marched about one mile 
and went into camp in a pine thicket for the nignt, having 
marched eighteen miles. 

December 22, '64. The 47th resumed the march towards 
Savannah at 9. A. M., marched to within ten miles of the city, 
then turned to the left, marched one mile and went in camp-; 
remained there but a short time, then got orders to be ready to 






History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 375 

inarch in one hour; when the time came fell into line, when 
the order was countermanded, and ordered to camp in regular 
order, put up tents, etc. The glorious news that tin-" enemy 
had evacuated Savannah was confirmed to-day, and our army 
had marched in and took possession. 

Thus our campaign is ended, and on this date General Sher- 
man sent to the President of the United States his dispatch as 
follows : 

"I beg to present you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savan- 
nah with one hundred and fifty guns, plenty of ammunition and 
about thirty-eight i'ales of cotton, three steamers, locomotives, 
cars and eight hundred prisoners, etc." 

December 23, '64. Near Savannah, Ga. It was so cold last 
night that it froze ice in our canteens. We signed clothing 
bill to-day. We are arranging camp as though we might re- 
main here some time. 

December 24, '64. Near Savannah, Ga. Orders were issued 
to clean up guns and accoutrements and be ready for inspection 
at 9 A. M. to-morrow. Also orders to give out furloughs, one 
man from each company only. 

December 25, '64. Sunday. Christmas Day. Rain this 
morning, after breakfast all was preparation for inspection. The 
regiment was formed into line on the color line at 9 A. M., and 
the regiment was inspected by Colonel A. C. Parry; after which 
the Adjutant read Generals Grant's and Sherman's congrat- 
ulatory order for our late march from Atlanta to this point, 
and our capture of Savannah, etc. The order from General W. 
T.Sherman was as follows: The general commanding an- 
nounces to the troops composing the Military Division of the 
Mississippi, that he has received from the President of the 
United States and from Lieutenant General Grant, letters con- 
vey ing their high sense and appreciation of the campaign just 
closed, resulting in the capture of Savannah and the defeat of 
Hood's Army in Tennessee, In order that all may understand 
the importance of events it is proper to revert to the situation 
of affairs in September last. We held Atlanta, a city of little 
advantage to us, but so important to the enemy that Jetf Davis 
the head of the 'rebellious faction in the South, visited his 
army near Palmetto, and commanded it to regain the place, 



376 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

and also to ruin and destroy us, by a series >f measures which 
he thought to be effectual, that army by a rapid march gained 
our railroad near Big Shanty, and afterwards, about Dalton. 
we pursued it but it moved so rapid'y that we could not over- 
take it, and General Hood led his army successfully far over 
towards Mississippi in hopes to decoy us out of Georgia, but 
we were not thus to be led away by him, and preferred to lead 
and control events ourselves. Generals Thomas and Schofield 
commanding the departments to our rear, returned to their 
posts and prepared to decoy General Hood into their meshes 
while we came on to complete the original journey. We quietly 
and deliberately destroyed Atlanta and all the railroads which 
the enemy had used to carry on war against us, occupied his 
State capital, and then captured his commercial capital, which 
had been so stongly fortified from the sea as to defy approach 
from that quarter. Almost at the moment of our victorious 
entry into Savannah came the welcome and expected news 
that our comrades in Tennessee had also fulfilled nobly and well 
their part, had decoyed General Hood to Nashville, and then 
had turned on him, defeating his army thoroughly, capturing 
all his artillery, great numbers of prisoners and were still pur- 
suing the fragments down to Alabama; so complete a success 
in military operations extending over half a continent is an 
achievement that entitles it to a place in the military history 
of the world. The armies serving in Georgia and Tennessee, 
as well the local garrisons of Decatur, Bridgeport, Chattanooga 
and Murfreesboro are alike entitled to the common honors, 
and each regiment may inscribe on its colors at pleasure Savan- 
nah or Nashville. The general commanding embraces in the 
same general success the cavalry under Stoneman, Burbridge 
and Gillen that penetrated into southwest Virginia. Instead 
of being put on the defensive we have at all points assumed 
tlw offensive and have completely thwarted the designs of the 
enemies of our country. After the order was read the com- 
panies were then marched to their quarters, and there had in- 
spection of arms; here we again received orders for general in- 
spection to-morrow at 11 A. M. Our Christmas dinner was 
bean soup and coffee and hard tack and some very poor beef. 
Rain again in the afternoon. In the evening we received mail 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 377 

from our friends at home, which brought joy to the whole army 
here on Ghristmas day. 

Under the orders established by General Geary, who is in 
command of the city of Savannah, the people are protected in 
life and their property and begin to fe-4 secure, and will soon 
be prosperous under the old flag. 



Major-General P. J. Osterhaus. (Report) 
Savannah, Ga., December 26, 1864. 

Our foraging parties captured a considerable number of 
Confederate officers and soldiers — in one instance secured the 
bearer of important dispatches from General Hardee to General 
Wheeler. 

P. J. Osterhaus, Major-General. 

Captain L. L. Taggart, Assistant Adjutant-General, 
Army of the Tennessee. 



December 26, '64. Near Savannah, Ga. Last night was a 
bad one, the rain poured down all the night long. After break- 
fast all are getting ready for inspection ; was called into line 
at 10 A. M., and was inspected by the Adjutant-General. At 
about 11 o'clock was inspected in our company quarters, one 
company at a time; some of the men were made go and wash 
by details sent with them; in afternoon we had more rain, 
clearing off at dark and got colder. We understand that our 
commissary has to supply the wants of the people in the city, 
and that assistance will soon reach here from New York and 
other northern cities. 



Headquarters Fifteenth Army Corps, 
Savannah, Ga., Dec 26, '64. 

Captain * * *. Fort McAllister was very strong and apparent- 
ly well garrisoned. General Hazen arrived before it at 2 o'clock 
and at 3:45 P. M. he had completed his arrangments »for the 
assault. They proved to be in keeping with that noble soldier. 
When the advance sounded the brave men rushed through a 



378 History of the 47th Regiment (). V. V. I. 

line of torpedoes and heavy abattis, jumped into the wide and 

deep ditch, and climbed in one heroic elan, which secured t hem 
the fort after a few minutes struggle, hut not without a heavy 
loss, mostly occasioned by the explosion of the torpedoes. 

P. J. OSTERHAUS, 

Majok- General U. S. Volunteers. 
Catpain S. L. Taggart 
Assistant Adjutant-General, Dept and Army of the Tennessee. 

Official Reports, Volume 44, Page 88. 

Report of casualities in the Second Division Fifteenth Army 
Corps during the campaign in pursuit of Hood and the Savan- 
nah campaign. 

Commissioned Officers killed 5. wounded 6, missing 1, 
total 12. 

Enlisted men killed 23, wounded 119, missing 49, total 191. 
Aggregate 203. 

Official Reports, Volume 44, Page 95. 

December 27, '64. Near Savannah, Ga. The weather is very 
cloudy with the appearance of rain; our clothing and blankets 
are all wet, but about noon it cleared off and we had sunshine, 
so the 47th Regiment was occupied in the afternoon in drying 
their clothes and blankets. Some of the boys sent to Savannah 
for ink to write to the girl they left behind them, and had to 
pay twenty-five cents a bottle for the ink. We got the good 
news that General Hood's Confederate army was whipped all 
to pieces at Nashville Tennessee by General Pap Thomas and 
his army; also heard that Jeff Davis was very sick and about 
to die, but there certainly couldn't be such good luck; we think 
our work is what makes him sick and before long we think we 
will make him feel much sicker than he is at this time if re- 
ports I >e true. The rumor is we are to go and capture Charleston, 
South Carolina, and part of our army is to go and capture 
Augusta, Ga. Some say we are to go and help take Rich- 
mond. Virginia. 

December 28, '64. Near Savannah, Ga. We received orders 
to drill four hours each day, from 9 to 11 A. M., and from 2 
to 4 P. M. We had a very hard rain in the forenoon and one 
in the afternoon and cleared off in the evening; very cool. 



History of the 47th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 379 

Received orders to be r^ady to march to-morrow morning at 7 
o'clock Our pickets report a very cold time out on duty, 
being unable to find any wood to make a fire. 



Headquarters Departmfnt and Army of the Tennessee 
Savannah; Ga., Dec. 28, '64. 

Captain * * *. Just as the signal officer of the vessel inquired 
if McAllister was ours, we noticed a brisker fire at the fort and 
our flags and men passing the abattis, through the ditch and 
over the parapet, and then we saw the men fire upward in the 
air, and could distinctly hear their cheer of triumph as they 
took possession of the fort. It was a gallant assault. 

0. 0. Howard, 
Major-General Commanding 
Official Reports Volume 44, Page 75. 

December 29, '64 Near Savannah, Ga. The 47th Ohio got 
up early this morning and got breakfast before daylight expect- 
ing to march, and were ready to move at a moments notice. 
Drew three days rations of hard tack and coffee and fresh meat, 
and at 8 A. M. were on our march taking the road towards 
Savannah; went within six miles of the city, again went into 
camp same day about four miles from the city with orders to 
remain here three or four days. Rumors prevail that we are 
to go and assist General Grant to capture Richmond, Va. We 
put up our tents in this new camp, and had to gather dry weeds 
and moss tc put in them as the ground is quite wet;, weather 
disagreeable ; good water very scarce ; wood is also very hard 
to get, none being in sight. 

December 30, '64. Near Savannah, Ga. Orders received to 
have all mail ready by 11 A. M. We drilled from 9 o'clock to 
11 A. M., and from 2 P. M. to 4 P. M., then dress parade im- 
mediately after ; our music was by the 53rd Ohio band; the 
rumor is still going round the camp that we were to go through 
South Carolina to capture Charleston. We received mail in 
evening from our friends at home in God's country. Weather 
clear and cold ; windy. 

December 31, '64. Near Savannah, Ga. We are still in 



380 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

same camp, were mustered at 9 A. M. for two month's pay: 
orders were read to be ready for inspection to-morrow; began 
to rain about 10 A. M. and rained the balance of the day. a 
steady but very cold rain which makes cam]) very disagreeably 
muddy and cold, as wood is scarce and hard to get here. The 
regiment had corned beef and beans and hardtack to-day. 

January 1, '65. Savannah, Ga. New Years way down in 
Georgia <m the sea coast, opened up very cold and windy. The 
ice froze in our hair while washing. Had company inspection 
at 9 A. M., dress parade at 4:30 P. 3VL, at which orders were 
read prohibiting the giving of any more furloughs; orders were 
passed round at 8 P M. to be ready to march at daylight to- 
morrow morning. Weather clear and cold. 

January 2, '65. Savannah, Ga. The bugle sounded at 4 
o'clock this morning. The men were soon up and got their 
breakfast and were ready to march before daylight, but we did 
not march ; after sun up orders came to remain here until 
further orders, and at 12 M. orders came to fall into line, and 
the 47th marched at once in the direction of Savannah. We 
marched to the suburbs of the city, then turned to the right 
and went into a camp on the outside of the old Confederate 
fortifications, which it is said were built near two years ago by 
General Beauregard. The works seem to be well built, and 
would perhaps be very hard work, and great loss of life to 
capture them if the enemy had held them. Our camp is about 
one mile south of the city, and there is not a stick of wood as 
large as your finger within t« r o miles from here. Rumor is we 
are to go and capture Charleston ; some say we are to go to 
Richmond, Va. We find the following in Boyd, the historian, 
in the life of General W. T. Sherman : He says it was on January 
2nd, 1865, that General Sherman felt himself fully authorized 
by his chief to undertake that campaign which was to be known 
as his march through the Carol inas, a campaign far more 
arduous and dangerous than that to the sea, though lost to the 
popular mind in the brilliancy of the latter, he made instant 
preparations for the start; he would send his right wing under 
General Howard by the sea to Beauford, South Carolina, and 
thence twenty-five miles inland to Pocotaligo ; his left wing 
under General Slocum was to cross the Savannah River, and 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 381 

occupy Hardeeville, South Carolina, all this was to be accom- 
plished by January 14th or 15th. Thus we now see there was 
something in those rumors. 

Will now return to our diary written at that time, and from 
our letters and see from them. 

January 3, '65 Near Savannah, Ga. Still in the same camp 
A great many of our boys bought newspapers which are printed 
in Savannah by the Yankee boys. Details were made from 
the companies to clean up the camp grounds. Drew somn 
rations of poor beef. There was some rain during the day. 
Drew some ration of hardtack. 

January 4, '65 Savannah, Ga. We are still in the same 
camp, with the rumor going or increasing that we are to go and 
take Charleston, South Carolina. Began detailing men from 
all the companies in the regiment to work and fix up this new- 
camp in style. Lieutenant 0. G. Shenvin, Company E, was 
honorably mustered out to-day. It was on this date that Colonel 
A. C. Parry made his report to brigade headquarters. 

Report of Colonel Augustus C. Parry, 47th Regiment Ohio, 
of operations November 15, '64 to January 2, '65. 

Headquarters 47th Regiment Ohio 
Savannah, Ga., January 4, '65. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
part taken by the 47th Regiment Ohio in the late expedition 
through the State of Georgia: 

In accordance to orders from superior headquarters, I started 
with the regiment from camp near Atlanta Ga., on the 15th 
day of November 1864, having received a few days previous, 
about 400 drafted men and substitutes, who performed their 
duties in the subsequent campaign to my entire satisfaction, 
and better than I had reasons to expect. During the whole 
march nothing remarkable occured in which the regiment bore 
a conspicuous part until the morning of the 13th of December, 
when the division was ordered to march to and assault Fort Mc- 
Allister, on the Ogeechee River. That day my regiment had 
the advance, and in the afternoon, when orders for the assault 
were given, we had the honor of planting the first stars and 
stripes on the doomed fort. Four days afterwards we partici- 



882 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

pated in tin- destruction of the Savannah, Gulf & Albany Rail- 
road. Returning from said expedition on the afternoon of the 
21st, and entered the suburbs of the city of Savannah on the 
20th of .January, 1865. 

Enclosed I append a list of casualties during the campaign 
I have the honor to be, sir, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
Augustus C. Parky, 
Colonel Commanding 47th Regiment Ohio. 
Captain Frank M. Dennis A. A. A. G. 20th Battery. 

1 man killed, 1 officer and 15 men wounded. Official Records 
Volume 44, Pages 118. 

January 5, '65. Savannah, Ga. We are in the same camp. 
A good many of the boys in the regiment went to Savannah to 
get their breakfast ; some reported they had to wait until 9 
o'clock to get it; they got coffee and some meat and bread and 
butter, for which they were charged two dollars and fifty cents 
in greenbacks for the meal; in the city market there was only 
very poor beef at thirty cents per pound; there were some 
potatoes there, too; they would bring about three dollars per 
bushel. We are engaged getting ready for review at 4 P. M. 
We drilled from 2 to 3 o'clock P. M., and at 3:30 P. M. was 
called into line for review The brigade was formed to the left 
of our camp, we were then reviewed and inspected by General 
Wm. B. Hazen, after which we returned to our camp • had dress 
parade at nearly dark. 

January 6, '65. Savannah, Ga. The 47th was called up at 
4:30 A. M. and had roll call. Details from each company was 
made to go on fatigue at 6 A. M. The regiment formed and 
reported at Division Headquarters. At 7 o'clock A. M. the 
fatigue from all the regiments of our brigade, commanded by 
the Colonel of the 37th Ohio, was marched down to the railroad 
depot in Savannah, and there received orders to march back to 
our camp on account of the heavy rain ; it rained before day- 
light and rained until about noon, then cleared off warm, but 
was very cold before the rains. We drew some clothing to-day 
but only about one-half what was needed. We drilled two 
hours in the afternoon, and had dress parade in the evening. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 383 



January 7, '65. Savannah, Ga. The 47th is still in the 
same camp. This morning our Corps, the Fifteenth Army 
Corps was reviewed by Major-General W. T. Sherman ; the 
General was accompanied by Generals Logan, Osterhaus and 
Hazen. The review was quite hard on many of the boys as we 
marched over nearly every street in Savannah, which is quite 
large. The city is so well shaded by the live oaks and ever 
green trees, that the heat of the sun is not very oppressive, and 
the city viewed from a distance looks like a large forest. 
Savannah is built some fifteen miles up the river of the same 
name; (from its mouth) the river is navigable for large 
steamers and is an important seaport city of the South. The 
torpedoes planted in the river by the enemy are being taken 
out, and fortifications are being built around it, showing that 
some troops will remain here to hold the place. Our brave and 
fearless Corps Commander, Major-General John A. Logan, has 
returned, and to-day again assumed command of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps; we returned to our camp about 3 P. M. and got 
our dinners, and had dress parade in the evening. Something 
less then seventy-five years ago our fore fathers, some of the 
Georgians fought here at Savannah for their independence 
from Great Britain, which independence was finally successful 
and our great Republic established; and they are fighting now 
to destroy that same Republic. We think they will fail in 
their treasonable war, for it appears to us the rebellion is at 
this time on its last legs, and must soon surrender. Our camp 
to-night is lively with bands playing and the boys singing, The 
Girl I left behind me, and Rally round the Flag in all directions. 

January 8, '65. In Camp Savannah, Ga. The several com- 
panies in the regiment had inspection by company officers. 
Weather quite cold and we have no wood. Details were made 
to go out and chop and haul wood into camp to-day ; most of 
the boys had bean soup for dinner; drew some rations; dress 
parade in the evening. 

January 9, '62. In Camp Savannah, Ga. Not much doing, 
only camp and picket duties. Drew some beef that looked like 
mule meat. Some of our boys went to town and bought 
condensed milk for one dollar per can ; the can was small, too; 
one-fourth of a pound of soda for twenty-five cents to make 



884 History of the 47th Regiment (). V. V. I. 

our slap jacks; rice brings twenty-five cents per quart; every- 
thing sells at about this proportion here. There is a strong 
rumor that we will march to-morrow morning; dress parade 
in the evening. The day was cloudy and cool with some rain 
during the day and evening. 

January 10, '65. Savannah, Ga. The 47th still remained 
in the same camp. This morning received orders to go to 
work on breastworks around the city, and were called up at 4 
o'clock, but did not go out until 6:30 o'clock; we then 
marched to Brigade Headquarters where we remained a long 
time. At 8 o'clock we marched from Brigade Headquarters to 
the railroad depot in the city, where we got picks and shovels, 
then went below city and went to work on the fortifications by 
reliefs ; while thus employed there came up an extreme hard 
shower of rain in the afternoon, and we were relieved and 
returned to our camp. Soon after the rain the order for in- 
spection to-morrow ; turned very cool in the evening. 

January 11, '65. Savannah, Ga The 47th is still in the 
same camp; was called up at five o, clock this morning to draw 
rations for four days. The order for inspection to-day was 
postponed until to-morrow at 1 P. M. Received orders for 
every enlisted man to have a musket, to include teamsters 
and hospital stewards and all ; details were sent from the 
regiment to work on the fortifications. The order for all to 
carry a musket, and the fortifying the city so strongly surely 
means that a winder campaign will be commenced soon 
That part of the regiment who remained in camp had to drill 
in the forenoon ; in the afternoon we drew some more clothing. 
Drnss parade in evening; weather cloudy, cold and disagreeable. 

January 12, '65. Savannah, Ga. Details were again called 
for from the regiment to go and work on the fortifications 
around the city of Savannah ; they worked north of the city 
to-day. The fatigue parties were relieved and returned to 
camp about sun down. Orders received to-day for three hours 
drill each day, so the recruits may know the ways of military 
life, which is very tough under General Hazen ; also received 
orders for inspection at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. There 
are very strong rumors around the camp that we are to march 
soon, perhaps to go and capture Charleston, South Carolina. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 385 

Some say we will go by steamers to join General Grant's 
forces operating near Richmond, Virginia. 

Januai'y 13 '65. Savannah, Ga. The inspection took place 
this morning at 9 o'clock ; we were inspected by the Adjutant 
of our brigade, and it took him until 11 A. M. to get through 
with our regiment. There were 240 men from our regiment 
sent to work on the fortifications of Savannah. There must 
be some truth in the rumors of yesterday from the rumors 
afloat to-day and the works going up around the city At 
dress parade in the evening there was read to us a con- 
gratulatory order, the same being a joint resolution passed by 
Congress, which read as follows: 

"That the thanks of the people and of the Congress of the 
United States arc due, and are hereby tendered to Major-Gen- 
eral William T. Sherman, and through him to the officers and 
men under his command for their gallantry and good conduct 
in their late campaign from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and the 
triumphal march, thence through Georgia to Savannah, termi- 
nating in the capture and occupation of that city, and that 
the President cause a copy of this joint resolution to be- 
engrossfd and forwarded to Major-General Sherman." 

Approved January 10, 1865. 

Orders were received at 8 P. M. to be ready to march at 6 
o'clock to-morrow morning. The regiment drew some more 
clothing during the day. 



Commencement of the South Carolina Campaign. 

January 14, '65. Savannah, Ga. The 47th Regiment was 
called up at 4 o'clock this morning and formed the companies 
at 6 A. M. by the sound of the bugle. We marched through the 
eastern portion of Savannah. Good bye, city, we may never see 
thee again, for we marched out on the road towards the 
Savannah River, and marched to Fort Thunderbolt some four 
miles below Savannah, and on the river of the same name. 
We went into camp at Fort Thunderbolt to await transportation 
by steamship to Richmond, Va. Some say we are going to 
Beaufort, South Carolina, to get in the rear of Charleston, 
South Carolina. However, we will find out not later than to- 



386 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

morrow. We went into camp at Fort Thunderbolt to await 
transportation hy steamer to some point; here we put up our 
tents. After dinner most of the men went down to the boat 
landing to see if we could see the Atlantic Ocean, but could 
see nothing but the bay. We examined the Fort and found it 
to be a very strong one ; it seems to have been built to com- 
mand the Savannah River. There wen- fifteen heavy guns in 
the F<»rt which had been spiked by the Confederates, when 
they evacuated Savannah. In the evening the men gathered 
the long hanging moss to sleep on. Weather very cool with 
very high winds. General W. T. Sherman says, who having 
rested with his army at Savannah, was prepared to march 
through the Carolinas. The preliminaries being arranged, he 
sent part of his army in transports to Beaufort, South Carolina, 
in the middle of Janurry. 

January 15, '65. Fort Thunderbolt, Ga. The high winds 
fell last night, the weather clear and cold, there was ice 
froze one-fourth of an inch thick. We had inspection early 
in the morning. Orders came at 7 P. M. to be ready to march 
immediately; soon the word came to fall in. We then marched 
down to the boat landing on the Savannah River, and when we 
got there only seven companies of the regiment got aboard 
of the steamer Ceres. Three companies of the left wing of our 
regiment were sent back to camp at Fort Thunderbolt, with 
all the baggage were left behind. The seven companies aboard 
the steamer proceeded down the Savannah River in the Sound. 
We saw old Fort Pulaski from a distance, then we were soon 
out of sight of land for some time; after a time we again saw 
land and were told that it was Hilton Head, South Carolina. 
At this point we saw many ships and some men ©f war. Many of 
the boys were sick on this sea voyage. We arrived at Beaufort . 
and at about 12 o'clock M. disembarked at once and marched 
through the town and went into camp on the Charleston Road 
to await the balance of the regiment, and our wagons and 
baggage. Our camp is about two miles from Beaufort, South 
Carolina, and on January 17th, at night the other three com- 
panies came in on the same steamer, and on the 18th, our 
horses, wagons and baggage also arrived from Savannah, and 
all of the army commanded by Major-General 0. 0. Howard 






History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 387 

will be here shortly. Our army is firmly established on the 
soil of the proud little State of South Carolina the cradle of 
the Rebellion. No one knows our destination as yet; we are 
in camp here on very low ground, and when the tide goes down 
we can go on the mud and get all the oysters we need. The 
great trouble the rain has been pouring down most of the 
time for over a week which has caused us to suffer with our 
wet clothing; then, generally after these rains the weather gets 
very cold, causing very much sickness and fever. 

January 19, '65. Beaufort, South Carolina. To-day our 
baggage and tents arrived, and we put up our tents, and went 
out and pulled grass to put in our tents to keep ourselves out 
of the mud, and it is still raining, dreary and cold, and wood 
very hard to get. 

On January 19th, 1865. General Sherman gave final orders 
for a forward movement; at once he was confronted with for- 
midable obstacles. It had been raining incessantly and the 
roads were nearly impassable. The rivers were high, and 
when a river is high in that region, it means the overflow of 
extensive tracts, and the filling up of innumerable small 
bayous and waterways. Almost, if not quite two weeks elapsed 
before General Sherman's forces were able to move according 
to orders. We will now resume and write from our diary, 
written while in service. 

We will now soon make South Carolina suffer as we did 
Georgia. If rumor be true, we are to march and capture 
Charleston or Columbia, the cradle of the Rebellion. Thus 
far, what we have seen of South Carolina is low marshy ground, 
very brushy, and in places it is timbered with low scrubby pine 
bushes, with moss hanging down from the timber. This moss 
hangs like a funeral pall. 

January 20, '65. Near Beaufort, South Carolina. We hear 
we may remain several days here. Still raining; it rained 
all of last night ; made us wet and cold as we can hardly 
get any wood to make fires and what we can get is so wet that 
it will hardly burn, and a good many of the men in the regi- 
ment went to bed early in the afternoon to keep warm and dry 
in our dog tents. 

January 21, '65. We are still in the same camp. We drew 



383 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

five days rations of everything. It rained again all day so we 
can't cook the rations. The camp is nearly flooded; it quit 
raining in the evening and turned very cold. 

January 22, '65. Still in same camp Received orders for 
inspection at 9 o'clock A. M. The order was soon counter- 
manded, and we were ordered to ditch the camp of our regi- 
ment, which was completed before noon, after which we 
received orders to be ready for review at 8 P. M., by General 
Hazen. It rained some in the forenoon, and began to ram 
again at 8 P. M.,but we had to be reviewed all the same. Colonel 
Parry was quite mad to be called out in the rain and mud, as 
was also the regiment 

January 23. '65. Still in the same camp. Received orders 
for division drill at 2 P. M., at which time the 47th marched 
two miles toward Beaufort, to find suitable grounds to drill on. 
We were drilled by General Hazen, our Division Commander. 
There were some very awkward movements made, on account 
of the ignorance it is said, of our field officers. Colonel A. C. 
Parry was not on drill; the regiment was under the command 
of Captain Elex Campbell. We returned to camp about sun 
down. Clear and cold. 

January 24, '65. We are still in the same camp Looks to 
us like we are a long time going to capture Charleston ; but 
hark, orders received this morning to be ready to march at 7 
o'clock, and we will now march toward Charleston or Columbia, 
South Carolina, so we tried to dry our tents and some of our 
clothing, and we fell in line and marched at 8 A. M., part of the 
time on the double-quick. We went only about three and one- 
half miles towards Charleston, then went into camp on a nice 
dry pine ridge. Our division was scattered out along the road 
to repair it, indicating that the army would all move in this 
direction soon. It was very windy and cold. General W. T. 
Sherman passed us to-day going to the front with his staff, 
lookout for something soon. 

January 25, '65. Six miles from Beaufort, South Carolina. 
Our regiment was sent out to work corduroying the road; 
gome doing the chopping of poles and logs, and others hauling 
them, and others throwing them across the road, and still 
others throwing dirt on them, then the corduroying was com- 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 889 

pleted and ready for the wagons and artillery to pass over the 
road without swamping. This was very hard work, and of 
course we had to wade those swamps to corduroy and cut and 
haul or carry the timber. 

January 26, '65. The 47th Regiment was again sent to 
corduroy the road. In the morning while at headcpiarters, 
General Sherman passed us, also General 0. 0. Howard and 
the Degross' Battery which belongs to our Division, and Gen- 
eral Wm. B. Hazen also passed us. Every indication shows 
that General Sherman is massing our wing of the army (the 
right wing) at some point ahead of us. In the afternoon our 
regiment drew some more clothing. We could distinctly hear 
heavy artillery firing northeast of us nearly all the forenoon. 
There was ice nearly one inch thick this morning. 

January 27, '65. Six miles from Beaufort, South Carolina. 
The 47th Regiment was again sent to build corduroy roads to- 
day. We had to carry the poles to the road to-day, as all the 
teams were taken away this morning. The regiment was divided 
into three reliefs, one relief worked at a time and the other 
two rested turn about. We were relieved for dinner, and at 
8 P. M. were again called out to corduroy, but the teams had 
returned and they hauled the poles. We returned to our 
camp by sun down. 

January 28, '65. We are still in the same camp we were in 
yesterday. Received orders at 6 A. M. to be ready to march 
at 8 A. M. and marched about two and one-half miles towards 
Port Royal Ferry, and went in camp in a thicket of pines 
and jackoak, and put up our dog tents. Rumor has it that we 
will commence an important campaign soon. 

January 29, '65. Near Port Royal Ferry, South Carolina. 
We had inspection at 9 A. M. Orders were received for general 
inspection and review at 4 P. M. At that hour the whole Sec- 
ond Division Fifteenth Army Corps was reviewed by General 
W. B. Hazen. We returned to camp at dark very tired and 
hungry. General Sherman sent his last dispatch for a fortnight 
to General Grant at Richmond, Va., saying: 

"You may rest assured I will keep my troops well in hand, 
and if I get worsted, will aim to make the enemy pay so dearly 
that you will have less tc do." 



890 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 

January 30, '(35. Eight miles from Beaufort, Smith Carolina. 
The bugles sounded at 5 A. M. for roll call Orders to march 
at 7 A. M., so we were all glad to go on the march somewhere, 
for we were tired of camping in the swamps of South Carolina, 
and of building corduroy roads. The 47th stalled on the 
march at nearly 8 A. M. and marched to Pocotaligo Station 
on the Savannah and Charleston Railroad and went into camp. 
We carried five days rations, and marched about seventeen 
miles without resting more than twenty-five minutes the whole 
distance; went into camp at 3'iSO Where the Seventeenth Army 
Corps had moved from this morning. It was said they had 
marched on toward Broad River, threatening Charleston. Our 
march to-day was through a low, flat and swampy country, and 
passed some very strong Confederate earthworks. The enemy 
evacuated them but a day or two ago on the approach of our 
army. 

January 31. '65 Pocotaligo Station, South Carolina No 
orders to move to-day, but the whole 47th Regiment is packed 
in anticipation, and ready for any emergency, for we think 
we may be ordered to march at any moment. Later in the 
day we were informed we 'would remain there during the day. 
and it may be said that General Sherman's South Carolina 
Campaign commenced from this point. 

General Sherman says on February 1st, 1865, his army con- 
sis! ing of sixty thousand men was divided into four corps, of 
which the right wing, commanded by General O. 0. Howard 
comprised those of Generals Logan and Blair; the left wing 
under General Slocum was composed of the corps of Davis and 
Williams, and General Kilpatrick commanded the cavalry. 
The four thousand five hundred vehicles of all kinds in the 
army would have made a continuous line of forty-five miles, 
but each army corps had its own train which pursued separate 
routes. The news of the departure of the army caused great 
alarm to the Confederacy, while the people of the north were 
not without anxious solicitude. No one knew General Sher- 
man's designs, and his movements were veiled in mystery. 
By some it was supposed that Augusta, Ga., by others Charles- 
ton. But there was a more extensive field of operations before 
him than the capture of either, or both of these places, and he 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 391 



had formed the design of making Goldsboro, a distance of five 
hundred miles from Savannah, and through two hostile States 
his objective point. It was a mighty enterprise on which he 
was about to enter, and one that required bold daring and 
consummate strategy. The country through which he was to 
march after leaving Savannah, Ga., consisted for some distance 
of an extensive lowland plain, in which lay large plantations 
surrounded by negro huts, and cultivated fields, skirted by dark 
forests of pine, and festooned by cypress, wild vines, and gar- 
lands of hanging moss. Gloomy and extensive swamps 
abounded inhabited by wild fowl, serpents and alligators. The 
whole coast from Savannah to Charleston has pendant moss 
hanging like a funeral pall over all its miasmatic swamps 
— some of which were six miles in width, and through them, 
must pass the troops, infantry and cavalry, together with the 
artillery, wagons and ambulances; in a word, the country was 
deemed impassable ; vehicles broke down in the swamps, or 
had to be burned and abandoned, and the strongest horses 
experie need the utmost difficulty in dragging through the 
artillery. Corduroying was necessary for many miles, other- 
wise the troops could never have gone through. Indeed it was 
easier for a Pilgrim in olden times to walk to Jerusalem bare- 
footed, than it was for an infantry soldier to make this march, 
and lest the cavalrymen might be supposed to have the advan- 
tage in a water covered swamp there would often plunge, almost 
inextricably, both horse and rider. 

Without consideration of these preliminaries, the march of 
General Sherman can never be comprehended. There was one 
Confederate army at Charleston on his right, and another at 
Augusta on his left. Numerous troops were swarming through 
North Carolina, and every mile that he marched brought him 
nearer Lee's army at Richmond, Va. Besides the interminable 
swamps which presented such a formidable obstacle, large rivers 
had to be crossed which were capable of defence by a hostile 
army. The wonderful sagacity of General Sherman had grasped 
the whole subject, and he was equal to the execution of the 
grand design, pressing as he did a veteran and well disciplined 
army, under leaders of well tried valor, such as Generals 
Howard, Slocum, Logan, Blair, Davis and Kilpatrick, and 



392 History of the 17th Regiment O. V. V. I. 



other subordinates to these, but not inferior in skill and prow- 
ess. 

The right wing was to threaten Charleston and the left wing 
was to threaten Augusta. The army was to move under the 
same general orders as were published in Atlanta for tin' march 
to the sea. We will now resume from our diaries and letters 
written during the campaign as they occu red. 

February 1, '65. Pocotaligo, South Carolina. Pursuant to 
orders the 47th Regiment fell in line at 6:30 A. M., and started 
on the march at 7 A. M. General Sherman and staff passed 
us just as we were starting. The First and Third Brigades of 
our Division (the Second) of the Fifteenth Army Corps, are in 
advance of our brigade to-day- We marched through a more 
rolling country than heretofore. On the road we met an escaped 
prisoner who said he belonged to the Second Wisconsin, and 
said the Confederates were starving our men in all their prisons. 
and that they were dying by thousands. Many of the buildings 
of the inhabitants, and the fences were burned down before we 
came to them; we do not know if the Confederates are doing 
this or our men (but South Carolina is the cradle of the Re- 
bellion, and must suffer for it.) The march was moderate we 
marched some twelve miles then went into camp at dark, but 
our trains did not come up until about midnight on account 
of the mirey roads. It is said we are going in the direction 
of Charleston. 

February 2, '65. The 47th Ohio was train guard and went 
in rear of our division train, and it was past 8 A. M. when we 
marched from our camp in the woods. There were two men 
detailed for foragers from each company in the regiment. On 
our march through the day we passed the First and Third Divi- 
sions of our Corps (the Fifteenth Army Corps.) Our Division 
(the Second,) was in the advance, and we skirmished and drove 
the Confederates the balance of the day towards the Salkie- 
hatchie River. We marched about ten miles and went into 
camp about 8 P. M., in a swampy country full of pine bushes. 
Commenced to rain at night which made the roads more mirey 
than they are ; our foragers were quite successful and brought 
in right smart of provisions. Our skirmishers were still skir- 
mishing late this evening, and skirmished all night. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 393 

February 3, '62. Camp near Salkiehatchie, South Carolina. 
It rained all of last night and everything is wet. All the hoys 
are feeling quiite miserable from thier untold exposure in the 
rain last night; we repeat it was a very cold rain. Orders came 
round that we would remain here to-day; it is still raining 
with the appearance of mining all day. Our men are still 
skirmishing and driving the enemy in our front; we can hear 
the rattle of musketry in our front all day towards the Salkie- 
hatchie River. Foragers were again sent out to-day and they 
brought sweet potatoes, chickens and corn. We find in history 
and life of General Sherman the following: 

It says by February 3rd, two Corps, the Fifteenth and Seven- 
teenth Army Corps were at Beaufort Bridge over the Salkie- 
hatchie River, where the water was found very high, and a 
formidable troop of infantry in front. A Division was made 
by one of General Sherman's Division through a swamp, where 
the soldiers had to wadn in water up to their armpits, and on 
coming in upon the enemy, they fled in disorder. The Historian 
would add, that the Division was a part of our Division (the 
Second,) and part of the First Division, and this Division was 
made February 4th, threatening Charleston. 

February 4, '65. Sa'kiehatchie River, South Carolina. Still 
skirmishing in our front; orders were issued to be ready to 
march at noon. The 47th fell into line at 1:30 P. M., and 
started on our march which was very slow and tedious on 
account of the advance driving the enemy ahead of them. 
Foragers were sent out from our Division Headquarters, they 
did not get very far when they were fired into by Confederate 
guerrillas — the Confederates killing one man and captured 
the driver of the ambulance, who afterward made his escape; 
one Sergeant was shot through and cannot perhaps live; it was 
also reported the Confederates captured General W. B. Hazen's 
horse. Our men killed one Confederate and carried off their 
wounded. We marched only about eight miles and went in 
camp in a low wet place. Rained during the day again, and 
still raining. 

February 5, '65. Salkiehatchie River, South Carolina. Roll 
call at 5 A. M. this morning, and the 47th Regiment was sent 
out at daylight in advance, and we had to act as pioneers. 



394 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

curt ing poles, putt ing them across the road, then throwing dirt 
mi them; we fixed the road in several places in this manner. 
Our advance soon Came across the enemy and a sharp skirmish 
took place which continued the most of the day in our front, 
and on our right and left. The enemy seems to have abandon) d 
the Salkiehatchie ; we crossed the river about 10 A. M., and 
we only marched about eight miles, went in camp near the 
abandoned Confederate works. The foragers got plenty of 
meal to-day. Weather getting warm with appearance of more 
rain. The country we marched through to-day was very low 
and swampy, roads extremely bad. 

February 6, '65. Salkiehatchie River, South Carolina. We 
had roll call at 6 V. M . with orders to move at 8 A. M.. ,-it 
which time orders was to fall into line immediately; then our 
brigade only moved on the other side of the road, where the 
balance of our Division was in cam]), and while there the Third 
Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps passed us and took 
the road to the right. We drew four day's rations to do us six 
days, and we then had five days rations which must do us eight 
davs. was the order given. Orders came to be ready to march 
at 12 M. The 47th fell into line at that time and inarched ; we 
passed some fine plantations. Our advance had a skirmish 
with the enemy lasting some two hours, when our men drove 
the enemy before them; marched about nine miles, then went 
into camp after dark. It rained during the day from 8 P. M. 
until after dark. 

February 7, '65. It rained all of last night and is still rain- 
ing this morning. We got orders at 5:80 A. M. to be ready to 
march at 6:30, but did not march until 7:80 A. M. The boys 
wen- wet and the roads fearfully muddy. Colonel A. C. Parry 
told us we were to take the advance and we would soon be in 
the railroad business to tear it up and destroy it completely; 
hf said he wanted every one to stick to the ranks and fire low. 
We marched some six or eight miles, and arrived at the railroad 
from Charleston to Branchville, at a station called Bomberg. 
The Confederates had left it in great haste. General Sherman 
passed us and took up his headquarters in the town; we moved 
two miles further from the station and then went into camp. 
where we threw up breastworks in our front. It rained nearly 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 895 

all day then turned very windy and cold. The other troops 
are destroying the railroad, as this road was most important 
to the enemy, and we learned that it would he destroyed by our 
army for fifty miles, and might be- the means of causing the 
enemy to evacuate Charlesto i, as we now learn that we are on 
the road to Columbia, the cradle of tho Rebellion. 

February 8, '65. There were no orders to march; orders 
were given for all to wash clothing that wished to do so, and 
at 10 A. M. we got orders to be ready to move at a moments 
notice. At 11 A. M. we drew rations of sweet potatoes which were 
roasted when the bugle sounded shortly before 12 M. The 47th 
at once fell into line, and marched in a north-eastern direction 
towards the south branch of the Edisto River; marched some 
three or four miles and found a very swampy country, went 
across the slews on foot logs, and the fourth one we could not 
cross. The men in the advance waded in the water waist deep, 
and finally were forced to come back ; the whole country seemed 
to be like a lake; we then marched to the camp we had left in 
the morning. Weather quite cold ; got back to camp after 
dark, wet, tired and hungry. Received orders same evening to 
be ready to march in the morning at daylight. 

February 9, '65. The bugle blew at 3:30 in the morning to 
get up and be ready. At daylight the bugle sounded to fall in- 
to line. The 47th marched some three miles and halted for 
twenty minutes, then marched again very fast for some eight 
miles apparently up the Edisto River, then went into camp 
and was ordered to throw up breastworks in our front which 
was done by detail. During the day we passed a plantation 
where there was about a dozen colored women in the front 
yard, singing, dancing and hallowing Glory to God as they 
witnessed us, the Yankees, for they then knew they would be 
free. The country we marched over was swampy and sandy, 
wet and full of black looking water. Very cold at night. The 
men generally are very tired, and some of our recruits gave out, 
and some were helped by the veterans. We had marched some 
thirteen miles. 

February 10, '65. Near Edisto River, South Carolina. The 
weather clear and cold last night and froze ice right smartly. 
No orders to march this morning, the probability is we may 



396 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

remain bere to-day. We learned that the First Division of our 
Corps crossed the river this morning; our camp is full of rumors 
of immediate peace ; which some credit. We think there will be 
peace until the Rebellion is whipped, and that certainly 
will be before many months from this. Orders came to march. 
The 47th marched at 3 P. M., crossed the South Edisto River, 
and went into camp one mile beyond the river at sundown, 
and again threw up breastworks in our front; the foragers 
brought a good supply of sweet potatoes, etc. The Seventeenth 
Armv Corps had crossed the South Edisto at Binnaker's Bridge, 
and were marching on Orangeburg, and the Fifteenth Army 
Corps crossed at Holman's Bridge, and would advance to Poplar 
Springs for the purpose of supporting the Seventeenth Army 
Corps. The Confederate commander had endeavored to save 
Charleston, and now had retired to his entrenchments at 
Branchville, and had burned the bridge over Edisto River, 
but we crossed on pontoon bridges and drove the enemy at all 
points. We were compelled to wade the cold water to reach 
the pontoon bridge, a quarter of a mile each side of bridge. 

February 11, 'G5. Orders were to inarch at 7 A. M. The 
47th was detailed for pioneers, and we went in advance of our 
Division to corduroy and fix the bad roads. Marched some 
fourteen miles and went into camp, and saw some strong breast- 
works the enemy had made. Our camp was near the North 
Edisto River. We find the following in the life of General 
Sherman : 

The right wing under General Howard was instructed to 
strike Orangeburg enroute to Columbia. General Kilpatrick 
was ordered to demonstrate towards Aiken, and keep up the 
delusion that Augusta, instead of Columbia, was the objective. 
General Sherman was most anxious to reach Columbia in ad- 
vance of. Hood's forces which were reported to be near the 
place. It was important to reach Orangeburg, also, as the 
breaking up of the railroad there would sever the connection 
between Charleston and Columbia. Near Orangeburg, the 
Edisto was found impassable, and the opposite side well guarded 
by the enemy. 

February 12, '65. Near North Edisto River, South Carolina. 
The regiment marched out this morning at 7 o'clock, the 47th 



History of the 47th Kegiment O. V. V. I. 897 

Regiment in the advance. We marched perhaps two miles 
when we arrived near the Edisto River, and found the Confed- 
erates on the opposite side of the river with strong earthworks 
commanding the bridge ; two regiments of our brigade went 
down the river and had a sharp skirmish with the enemy. In 
the meantime our regiment and another regiment of our brigade 
went up the river some two miles to cross, but there was no 
bridge there, and we waded the river waist deep to the main 
stream, then crossed on logs and some on planks, then had to 
wade again waist deep nearly one-half mile, then we charged 
on the enemy and routed them, and captured fifty Confederate 
prisoners. The swamp each side of the river was from knee to 
waist deep, and in all nearly one mile wide ; this swamp was 
thick with cypress trees, cane and green briar vines. It took 
the regiment nearly an hour to cross ; having crossed the river 
and the enemy outflanked, we marched down the river about 
two miles and went into camp. Our loss of the skirmish and 
crossing of North Edisto River, was reported one killed and 
three wounded. We threw up works in our front and put out 
pickets. At 7 P. M. orders came to march immediately; we 
then marched two miles further and joined our Division, and 
again went into camp near Orangeburg, and threw up works 
in our front. 

General Sherman says : Orangeburg was now evacuated by 
the enemy, and the place containing three thousand inhabitants 
was occupied by the Union troops. General Howard's troops 
nobly endeavored to extinguish the flames raging in the place, 
which had been fired by the enemy. Now the heads of all the 
columns were directed toward Columbia. The Confederate 
leader Hardee was indulging still that Charleston was a sure 
ofject, while the Confederate chief at Augusta thought that 
place was destined to a visit by Sherman's Army, and we were 
now between the two Confederate Armies which could no longer 
be united together and brought in our front to oppose us at 
Columbia, South Carolina. 

February 13, '65. Near Orangeburg, South Carolina. None 
of us slept very much last night as our knapsacks were not 
brought to us across the Edisto River, consequently we had no 
blankets, and besides we were wet from wading the river, and 



398 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

the night was quite cold; but our knapsacks came this morn- 
ing with the wagons. The First and Third Divisions of our 
Corps (the Fifteenth) marched out in advance of us this 
morning; our Regiment with our Division marched out at 9 A. 
M., leaving Orangeburg to our right; were told we were march- 
ing on the direct road f>r Columbia. When our hoys heard 
this they sang, Hail Columbia. The country was not so flat 
as it has been, but somewhat rolling, timbered mostly with 
pine; went into camp a littleafter sun down, having marched 
some twelve miles. We understood the Commander of th^ 
Third Division Fifteenth Army Corps was put under arrest 
for allowing his men to burn the fences along the road, a* 
there were positive orders against it, as it made it dangerous 
for ordinance trains being blown up by burning of the fences 
on each side of the road. One wagon in our train caught fire 
in this manner to-day and the cover was burned off of it — the 
wagon was saved with water. Weather clear, cold and windy. 
Our camp is in a pine woods ; the flames can be seen in all 
directions in the darkness in this the cradle of the Rebellion. 

February 14, '65. Camp in pine woods. The 47th started 
on the march towards Columbia at 7 A. M., passed the Third 
Division of our Corps before they left their camp; the roads 
were quite good except in the low places : the sand was deep 
and hard to march over. Our wagon trains went along, two 
wagons abreast the whole day; we passed through a small town 
at 3 P. M., called Sandy Run Post Office; there we passed the 
Fourth Division of our Corps, which makes the whole Filteenth 
Corps on this road. It began to rain about 2:30 P. M., and 
rained on till night, freezing as it fell. We marched about 
eighteen miles and went into ramp about 4:30 P. M. The 
Fourth Division of our Corp had quite a brisk skirmish with 
the enemy towards evening The whole country seemed to be 
on fire, as in the Georgia campaign, leaving the country forty 
miles wide in utter desolation. The Rebellion will now soon 
all have to surrender, for they can't hold us from joining 
General Grant's army at and around Petersburg or Richmond. 

February, 15, '65. Near Sandy Run Post Office, South 
Carolina. It rained nearly all last night and we passed a most 
disagreeable night, as the rain was so very cold. Orders came 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 399 

to march at 8 A. M., and the 47th marched and passed where 
the First Division had camped; they had marched out and 
were now skirmishing with the enemy, who had fallen back to 
the Little Congaree River, where they had thrown up some 
temporary breastworks. Our Division formed in line of battle 
on the left of the First Division Fifteenth Army Corps, planted 
two guns of Battery H, who shelled the enemies' works, while 
the First Division charged over an open held; they drove the 
Confederates across the stream ; the enemy tried to burn the 
bridge, but were prevented from doing so, as they were pursued 
too closely by the First and Second Division, (ours) but in so 
doing we had to wade in mud and water to outflank them. 
We found the enemy had strong works on the other side of the 
stream, but they made but a feeble stand in them, after we 
crossed the stream. We drove the Confederates over one mile 
with but very little loss; it then became dark. We reformed 
our lines and camped in line of battle. 

Skirmish at Columbia and its Capture. 

The 47th were ordered to throw up temporary breastworks 
in our front, after which we built fires to get supper. When 
the enemy saw the fire they opened upon us with their artillery 
and shelled our lines, which caused all fires to be put out 
immediately. Their shelling our lines killed one man and 
wounded eleven, and kept us awake most all night with their 
shells and solid shot We passed the old prison where the Con- 
federates kept our men in prison, and starved many to death. 
The prison was all burned down by our army. 

February 16, '65. Near Columbia, South Carolina. This 
morning when we got up we found the enemy had built some 
strong works; they had fallen back nearer to Columbia. We 
saw the bridge on fire at 3 A. M. 

Let us now see what the order of this date was. The order 
read as follows : 

"General O. O. Howard will cross the Saluda and Broad Rivers 
as near their months as possible, occupy Columbia, destroy the 
public buildings, railroad property, manufacturing and machine 
shops, but will spare libraries, asylums and private buildings. 
He will then move to Winnsboro, destroying enroute utterly 



400 History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 

that section of the railroad; he will also cause all bridges, 
trestle, water tanks and depots on the railroad back to the 
wateree to be burned, switches broken, and such other destruc- 
tion a^ he can Hnd time to accomplish consistent with proper 
celerity." 

We will now resume from our diary. 

The 47th was called at five A. M., and we stood in line of 
bittle until daylight Th • order came to move at 8 A M. 
The enemy shelled our line; two guns of Battery H wore run 
out in our front, and at close ra nge of the enemies' battery, 
began to shell the enemy. The 53rd Ohio of our Brigade was 
deployed as skirmishers, and picked off the enemies' artillerist. 
but when our battery was gotten int o position they soon silenced 
the enemies' guns. We moved out in line of battle at 9 A. M., 
moved to where the enemy had burned the bridge, and could 
plainly see the south part of the city of Columbia, and could 
see trains running out of the city. 

It appeared to us to be a fine situation for a city, the cradle 
of the Rebellion. It was about this time the writer heard 
Gen. John A .Logan say : "Hail Columbia, the cradle of the Re- 
bellion, you certainly will be burned to-morrow." After this 
advance was made our battery was again run out near the place 
where the bridge had been burned, and threw three shots into 
the enemy, striking the depot and the Confederates traveled 
out in a great hurrah. At 12 M. we marched up nearly above 
the city where our forces had laid a pontoon bridge across the 
Saluda River, crossed it, but we could not save the bridge across 
Broad River, for the enemy had it on fire, and with their artillery 
knocked it down ; here we went into camp. Our Corps was 
nearly all night crossing the Saluda River ; at this crossing there 
was afine cotton factory. 

Let us see what General Sherman said of this. "On the 16th 
the entire Fifteenth Corps reached a point opposite Columbia, 
marched up the Saluda, and crossed that stream at the Ferry, 
and reached Broad River to find its bridge in flames." 

February 17, '65. Columbia, South Carolina. The 47th had 
roll call before daylight. Last night we heard the enemy 
about all night, trains running out, etc. We began to think 
the enemy must be evacuating the city. Orders were given to 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 401 

be ready to move at 12 M The Confederates sent out a flag of 
truce at 10 A. M., and the Third Brigade of the First Division 
Fifteenth Army Corps marched into the city at 10:30 A. M. 
The proud city of Columbia, the cradle of the Rebellion had 
surrendered Our Brigade with Division crossed Broad River 
at 4 P. M., and marched up High Street. The cotton was on 
fire on this street. We were told the Confederates set the cot- 
ton and city on fire when they evacuated it; we inarched 
through the city, and one and one-half miles east of it on the 
railroad. Late in the evening the whole city and country 
seemed to be on fire. 

Let us see what the best historians say of this affair. 

MacKenzie says General Wade Hampton, who commanded the 
Confederate cavalry, had in anticipation of the capture of 
Columbia ordered that all cotton, both public and private, 
should be moved into the streets and fired to prevent its fall- 
ing into the hands of the Union army. Some was burning in 
the heart of the city near the court house, but the fire was 
partially subdued by the efforts of the Union soldiers. The 
army had not entered the city ; the Fifteenth Corps marched 
through and encamped beyond on the Camden road ; only one 
brigade was placed on duty within the city The flames spread 
from the combustibles, and notwithstanding the efforts of the 
Union commanders could not be checked, but reduced the city 
to ashes. General Sherman and his officers worked with their 
own hands until long after midnight tiding to save life and 
property ; it was a sad sc.-ne, more easily conceived than de- 
scribed During the progress of the fire, the houses were plun- 
dered, and officers and soldiers drunk with the wines and liquors 
thus brought to light were in some instances buried in the 
burning ruins of the houses. But we shall not dwell upon the 
melancholy scene which rendered desolate this once beautiful 
city. The historian would add here that the people of South 
Carolina brought all of this upon themselves by one of the 
most wicked Rebellions the world ever saw. 

February 18, '65. Columbia, South Carolina. Very few of 
the boys had much sleep last night on account of the greatest 
fire we ever saw in the world, Columbia, and surrounding coun- 
try. The flames were so great that it made light enough two 



UY2 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V I. 

miles from the city in any direction to see to read any common 
print. Many of the boys were drunk, and many badly 
hurt ; one of the boys in our regiment got a bad cut with a 
saber. 

At sunrise we got orders to be ready to move at 7 A M. The 
47th fell in line at 7:30 A. M., and marched one mile up the 
Greenville and Columbia Railroad, and we at once began to 
tear up the track. We kept on till about noon, then marched 
back to where we started from for dinner. At 2 P. M. fell in 
line and again marched up the same railroad, and we tore up 
and burned railroad untill night, then marched one mile back 
and camped for the night about six miles east of Columbia. 
The city is about all in ashes. 

February 19, '65. Six mlies east of Columbia, South 
Carolina. The 47th Ohio was gotten up at daylight, and at 7 :30 
marched a short distance and proceeded to tear up the railroad 
again, and to burn it; the whole regiment was at work. We 
only had a quarter of a mile of it to destroy and it was soon 
finished. Went back to our camp and remained, as this is 
Sunday. A good many of the boys went to the city of Columbia 
to-day to view things, and we do say that never in all our lives 
have we seen such destruction and such desolation. The 
people were in the parks and the woods and the field without 
shelter, without homes or property, but whose fault was all 
this. 

We find the following in the life of General Sherman : 

"A great quantity of burning cotton in the city was an 
invitation to a general conflagration. A high wind on the night 
of our arrival, fanned the smoldering embers into activity, and 
the fire spread in all directions. We did all we could to allay 
the suffering caused by the fire the next day, by fuming over 
a large part of our beef for the sustenance of the people." 

February 20. '65. Near Columbia. South Carolina. March- 
ing orders recieved to be ready to move at 7 A. M. A new 
Adjutant was appointed this morning to take the place of H. 
Bremfoerder, who takes command of Company B as Captain; 
F. Bicket took command of Company E and Sergeant Rom 
Sergeant-Major. The 47th marched out promptly at 7 A. M., 
passing through part of Columbia, then turned north and 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 403 

marched in that direction all day There were a great many 
citizens and negroes started with our wagon trains and on foot. 
There were men, women and children, and all oar empty wagons 
were loaded with them ; we marched sixteen miles and went in- 
to camp at sundown on a ridge in a pine woods. Our foragers 
did not get in till late at night, therefore we got no rations. 

We will again go to MacKenzie and see what he says about 
our leaving Columbia : 

He says: "General Sherman left the homeless population 
sufficient provisions to sustain them for some time, and was 
followed by a vast number of negroes and refugees ; moved 
north towards Charlotte. As in the Georgia campaign, the 
country, in a belt of forty miles was left a scene of utter deso- 
lation ; many houses were burned. The pine forests were blaz- 
ing in the night, lighting the columns on their way, and casting 
weird shadows across the paths of the advancing army." 

As we left Columbia this morning, the boys all sang Hail 
Columbia, and the Girl I left behind; for it is not very often 
we can send or receive mail. 

February 21, '65. The bugle sounded at 5 A. M., orders to 
march at 7 A. M. The 47th started out very slowly until about 
noon ; our wagon train was badly strung out on account of the 
bad roads ; in consequence of the severe rains the roads were 
rendered almost impassable, but still General Sherman is 
pushing us on towards Charlotte. In the afternoon we marched 
quite briskly, passed through a broken, poor country. We passed 
the Fourth Division after dark; got no rations last night and 
poor prospects to get any thing to-night; we are quite hungry. 
We marched eighteen miles and went into camp at 9 P. M. It 
has been pouring down rain and from appearances it looks like 
a flood here. 

February 22, '65. On Wednesday the 47th marched at 6 :30 
A. M. and arrived at the Wateree River. At about 10:30 A. 
M. the enemy appeared in force on the other side of the river 
to dispute our crossing it. We were then formed in line of 
battle and a skirmish line was sent forward, who s^on drove 
the enemy from the other side of the river, who proved to be 
only a Confederate cavalry. This done our men laid a pontoon 
bridge across; our brigade crossed the river at 3:30 P. M. and 



tot History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 



inarched some two miles, crossing Liberty Ridge, and went into 
camp at about sundown. Our foragers captured some good 
horses during the day, and they also got meat and meal, etc., 
which was issued to us for our suppers. 

February 23, '65. Liberty Ridge, South Carolina. The 47th 
Regiment drew three days full rations to last us nine days: just 
think of it, we drew six small crackers to last us nine days. 
Orders received to be ready to march at 12 M. 

General Sherman says : "On the 23rd the army wheeled about 
due east, moving on Fayetteville, and crossing the swollen rivers, 
over which a century ago Cornwallis had pursued General Greene 
in the Revolutionary War. The rain had been pouring down 
so persistently, the rivers had become so high and the roads so 
I tad that the commanders were compelled in part to halt." 

We now resume from our diary. 

At 11 A. M. the bugle sounded to fall into line, and the 47th 
marched out immediately. On the march we passed through 
a nice little town called Liberty Hill. At this place our divi- 
sion turned to the right, marched ten miles and went into camp. 
After one-half hour the bugle sounded to fall in which we did, 
then marched nearly two miles farther and went into camp 
after dark in a pine woods. It began to rain at noon and still 
raining; the boys are wet and chilly, and are singing, We'll 
hang Jeff Davis to a Sour Apple Tree. We marched about 
twelve miles in all to-day. 

February 24, '(55. Rained all of last night very hard. Our 
men made their beds on brush heaps, rails or anything they 
could get, and no one slept but very little, but we are wet 
and weary. At daylight orders were to be ready to march at 7 
A. M. In a short time orders changed to march in two hours. 
The 47th marched at 9 A. M. on as bad roads as we ever saw. 
The mud and water on an average was over shoe top deep, and 
in some places they were almost impassable, and besides that 
it rained all day, and we had to march very hard also. We 
passed Camden, South Carolina after dark; we did not get in- 
to camp until after 9 P. M., and it was as dark as pitch, and 
we were so wet that the water churned in our boots or shoes. 
We were also muddy, and it was raining hard; no rails or wood 
to be found; our camp is in a pine forest; dripping nearly all 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 405 

night. About 11:80 some of the boys who had shelter went to 
sleep; it was a terrible night; a part of our train got lost and 
did not get into camp at all, while some wagons mired down 
and had to be abandoned and destroyed. We learned to-day 
from Confederate sources that Charleston had been evacuated 
by General Hardee Confederates States Army; therefore, our 
glorious flag floats once moreover Fort Sumpter and Charleston. 
The Rebellion must be crumbling to pieces and the Union will 
soon be restored. 

February 25, '65. It had rained nearly all night and conse- 
quently the boys had but very little sleep in a South Carolina 
pine forest. Orders in the morning were to march at 8:30 A. 
M. The 47th marched at that time. Our Division, the Second, 
and the Fourth Division Fifteenth Army Corps are marching 
side by side on the same road to-day. We suppose the enemy 
is somewhere ahead ; we marched thus until 2:30 P.M., and 
went into camp, having marched over eleven miles over mirev 
roads. It is said that our foragers and teamsters found some 
corn juice, for they were nearly all drunk. 



Skirmish Near Lynch Creek, South Carolina. 

February 26, '65. Sunday. Rained nearly all night again. 
Our clothing got quite wet in our dog tents. Orders received 
to march at 8 A. M., our brigade being in the advance. The 
47th marched very moderate ; our brigade got on the wrong 
road and had to march back some distance. We waded Lynch 
Creek at 3 P. M. The creek was rising very fast, and was one 
quarter of a mile wide, and it was about waist deep. The creek 
got so high that all of our division conld not cross ; they and 
our wagon trains were cut off. Our foragers to-day run into 
the Confederates; the enemy charged them, and some were 
taken prisoners. The others were scattered and did not get 
into camp to-night; we marched one mile after crossing Lynch 
Creek and went into camp on a very fine plantation. Weather 
cleared off fine and pleasant; from this camp two regiments of 
our brigade were sent out to relieve our foragers, for the Con- 
federates had them surrounded. They had a skirmish and soon 
broke the Confederate lines, and released our foragers. 



406 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

February 27, '65. The bugle sounded at 5 A. M. The 47th 
fell iii line with only our guns and cartridge box, and advanced 
our line about 75 yards into the edge of the pine woods, stacked 
arms and broke ranks with orders to keep our cartridge boxes 
until further orders as it was believed the enemies' cavalry was 
here in force. Had inspection of arms and ammunition by 
companies at 9 A. M. At 10 A. M. we moved a few hundred 
yards, changed our front, and threw up temporary breastworks. 
The camp is wet and it looks like rain. Our foragers came in 
this evening with plenty of meat and some meal, just in time 
for we are out of provisions, while some of them are making 
slapjacks. Some of the boys put up their dog tent*. Evening : 
orders for inspection at 9 A. M. to-morrow. 

February 28, '65. In same camp. It rained nearly all of 
last night and all forenoon to-day, and we are wet and cold in 
this miserable South Carolina pine swamp. We were mustered 
to-day for two more months pay, making six months pay due 
us. The Paymaster can't get to us nor can we hear from the 
outside of our lines only through some captured Confederate 
papers, or some of their deserters. They tell us that Charleston, 
South Carolina, is in the possession of our forces, and Fort 
Fisher, also. The cause of our being delayed here, is the rise 
in Lynch Creek which keeps the balance of our Corps and our 
wagon train from crossing. The 47th Regiment with our Brig- 
ade are at work building a bridge and trestle, and corduroying 
roads. The work is in water mostly waist deep and very cold; 
our work is done by relief, and is carried on day and night 
without grumbling by the army. 

March 1, '65. Still in the same camp near Lynch Creek. 
South Carolina. A majority of the boys in the regiment ate 
their last bite of rations this morning, with no prospects of get- 
ting anything more soon, as the country had been foraged for 
miles around us. The regiment was again sent out by details 
to cut and carry stringers for the bridge, while part had to carry 
poles and rails to corduroy the almost impassable swamps. 
Returned to camp by 12 M. with orders to be ready to march 
at 3 P. M. The bugle sounded to fall into line; the 47th marched 
over mirey roads some six miles towards Cheraw and went into 
camp at dark. We learned that our train crossed Lynch Creek 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 407 

and the bridge broke down. Our foragers came in this evening 
with some meal and sweet potatoes — all we had to eat for we 
live mostly off of the country; so some of the boys laid down 
without any supper. Weather cloudy, looks like rain. 

March 2, '65. The bugle sounded at daylight, and at 9 A. 
M., the 47th Regiment fell in line and marched back about one 
mile, and were put to work corduroying the roads, then returned 
to camp. Drew rations of meal and meat, and at 3:30 P. M., 
again started on our march on the mirey roads ; our wagon 
train had then come up. On this march our regiment were 
pioneers in the advance, corduroying the roads where ever 
needed. We marched only four miles, went into camp at IIP. 
M. with orders to be ready to cross Black Creek in our front. 
Soon after the order was countermanded, and to remain there 
for the night in the swamps. About this date we learned 
from Confederate sources of the capture of Fort Fisher and 
Wilmington with sixty guns and over five hundred prisoners, 
which caused great joy throughout this army. 

March 3, '65. Camp near Black Creek, South Carolina. The 
bugle sounded at 4:30 A. M., our brigade was in the rear; 
marchbd at 7 A. M., crossed Black Creek, marched one mile 
beyond it towards Cheraw, there halted until 12 M., and again 
started on our march and marched until 9 P. M., then went in- 
to camp for the night, having marched eighteen miles over very 
bad roads. The march to-day was a very hard one, so hard that 
many of the men gave out. The march was through a ^ery poor 
country, it being all pine woods, and the land nearly all sand. 
At midnight we drew Government rations such as coffee and 
sugar, salt — something we have not had for many weeks; for 
bread we drew some flour and meal which was brought in by 
our foragers; with the flour and meal we can make slapjacks. 
There were orders from General Sherman to issue no more 
hard tack to the army until further orders. 

March 4, '65. The bugle sounded at 4:30 A. M. The 47th 
started on our march at 6:30, marched six miles, then came 
to a halt with orders to remain here five hours. It rained hard 
for an hour from 7 A. M. and drizzled the balance of the day, 
and at 2 P. M., we resumed our march toward Cheraw, crossed 
Thompson's Creek at Society Hill on which the Confederates 



408 History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 

had thrown up breastworks. We passed part of the Seventeenth 
Army Corps, thence through a part of the city of Cheraw, South 
Carolina, which the Seventeenth Army Corps had captured 
yesterday by some hard righting, but the enemy was soon put 
to flight. Among the stores captured or destroyed at this place 
(Cheraw) was twenty-four guns, two thousand muskets and 
thirty-four hundred barrels of gunpowder. 

Let us now-see what the Confederate Chief, Gen. R. E. Lee, 
says in captured dispatches : 

"The accounts received f r om South and North Carolina 
are unfavorable." 

"Beauregard reports from Charlotte that four Corps of the 
enemy are advancing on that place, another tearing up railroads, 
and they will probably reach that place before he can concentrate 
his troops there. He states Sherman will doubtless unite with 
Schofield at Raleigh or Weldon. Bragg reports that Schofield 
is preparing to advance from Newbern to Goldsboro. He says 
no assistance can be expected from the state of North Carolina. 
Sherman seems to have everything his own way, which is calcu- 
lated to cause apprehension. Beauregard does not say what he 
proposes to do or what he can do. General J. E. Johnston is 
the only officer I know who has the confidence of the army and 
poeple, and if he is ordered to report to me I would place him 
on duty. It is necessary to bring out all our strength, and I fear 
to unite our armies, as separately they do not seem to make 
headway against the enemy. Everything should be destroyed 
that cannot be moved out of the way of Sherman and Schofield. 
Provisions must be accumulated in Virginia, and every man in 
all the States must be brought out. I fear it may be necessary 
to abandon all our cities, and preparations should be made for 
this contingency." 

The above dispatch is historically valuable to the reader, and 
will tend to show how we (Sherman's army) was affecting the 
Southern Rebellion and driving them to desperation, and caus- 
ing desertion from their armies by wholesale. We were truly 
having everything our own way thus far, and if we continue to 
do so, the Rebellion will be in the last ditch in less than 
a month hence. 

The right wing of our army in which we belong joined 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 409 

here with the left wing under General Slocum, coming together 
for the first time since we left Savannah, Ga., and will now 
move together towards Fayetteville, North Carolina, or at 
least that is the report and rumor. 

March 5, '65. Near Cheraw, South Carolina. Sunday. Wh 
drew some meat and more flour to make slapjacks. This morn- 
ing we got orders that we would not move until sometime to- 
morrow ; afterwards recieved orders to be ready to march at 3 
P. M., but the hugle did not sound until 4 P. M. The 47th 
started on the march through the town of Cheraw to the rail- 
road depot and stacked arms and remained there until dark, 
then we crossed the Great Peedee River, then marched near three 
miles on what is called the Fayetteville Road, then went into 
camp about 8 P. M. It was reported that three men of Battery 
H had deserted last night, each of them taking a horse with 
them, but we cannot believe it as the war now seems to be 
near its close. 

March 6, '65. There are no orders to march. The Twentieth 
Army Corps are marching past our Corps to-day. Our men 
have captured a large amount of cotton in the bales, which was 
all burned as we could not save it. The city of Cheraw 
was nearly all burned to ashes, and a powder magazine was 
blown up which caused the death of some thirty of our men. 
In the evening we drew some captured meat and meal, all we 
have to eat. Weather warm with appearance of rain. 

March 7, '65. The 47th is still in camp near Great Peedee 
River, South Carolina. The men in the regiment are cleaning 
up generally, getting ready to march. At 11 A. M. recieved 
orders to march at 12 M., at which time the 47th Regiment 
fell in line and marched immediately on the Fayetteville Road, 
marched twelve miles towards Fayetteville, resting but once 
the whole distance. Went into camp at sundown after passing 
the Third Division Fifteenth Army Corps, and within one-half 
mile of the North and South Carolina boundary line. Drew 
only meat to-night which our foragers brought in. The reader 
must keep in their minds that we had nothing to eat only what 
was brought by our foragers through the country we are march- 
ing, and there are quite a number of the men in the 47th Ohio 
who are without shoes, which cannot be procured. 



410 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

March 8, '65. In camp near Near North and South Carolina 
line The bugle sounded at 5 A. M. with orders to march at 
7 A. M. The 47th fell into line and marched out at 7:30 A. 
M. Soon crossed the State line into North Carolina, thence 
crossed a railroad, then inarched through Laurel Hill Court 
House; here turning to our left, went into camp one mile from 
the town at 12 M., having marched twelve miles. The pine 
woods are all on fire in every direction. It began to rain at 8 
A. M. and continued the whole day, and we looked like drowned 
rats, and the march to-day was made without any rest. General 
Sherman had his headquarters at the court house in the town, 
and at 5 P. M. the 37th and 47th Regiments Ohio received orders 
to march immediately. Oh, what a pity. Part of the tents 
had been put up, and we were getting ourselves partly dried 
and had expected quite a comfortable night in our dog tents. 
It was raining hard and of course our tent9 were very wet, but 
orders must be obeyed, and at dark we started on the march 
for Lumber River, about eight miles distant to guard a bridge: 
on the way there the mud anri water was from shoe mouth to 
over knee deep nearly all the way, and when we arrived found 
the bridge had been burned for some days. We had marched 
the eight miles in two hours; went into camp late at night in 
a low wet place. 

On March 8, '65, General Sherman became satisfied that 
Wilmington had been captured by General Schofield and he 
determined to communicate with him ; so he sent off dispatches 
by secret couriers to the effect that he might be expected at 
Favt'tteville in a few days; that a boat ought to be sent up the 
Cape Fear River; that he expected to meet the army under 
Schofield at Goldsboro about March 20th or thereabout. 

March 9, '65. Near Lumber River, North Carolina. This 
morning our regiment and the 37th were put to work to re-build 
the bridge across Lumber River. We got out timber for trestels 
and had to carry the neavy plank one quarter of a mile to the 
bridge, and at 10 A. M. our Division (the Second of the Fifteenth 
Army Corps) came up, and as we did not have the bridge half 
finished and the river being deep, General Hazen,our Division 
Commander, ordered the pontoons laid across the river, which 
was quickly done, and our hard work on the bridge wa9 all for 



History of the 47th Hegiment 0. V. V. I. 411 

nothing. At 12 M. our brigade crossed the river on the pontoon 
bridge, marched three miles when our brigade commander found 
<nit we were on the wrong road; had to march back one and 
one-half miles, and took a right hand road that led across to 
the road our division was on ; this counter marching threw us 
in the rear, besides marching four miles to no purpose. It- 
began to rain at 3 P. M., and from five to eight it almost poured 
down in torrents, which made us look like drowned rats, and 
the water churned in our boots or shoes. In the meantime our 
wagon train got into a swamp in this rain and many of them 
were mired down; som^ were unloaded and pulled out, others 
had to be left and destroyed. Our brigade had to march back 
one mile to find a camping place out of water; this was done 
after dark and raining as hard as it could pour down ; we were 
consequently very wet. Of course the wood was very wet, 
but after long trying there were some fires started and we tried 
tc dry our clothing some and also to sleep, but could not sleep 
much for everything we had was soaking wet. Marched twelve 
miles. 

March 10, '65. We got up weary and wet, prepared for the 
march. Orders came to get ready to march immediately; we 
fell into line and marched out. It began to rain again this 
morning. We marched about one mile, then our regiment 
stacked arms and we went to work like pioneers corduroying 
the roads. We cut poles, threw them across the road and the 
brush also, then threw dirt on them; our whole brigade thus 
worked all through the day. We corduroyed three miles, and 
only marched about four miles all day, corduroying the roads 
as we went, with our clothing wet, yet many of the boys sang 
Rally round the Flag, Boys, etc. We are progressing slowly but 
surely in the pouring down rains, and difficult and mirey roads 
in the pine swamps of North Carolina. At night we again 
went into camp, tired, and our clothing still quite wet. 

March 11, '65. This morning was quite frosty, marched 
about 8 A. M. and had a hard days march of it. The 47th 
marched about seventeen miles: many of the men had nothing 
to eat the whole day. We went into camp at 8 P. M. at a mill 
tired and hungry. This mill our foragers kept going nearly all 
night grinding corn for the boys to ease their hunger. They 



412 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

baked this meal with only water without salt. During the day 
we crossed a creek with swamps on each side of it making it 
very difficult marching. We learned this evening that we are 
nearing Fayetteville, North Carolina, where we will probably 
have communication with our friends at home. 

March 12, '65. This morning was again very frosty and 
quite a number of the men are without shoes. We got up. 
baked our corn cakes without salt, and the 47th started on the 
march towards Fayetteville, where we arrived to within one 
mile of the town at 11 A. M., having marched eight miles. 
Here we learned that the enemy was on his retreat from Fayette- 
ville; they had burned the bridge across Cape Fear River; this 
bridge we will soon substitute with our pontoon bridges. The 
whole army is now overjoyed at seeing a tug in the Cape Fear 
River from Wilmington, North Carolina, which has brought 
some mail from our friends at home, and we can now send a 
letter to our mothers and sweethearts in the North. This is 
the first communication we have had with the outside world for 
forty-five days; no wonder the boys are singing in all directions 
Rally Round the Flag, Boys, and John Brown is Marching on, 
and When Johnnie Comes Marching Home, and Tramp, Tramp, 
Tramp the Boys are Marching, etc. 

The historian says, Fayetteville was another link in the chain 
which was gradually tightening around the vitals of the Con- 
federacy. It was a demonstration of General Sherman's power 
with his army, and of the importance of the part that had been 
assigned to him in the closing of the stupendous drama. We hear 
of projects from the enemy to fail him . We hear of the anxious 
efforts of General Grant to assure our safe arrival at some co- 
operative points, but we hear and see desertions from the enemy, 
and we hear of a wail from General Lee to the effect that hun- 
dreds and thousands of his men are deserting almost nightly; 
therefore, General Sherman's march was having its effect in 
more ways than one ; it was not only carrying dismay to the 
Carolinas and to the Confederacy, but it was telling with fear- 
ful effect on Lee's Army. At Fayetteville we were greeted 
with the sound of a whistle, which betokens the arrival of a 
Union steamboat. General Sherman's couriers had gotten 
through safely to Wilmington, and the boat was the response 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 413 



to his messages. It was the first contact we had had with the 
outer world for six weeks, and its effect was electrical on Gen- 
eral Sherman and his armies. 

Let us now see what report General Sherman made to General 
Grant on this date. 

Dear General — We reached this place yesterday at noon, 
Hardee, as usual retreating across Cape Fear River, burning 
his bridges; but our pontoons will be up to-day, and with as 
little delay as possible, I will be after him towards Goldsboro. 
A tug has just come up from Wilmington, and before I get off 
from here, I hope to get from Wilmington some shoes and 
stockings, sugar, coffee and flour. We are abundantly supplied 
with all else, having in a measure lived off the country. The 
army is in splendid health, condition and spirits, though we 
have had foul weather, and roads that would have stopped 
travel to almost any other body of men I ever heard of. Our 
march was substantially what I designed, straight on Columbia, 
feigning on Branchville and Augusta. We destroyed in pass- 
ing, the railroad from the Edisto nearly up to Aiken ; again 
from Orangeburg to the Congaree; again, from Columbia down 
to Kingsville on the Wateree, and up towards Charlotte as far 
as the Chester line ; thence we turned east on Cheraw and Fay- 
etteville. At Columbia we destroyed immense arsenals and 
railroad establishments, among which were forty-three cannon. 
At Cheraw we found also machinery and materials of war 
sent from Charleston, among which were twenty-five guns and 
thirty-six hundred barrels of powder ; and here we find about 
twenty guns and a magnificent United States arsenal. We 
cannot afford to leave detachments, and I shall therefore destoy 
this valuable arsenal, so the enemy shall not have its use, and 
the United States should never again confide such valuable 
property to a poeple who have betrayed a trust. I could leave 
here to-morrow, but want to clear my columns of the vast 
crowd of refugees and negroes that encumbers us. I will send 
some down the river in boats, and the rest to Wilmington 
by land under small escort as soon as we are across Cape Fear 
River. I hope you have not been uneasy about us, and that 
the fruits of this march will be appreciated. It had to be made, 
not only to destroy the valuable depots by the way, but for its 



414 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

incidents in the necessary fall of Charleston, Georgetown and 
Wilmington; if lean now add Goldsboro without too much cost, 
T will lie in a position to aid you materially in the Spring 
campaign. Jos. E. Johnston may try to interpose between me 
here and Schofield about Newborn, but I think he will not try 
that, but concentrate his scattered armies at Raleigh, and I 
will go straight at him as soon as I get our men re-clothed and 
our wagons re-loaded; keep everybody busy, and let Stoneman 
push towards Greensboro or Charlotte from Knoxville; even a 
feint in that quarter will be most important. 

The railroad from Charlotte to Danville is all that is left to 
the enemy, and it will not do for me to go there, on account 
of the Red Clay Hills which are impassable to wheels in wet 
weather. 

I expect to make a junction with General Schofield in ten 
days. 

Signed W. T. Sherman, Major-General. 

We also find that on same date he wrote fully to General 
Terry explaining his situation, mapping his intentions and 
instructing General Schofield how best to co-operate with 
him, etc. 

March 13. '65. Fayetteville, North Carolina The army 
did not march to-day but remained in camp. The 47th regi- 
ment was ordered to go foraging down the Cape Fear River, 
without knapsacks. The shoeless men of the regiment (and 
there were several) were left to guard the regimental camp and 
other property. The regiment returned about 8 P. M. after a 
long march and return, being over fifteen miles; they brought 
a large quantity of good corn and other forage. We drew some 
awful poor beef after dark. 

March 14, '65. There was roll call at daylight with orders 
to be ready to march at 8 A. M. At about 8 A. M. the above 
order was countermanded, and orders received not to march 
until this evening. 

Let us now see about the information General Sherman had 
gained here. 

He says he had learned that his old antagonist General 
.b.hnston was in command in the Carolinas, with a part of his 
western army augmented by such reinforcements as he could 



History of the 47th Regiment, O. V. V. I. 4i5 

gather on the spot. Johnston was at Raleigh, and at the head 
of an army which General Sherman estimated at 35,000 men, 
including 8,000 cavalry under Butler, Hardee and Hampton. 
General Sherman felt that the day for feints and easy marches 
was over for him, for Johnston was not to be outwitted by 
maneuvers as his predecessor had been ; moreover, he possessed 
organizing ability of a high order, and was fast mobilizing his 
army. This made General Sherman the more anxious to push 
ahead to Goldsboro, and effect that anticipated junction with 
General Schofield which would render them invincible and 
precipitate the last stage of the war. He therefore issued his 
orders for the destruction of the arsenal at Fayetteville, and 
for the advance of his wings acros? the Cape Fear River towards 
Goldsboro, where he had instructed General Schofield to join 
him. The order of movement was with the Seventeenth and 
Fifteenth Army Corps on the right, and the Fourteenth and 
Twentieth Corps on the left, but with four divisions of each 
wing lightly equipped ready for attack, and the wagon trains 
on the central roads. 

We will resume from our diary. 

The 47th was called into line at 3:30 P. M., marched out to 
the road and came to a halt for one hour. Then the march was 
resumed, marched to Cape Fear River, there came to another 
halt, remained until about 9 P. M., then we crossed the river 
on a pontoon bridge two miles below Fayetteville. Then 
marched some two miles beyond, went into camp for the re- 
mainder of the night at about 10:30 P. M. Sprinkled rain 
part of the day. 

March 15, '65. The regimenthad inspection at 8 A. M.,with 
orders to be ready to march at 11 A. M. The 47th marched at 
11 :30 and passed over some most horrible muddy roads; besides 
that, it began to rain at 3 P. M. and continued until 8 P. M., 
raining very hard the most of the time. Went into camp just 
before dark one-quarter of a mile from any water. Drew some 
government rations, as our foragers have been relieved from 
that duty, leaving but five foragers to each regiment in our 
brigade. We marched about ten miles during the day through 
a very swampy country covered with pine bushes. A very sandy 
poor region. 



416 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 



March 16. '65. The 47th resumed the march at 8 A. M. and 
sood came to, and crossed Bla?k River, which is well named, for 
,t Looks quit? black and desolate. We had to wade over knee 
deep on either side of it for quite a long distance. Our regi- 
ment was on fatigue duty part of the day building corduroy 
roads for the artillery and th* wagon trains. Colonel A. C. 
Parry was sick to-day, and our regiment was commanded by 
Captain Campbell. In the evening it rained very hard and 
also the forepart of the night. Went into camp at 2 P. M., 
after having marched ten miles. Our brigade was in advance 
of our division. 

March 17, '65. Colonel A. C. Parry took command of the 
regiment this morning; orders to be ready to march at 9 A. M. 
The 47th marched promptly at that time. We traveled some 
six miles. then went into camp at Clinton's Cross Roads, North 
Carolina. At 2 P. M. our whole Corps, the Fifteenth Army 
Corps,are all at this point, it appearing there is some fighting 
to be done soon. Rumors have it that the left wing under 
General Slocum has met with determined opposition from 
Hardee's infantry and cavalry from the time of his leaving 
the Cape Fear River, yet General Sherman was determined to 
push square in the front of Hardee, drive him back towards 
Averyboro, and then suddenly wheel to the right towards 
Bentonsville. 



BATTLE OF AVERYSBORO, NORTH CAROLINA. 

March 18. '65. The bugle sounded at 4 A. M., orders to 
march at 6 A. M. The 47th marched until about 9 A. M , at 
which time we heard pretty brisk artillery firing to our left, 
We crossed a creek at 9:30 A. M., which we had to wade knee 
deep, and on the other side found where the Confederate cavalry 
had been camped. We marched fifteen miles and went into 
camp for the night at 2 P. M. Our foragers brought in some 
uieal : our provisions ar« very scarce ; some of the men have eaten 
all they had the first two days and now have nothing to eat 
except what little meal they can get, Rumors in camp are that 
our left wing had a battle to-day near Averysboro. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 417 

In the life of General Sherman we find the following: 
As Slocum approached Averysboro, Hardee was found to be 
in a strong position, and Slocum deployed his Twentieth Corps 
for battle. General Kilpatrick was swung well to the right 
with his cavalry, and a strong brigade of infantry was thrown 
out on Hardee's left flank; it made a determined charge, car- 
ried the enemies' first lines and captured an entire Confederate 
brigade with a battery of three guns. Pursuit of Hardee was 
begun and kept up well in the direction of Smithfield. In this 
spirited engagement we lost 77 killed and 477 wounded, while 
the enemy lost quite as many in killed and wounded, besides 
250 prisoners. 



BATTLE OF BENTONSVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA. 

March 19, '65. Sunday. Thomas L. White of Company H 
died last night and was buried at 11 o'clsck to-day; the Third 
Division Fifteenth Army Corps went in advance of us to-day. 
The 47th got orders to be ready to move at 11 A. M. We started 
on our march at 11 :30 A. M., our division was in the rear of 
our Corps (the Fifteenth) and our regiment was in advance of 
our division ; marched very slowly until after dark on account 
of the extremely bad roads; it was dark by the time we had 
marched three miles from where we started. Our brigade 
worked hard corduroying the road; marched <^ight miles then 
went into camp at 11 P. M., and in a few minutes got orders 
to march in thirty minutes, and at midnight we were again 
on the march. We could distinctly hear very heavy artillery 
firing during the afternoon, and on up until dark, towards our 
left. Our division, in the darkness, turned back and marched 
the eight miles over again that we had marched in daylight, 
and marched seven miles farther to re-inforce the Fourteenth 
and Twentieth Army Corps. We marched all night without 
rest and marched over twenty-four miles since 12 M. yesterday. 
We arrived in supporting distance of those two Corps on the 
battlefield of yesterday at 7 o'clock this morning, March 20th. 
We are very tired and sleepy. Here we learned that the loss 
yesterday was very heavy on both sides, and both sides are 
holding the same ground this morning. We also learned we 



Us History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

are near Bentonsville. The skirmishing is very heavy in our 
front. 

March 20, '65. On the Battlefield of Bentonsville, North 
Carolina. The skirmishing is quite heavy in our front; we are 
in reserve to the Fourteenth Army Corps We moved to tin- 
right at 11 A. M., about one mile; still in reserve, but exposed 
to artillery and musketry fire of the enemy. Our army is mov- 
ing up, and closing on the enemy. We drew some meat and 
one-half pint of corn meal to each man this morning, which is 
very scant eating, 



Battle of Bentonsville, North Carolina. Second Day. 

March 21, '05. This morning the battle was continued, 
skirmishing quite brisk. At 11 A. M. our division marched 
out and took its position in the line of battle three miles from 
where we lay in reserve yesterday. We formed on the left of 
our Corps (the Fifteenth,) and joining on the right of the 
Fourteenth Corps. Details were made to carry off the wounded. 
Our regiment took its position some three hundred yards from 
the enemies' works, and at once threw up breastworks under 
fire of the enemies' skirmish line, and skirmishing became very 
heavy, with some artillery firing. Two men in our regiment 
were severely wounded, one belonged to Company B, the other 
to Company H. It began to rain about noon, rained hard all 
afternoon and part of the night. There was brisk skirmishing 
all day, and the forepart of the night. Drew some Government 
rations through the day. 

March 22, '65. We got up early and soon found the Confed- 
erates had retreated ; they must have left our front about 2 
o'clock this morning. The 47th Regiment fell into line and 
marched out between the two lines of works and stacked arms 
about 8 A. M. Here we remained until 12 M., and at 12:30 P. 
M. the assembly sounded, and the 47th marched out on the 
direct road towards Goldsboro, marched over ten miles and went 
into camp at sundown. 

Comrade G W. Girton Company E wrote the following on 
this date. 

He says, "Saw some of the Twenty-fourth Corps, and found 



History of the 47th Kegiment O. V. V. I. 419 

one man belonging to an Illinois Regiment, who the Confed- 
erates had taken prisoner, and they had cut his great and small 
toes off, then cut his legs off below the knees, and then hung 
him up. Before he was dead they took him down and beat him 
to death with clubs, because he would not tell them what they 
wanted him to. They threw him in a ditch and covered him 
up with leaves to hide him, but a negro told us where he was 
and how they treated him. When General 0. 0. Howard heard 
of it he went to see the negro and learned all about it. and he 
arrested a citizen who had the dead soldiers papers." (And 
we hope that General Howard had that citizen shot.) 

Let us now see what the historian says in his life of General 
Sherman. 

As had been previously determined. General Sherman swung 
his left wing nearly due east from Averysboro, and directly 
towards Goldsboro, where he knew General Schofield was march- 
ing. By the 18th his left was within five miles of Bentons- 
ville, and twenty-seven miles of Goldsboro ; his right was some- 
what nearer Goldsboro and distant from his left about ten 
miles; General Sherman was traveling with General Howard 
on his right. He thought that he had driven the enemy suffi- 
ciently towards Raleigh to clear his left entirely, but it seems 
Johnston, knowing the danger of a junction between Sherman 
and Schofield, resolved to attack General Sherman's left 
before such junction could take place, and had gathered all 
the forces he could and made a bold dash for Bentonsville. 
He had concentrated them under Bragg, Cheatham, Hardee 
and Hampton on the night of the 18th, and when General 
Slocum came into the neighborhood of Bentonsville, he struck 
Johnston in force. On the morning of the 19th, Johnston 
made a vigorous attack on Slocum, driving two of his lu'igades 
back on the main army, and capturing three guns. General 
Slocum saw he had a formidable foe to contend with, and de- 
ployed his respective divisions in defensive line, with orders to 
throw up barricades. General Sherman sent him word to hold 
on the defensive, till he could send re-inforcements from the 
right. General Hazen's division of the Fifteenth Corps (our 
division) was sent directly to General Slocum, while the re- 
mainder of the Fifteenth Corps was turned for Bentonsville, 



420 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

with the intention of striking Johnston's rear. In this posi- 
tion Slocum received six heavy assaults from the enemy, bathe 
held his ground unflinchingly and parried them all with gnat 
loss to the foe. These assaults constituted the battle of March 
19th, in a difficult country, filled with bushy swamps. On 
March 20th, the Fifteenth Corps closed in on Bentonsville, find- 
ing freshly made parapets. It was therefore ordered to proceed 
with the greatest caution, till it- could effect a junction with 
General Slocum on the left. During this day General Sherman 
got his forces in position, and found Johnston occupying the 
two sides of a triangle whose apex was on the direct road from 
Averysboro to Goldsboro, which embraced Bentonsville. and 
whose flanks, or wings, were protected by deep swamps. It 
was in every sense a strong and commanding position, and one 
which General Sherman hesitated to attack. March 21st 
opened rainy and no operations were possible. About noon 
General Mower's command of General Howard's right wing 
broke through the Confederate lines, and began a pursuit of the 
troops in his front towards Bentonsville. General Sherman 
checked this rash move which would have precipitated a general 
battle, and in order to secure General Mower's safe retreat to 
his Corps, a skirmish fire was opened all along the Union front. 
During that night the enemy beat a hasty retreat in the direc- 
tion of Smithfield, leaving his pickets as prisoners, his dead, 
un buried, and his wounded in the hospitals. The losses to 
General Sherman in the Bentonsville engagements were 191 
killed, 1,117 wounded, and 296 missing. The Confederate 
General J. E. Johnston's loss including prisoners was 2,343. 

March 23, '65. The 47th had roll call at 4:30 A. M.. and 
we started on our march towards Goldsboro at sunrise, our 
regiment being in the advance, marched sev<m miles. We had 
marched one mile too far and had to march back one mile, there 
we went into camp with our division at 12 o'clock M. There 
was a fire broke out in the grass in this camp and burned 
nearly all the 53rd Ohio's tents and part of their knapsacks. 
An order was read to us from General Sherman stating that 
our campaign was over, and we were to get clothing and a 
short rest, etc. 

The day was not memorable in the annals of the war as a 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 421 

consummation of those vast plans which for months had been in 
operation, and which had brought within supporting distance 
of General Grant, a force equal to any further emergency. 
After joining General Schofield, General Sherman felt strong 
enough to encounter Johnston — he regarded himself as virtu- 
ally master of the situation. 

March 24, '65. There were orders issued and read this morn- 
ing for no one to leave camp, and every man to have forty 
rounds of ammunition. At 8 A. M. we got orders to be ready 
to move immediately. The 47th marched at 8 :30 A. M. towards 
Goldsbor^, crossed the Neuse River at the Weldon Railroad 
Bridge, marched through Goldsboro and went into camp two 
and one-half miles east of the town ; orders to lay out a regular 
camp here. Our Brigade in reserve, the First and Third in 
front line. This was the formation of our camp for the Second 
Division Fifteenth Army Corps at Goldsboro, North Carolina, 
March 24, 1865. 

During the 23rd and 24th, 1865 the whole army came up, 
and entered the camps assigned them. The railroad to New- 
bern was open and supplies began to pour in, thus the long- 
looked for junction between Generals Sherman and Schofield 
was effected, and thus ended one of the longest and most impor- 
tant marches ever made by an organized army. Over four hun- 
dred and twenty-five miles of hostile country had been traversed, 
and five large rivers had been crossed, at any one of which, a 
small force could have offered serious impediments. The coun- 
try was rendered doubly difficult by reason of swamps, which 
the rains had filled with water, and the roads were so impassa- 
ble that corduroying afforded the only means of advance. 
Three important supply cities, Columbia, Cheraw andFayette- 
ville had been captured, the evacuation of Charleston had been 
compelled. All the important railroads of South Carolina had 
been broken, and an immense amount of military property 
destroyed. A section of couutry equal to forty miles in width 
had been devastated, fifty days of midwinter had been spent in 
marching, and very few days in resting, the army had arrived 
in splendid order. Counting in with General Sherman's suc- 
cesses those of Schofield and Terry, in capturing Fort Fisher, 
Newberii, Wilmington, etc., and opening the way to Goldsboro, 



422 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. J. 

t he whole sea coast from Savannah, Ga. to Newbern, North 
Carolina, had fallen into our hinds in the sh >rt space of sixty 

days, and an army of one hundred thousand disciplined and 
victorious soldiers were in position for further operations, and 
no one rieed to wonder why there was general rejoicing in 
this army is well as at our homes in the North. We learned 
that General Sherman has gone to visit General Grant, and 
left us under General John M Schofield. 

March 2d, '65. Camp near Goldsboro, North Carolina. 
About all the boys in the 47th Regiment Ohi > are gathering 
up hoards and putting up tents, and are generally arranging 
the camp. The cam]) is being regularly laid out as though w<> 
were going to remain here sometime. Weather clear and cool 
with some frost this morning. 

March 26, '65. Still arranging the camp in fine style. Some 
of our hoys went out and brought some sweet potatoes. The 
Sergeant went to see who needed clothing, etc. In the evening 
we got orders to be ready to go foraging to-morrow morning at 
(') (/clock. 

March 27, '65. Monday. The 47th was awakened at 4:30 
A. M. The regiment fell in at 7 A. M. without tents or knap- 
sacks, and our brigade started on the march in the direction of 
Snowhill, inarched thirteen miles, then turned to the left go- 
ing that way nearly one mile, crossing a creek and found plenty 
of corn and fodder to load all the trains in the brigade; here 
we stacked arms and Colonel Parry of the 47th gave orders for 
the men not to scatter all over the country, as he expected 
Confederate cavalry to bring on fight here, perhaps in a few 
minutes, but it was only a short time until the boys were scat- 
tered all over the plantation, and some went to the adjoining 
plantation. 

We will here give the experience of G. W. Girton of Company 
E in his own words written at that time. 

(He says,) "I with three others of our company, and others 
belonging to our regiment went farther up the road where our 
foragers had been run in by the Confederates, then filed off 
west across the field to a white house nearly one mile from 
where our brigade stopped ; when we got there we found five 
men of the 111th Regiment Illinois. We had been there only 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 428 

a few minutes when two Confederates were seen a few hundred 
yards from the house in the edge of the woods, so we got together 
and thought to show fight, supposing there were only a few of 
them, but we came to a hasty conclusion to get to our regiment 
as soon as possible, as we had left without permission, so we 
started through the peach orchard, which was in full bloom, 
and concealed us to some extent, but before we reached the 
farther side of the orchard there were twenty-rive or more Con- 
federate cavalry galloping down the road south of the house 
and headed us, and when we jumped over the peach orchard 
fence, the)- began firing at us at the distance of one hundred 
and fifty yards. It was nearly a quarter of a mile through an 
open field to the woods and I saw it was foolishness to attempt 
to reach the woods. I squatted behind the fence corner and 
drew up to shoot, but my gun snapped, and by that time the 
Confederates were between me and the regiment. After the boys 
that run on, the Confederates kept up a brisk firing, some of 
the balls striking the fence close to me. The Confederates 
pursued the others, tiring on them until they fell killed or 
wounded, anyway they carried them off, and when they we?e 
all gone I lit out for the regiment, reached it in safety. I was 
the only one not captured; I reported the news, then Com- 
panies C and E were sent, back there, but the enemy had car- 
ried our men off. One of our men had his leg amputated." 

We resume our diary. 

Marched back to camp and arrived there at 7 P. M., having 
marched thirty miles, and brought in plenty of forage. Drew 
clothing that night. 

March 28 to 30, '65. In camp at Goldsboro, North Carolina. 
Nothing doing but regular camp duties, putting our camp in 
fine shape for some review. There has been right smart of 
rain during the last few days. 

March 31, '65. There was a man of the 12th Regiment New 
York cavalry shot to death by sentence of a count-martial for 
the awful offence of committing rape, and stabbing a woman 
near Kingston, North Carolina, recently. It is awful to see a 
man shot by his own men, yet the wretch ought to be shot 
when found guilty of such a horrible crime. 

April 1, '65. We are still in same camp at Goldsboro, North 



424 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

Carolina; nothing doing but camp duty. The sick that were 
left at Savannah, Ga., are returning. Weather clear, warm 
during the day, cold at night. 

April 2, '65. We had regimental inspection at 9 A M., re- 
ceived orders for general review this afternoon at 3 o'clock. 
At 2:30 P. M. fell in line for the review; formed the brigade 
and was reviewed by General W. B Hazen. After the review 
there was a man of the 48th Illinois drammed out of the United 
States service by sentence of a court-martial ; he was found 
guilty of rape, on our late Georgia march from Atlanta to 
the sea. His head was shaved clean, and even his eye bronzed; 
he did not seem to mind it very much. Colonel Parry followed 
him the length of our regiment saying, "You dirty hog, you." 
His head was marked D. R. in red ink, meaning deserter and 
rape. He was guarded by about ten men with bayonets close 
to his body, clear around him ; in this manner he was marched 
past the Second Division Fifteenth Army Corps to beyond our 
picket lines and not allowed to return, nor draw one cent of 
his pay, and he could get home the best way he could through 
the Confederate lines. It is right that our officers should pun- 
ish such criminals as they did this wretch. 

April 3, '65. The regiment was ordered to fall in at 9 A. M. 
for company drill which lasted two hours, and from 3 to 5 P. 
M. had battallion drill and dress parade; in the evening drew 
shelter tents. Rumors in camp that the war is about over, and 
there is great joy. 

April 4, '65. We again had company drill from 9 to 11 A. 
M. In the afternoon from 3 to 5 o'clock we had brigade drill, 
which was very tiresome on the men. The Chaplain of the 
53rd Illinois made us a speech after dark on the subject of the 
war. There was great cheering throughout and some of the 
best singing we have heard in this war. It was grand and 
patriotic. 

April 5, '65. The regiment had company drill from 8 to 10 
A. M. There was a man in Company G who shot himself 
through the wrist by accident. He had his musket loaded and 
had it in bed with him when it occurred. We drew five days 
rations of hard tack, coffee, sugar, candles, soap, beans and 
meat for two days. The rumor is we' are to leave here soon, 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 425 

and march to help capture Petersburg or Richmond. Va., which 
■\ve could reach in less than a weeks march from here. 

Let us now see what is said by General Sherman. 

He says,it was agreed at the interview between Generals Grant 
and Sherman, that General Sherman should be ready to move 
from Goldsboro by April 10th, and that then he should start 
for the Roanoke River, and thence either strike the Danville 
Road, or join General Grant's forces. General Grant's own 
movement to Lee's right had been fixed for March 29th He 
was then confronting Lee's army of 70,000 effectives with his 
own of 111,000. and it would necessarily take him some days 
to ascertain the effect of his intended move. This would give 
General Sherman ample time to get ready, and hence the 10th 
of April was fixed for him. He had much to do in the way of 
re-shaping his organization and replenishing his stores. He 
arrived at Goldsboro from City Point on March 30th, and at 
-once went actively to work. His army assumed its old tripartite 
shape, prior to the Atlanta Campaign, and now stood as follows : 

Army of the Tennessee, Commanded by Maj. General O. O. 
Howard : 

Fifteenth Army Corps, Gen. John A. Logan, 15,670 men. 

Seventeenth Army Corps, Gen. F. P. Blair, 13,164 men. 



Total 28,834 men. 

This army constituted Gen. Sherman's right wing. 
Army of Georgia, commanded by Maj. Gen. Henry W. 
Slocum. 

Fourteenth Army Corps, 15,098 men. 

Twentieth Army Corps, 12,965 men. 

Total 28,063 men. 

This army composed Gen. Sherman's left wing. 
Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. J. M. Schofield. 
Tenth Army Corps, 12,099 men. 

Twenty-third Army Corps, 14.293 men. 

Total 26,392 men 

Cavalry Division commanded by Maj. Gen. J. Kilpatrick. 
Aggregate 5,392 men 

A grand total of 88,948 men, with 91 pieces of artillery, and 



426 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 

by April 5th, Gen. Sherman had things so well forward as to 
warrant the publication of special field orders for the campaign 
toward the Roanoke River, which we will not reproduce here, 
as they were only partly executed. 

We now resume our diary written at that time. 

April 6, '65. The drilling occurred as usual this morning. 
There was great cheering in every direction throughout the 
army around Goldsboro over the news which we received this 
morning, that General Grant had taken Richmond with a 
large number of prisoners and near five hundred pieces of 
artillery. Our regiment drew a barrel of beans over the victory, 
but the news was too good to be true and was not official. There 
was brigade drill in the afternoon, dress parade as usual. 

April 7, '65. Drilling for two hours this morning as usual. 
The cheering news was again circulated in camp this morning 
from the Army of the Potomac, saying, General Lee had sur- 
rendered his army to General Grant, but it is not generally 
credited. Division drill in the afternoon. There were some 
men of our brigade who lost their blouses on division drill ; they 
were marched to Division Headquarters under guard ; we sup- 
pose put at hard at labor. Orders received that all men who 
are not able to march be sent to the rear; this means we are to 
start on a campaign in a day or two. 

April 8, '65. There was again company drill from 8 to 10 A. 
M., and in the afternoon from 2 to 4 o'clock we had division 
drill again, which we think means a campaign is on hands soon. 
We learned in the evening that we will start on the march next 
Monday, the 10th. Also heard that General Sherman had got 
an important dispatch from General U. S. Grant. We hope 
Lee's surrender is true. 

Let us now see what General Grant said to General Sherman : 

"If Lee goes beyond Danville, you (General Sherman) will 
have to take care of him with the force you have for awhile ; 
should he do so you will want to get on the railroad south of 
him, to hold it or destroy it, so that it will take him a long 
time to repair damages; should he go to Lynchburg with his 
whole force, and I get to Burksville there will be no special 
use in your going further into North Carolina: there is no con- 
tingency I can see, except my failure to take Burksville, that 



History of the 4<th Regiment. 0. V. V. I. 427 

will make it necessary for you to move on to the Roanoke, as 
proposed when you were here." 

Here then were startling events and wise suggestions which 
changed the whole tenor of General Sherman's previous 
orders. 

The historian would add here that at this time General Grant 
had taken Burksville and had Lee's army penned in and must 
soon surrender; therefore General Sherman re-modeled his 
orders and prepared to move on the appointed day April 10th. 
direct for Raleigh, so as to imperil the army under Jos. E. 
Johnston known to he at Smithfield, and fully 35,000 strong, 
Johnston was well on his guard and had a strong force of cav- 
alry on his right and left under Wheeler and Hampton, watch- 
ing any movement General Sherman might make. He replied 
to General Grant's letter that he would move promptly on the 
10th, and would be prepared to follow Johnston's army where 
ever it might go. 

We now resume the diaries written at that time. 

April 9, '65. Had orders to be ready for inspection of arms 
and accoutrements at 7 A. M., at that time were inspected by 
company officers. In the afternoon we drew ten days rations, 
with orders to b<t ready to march to-morrow morning. There 
was again the cheering news that General Grant had taken 
Petersbuig and Richmond with twenty eight thousand prisoners. 
The news not confirmed, and there was great rejoicing in camp. 
The war is over, the Union restored. 

April 10, '65. The 47th had roll call at 4:80 this morning. 
to In- ready to march at 7 o'clock. The whole army around 
Goldsboro as far as the eye can see are striking tents and getting 
ready to march, and it is raining quite hard, but an army does 
not stop for rain. Our brigade marched out at 8 A. M., the 
47th being in the center of the Division, the Third Brigade in 
the advance; marched through the town of Pikeville on the 
snow hill road, and when we were seven miles from Goldsboro. 
we turned to our left. Here the First Division of our Corps 
(the Fifteenth) passed us and took aright hand road. Our 
whole Fifteenth Corps is on the extreme right of the army: we 
seem to be marching towards Raleigh, the capital of North 
Carolioa. There is some skirmishing in our front, and some 
artillery-tiring on our left. We crossed the Welding and Golds- 



428 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

boro Railroad, marched seventeen miles then went into cam]) at 
dark. The weather was showery the whole day: still rain- 
ing at oight. 

April 11, '65. The bugle sounded at 5 A. M. for roll call, 
the 47th inarched at 8 A. M. It rained pretty hard last riiglvfe. 
very cloudy this morning. We marched sixteen miles and 
passed through Lowell after dark. The town lays on the banks 
of Little River. We learned that our forces on the left took 
Smithfield without much opposition; that General Johnston is 
retreating to Raleigh, and burned the bridges behind him. 
There are rumors that General Lee has surrendered his army to 
General Grant; that our forces have occupied Richmond and 
Petersburg. The army here is wild with joy and great excite- 
ment, as they think the war is now over. Some of the men 
broke their muskets, others tore up their caps, etc. General 
Wm. B. Hazen, our Division Commander, tore up his hat and 
threw it to the four winds. We went into camp at 9 P. M. 

April 12, '65. Major-General W. T. Sherman yesterday be- 
came the recipient of the welcome news that Lee had surrended 
at Appomattox. He immediately incorporated the word into 
a special field order, under this date, April 12th, 1865. The 
same was read to the whole army under his command this 
morning. 

He said : The General commanding announces to the army. 
that he has olHcial notice from General Grant that General Lee 
surrendered to him his entire army, on the 9th, at Appomattox 
Court House, Virginia. Glory to God and our Country, and all 
honor to our Comrades in arms towards whom we are marching. 

A little more labor, a little more toil on our part, the great 
race is won, and our Government stands regenerated after four 
long years of war. 

Signed W. T. Sherman, Major-General Commanding 

Of course, this created a perfect furor of rejoicing through- 
out the army, and we all regarded the war as over, for General 
Sherman said at that time, - 'I knew well that General J. E. 
Johnston had no army with which to oppose mine." Orders 
were to be ready to march at 8 A. M., but the 47th did not 
march until 11 :30 A. M., our brigade in the rear of our division 
At dark we passed one Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps. 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 429 

We turned to the the left near Smithfield and went into camp 
at 7 P. M. one mile from town, having marched eleven miles. 

April 13, '65. We received orders to be ready to march at 6 
A. M., but did not march till 10:30. A dispatch from General 
Grant to General Sherman stating the conditions of Lee's sur- 
render was read. We marched through a very fine rolling coun- 
try, saw some fine plantations on the way. The 47th marched 
twelve miles and went into camp one and one-half miles from 
the Neuse River. The weather was very hot and the men strag- 
gled badly. 

April 14, '65. The 47th marched towards Raleigh at 7 A. M. 
Our Corps (the Fifteenth) crossed the Neuse River in the fore- 
noon, marched through Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, 
without opp:nition, the Confederates under J. E. Johnston 
having retreated towards Durham, then marched four miles 
north-west of Raleigh, and then went into camp at 2 P. M., 
having marched twelve miles. Weather hot through the day 
and cold at night. 

Govenor Vance of North Carolina was captured by our men 
to-day out in the country, and is now a prisoner. We learned 
that the main Confederate Army under Johnston passed through 
Raleigh on last Tuesday. In the evening we drew some meal 
and a little meat that our foragers brought in. 

April 15, '65. In camp four miles from Raleigh, North 
Carolina. We received orders to be ready to resume the march 
but the order was countermanded soon after. It began to rain 
hard at 3 A. M. and continued all through the day. In the 
afternoon had orders to put up our tents and make ourselves 
comfortable as possible, as we might remain here several days. 

The camp is full of rumors about General J. E. Johnston the 
Confederate Commander in our front; some say he has offered 
to surrender his army to General Sherman, but we have nothing 
official. We heard some artillery firing south-west of here late 
in the day we suppose our forces are driving Johnston's rear 
guard towards Hillsb oro, North Carolina. We drew some 
whisky in the evening. We are very wet and camped in the 
woods. 

General Sherman says, "On April 15th I entered Raleigh, 
which had been abandoned by the enemy, and instantly ordered 



:.»> History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

my columns to push on in the direction of CharJotte and Salis- 
bury. On the 14th he received a communication from General 
Johnston, which is said to have been dictated by Jefferson Davis 
then a refugee, and living in a box car at Greensboro. It was 
dated April 13th, 1865, viz: 

"The result of the recent campaign in Virginia has changed 
the relative military condition of the belligerents. lam, there- 
fore, induced to address you in this form, the inquiry: whether 
to stop the further effusion of blood and devastation of property, 
you are willing to make a temporary suspension of active opera- 
tions, and to communicate to Lieutenant-General Grant com- 
manding the Armies of the United States, the request that he 
will take like action in regard to other armies, the object being 
to permit the civil authorities to enter into the needful arrange- 
ments to terminate the existing war." 

To this General Sherman replied, under date of April 14th. 
1865, from Raleigh. 
General J. E. Johnston, Commanding Confederate Army. 

General : — I have this moment received your communication 
of this date. I am fully empowered to arrange with you any 
terms for the suspension of further hostilities between the 
armies commanded by you, and those commanded by myself, 
and will be willing to confer with you to that end. I will 
limit the advance of my main column to-morrow to Morrisville, 
and the cavalry to the University, and expect that you will al- 
so maintain the present position of your forces until each has 
a notice of failure to agree that a basis of action may be had. 
I undertake to abide by the same terms and conditions as were 
made by Generals Grant and Lee at Appomattox Court House, 
on the 9th instant, relative to our two armies, and furthermore 
to obtain from General Grant an order to suspend the move- 
ments of any troops from the direction of Virginia. General 
Stoneman is in my command, and my order will suspend any 
devastation or destruction coutemplated by him. I will add 
that I really desire to save the people of North Carolina the 
damage they would sustain by the march of this army through 
the central or western part of the State. 

I am, with respect, your obedient servant 
Signed W. T. Sherman, Major-General. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 431 

April 16, '65. General Sherman received a dispatch from 
Johnston agreeing to meet him at a point midway between his 
own forces, then at Hillsboro and General Sherman's advance, 
then at Durham. As General Sherman was entering the cur to 
go to the appointed spot he received the depl >rable news of 
the assassination <»f President Lincoln on the night of the 
14th. Though perturbed by the sad announcment he kept on his 
way, and after meeting Johnston, who was accompanied by 
Wade Hampton, he made it his first business to announce the 
assassination. Johnston was greatly distressed over the news 
and gave expression to the sentiment that the event could not 
fail to be calamitous to the Confederacy. The two Generals 
then proceeded to discuss the object of the meeting. General 
Sherman took the ground that since Lee had surrendered, 
Johnston could do the same with honor and propriety. He, 
however aefused to accept any terms addressed to the Govern- 
ment of the United States by those who claimed to represent the 
civil power of the Confederacy. The matter resolves itself, 
therefore, into such agreements as the two Generals representing 
the respective armies might conclude. Gen. Sherman was in 
doubt about Johnston's authority to speak for the Confederate 
and armies, the interview was broken off till he could prove 
himself a sufficient mouthpiece. 

We return to our diaries. 

At camp near Raleigh. Cleaned up our guns, and had inspec- 
tion at 9 A. M. by companies. There is great joy in camp on 
account, it is believed Johnston has surrendered. The war is 
over; we will now go home to stay. We drew two and one-half 
days rations to do us five days. 

April 17, '65. We find the following in life of General Sher- 
man which we think is important here. 

(It says) On General Sherman's return to Raleigh (from his 
interview with Johnston) he issued the following field order to 
his army announcing the assassination of President Lincoln, 
under date of April 17th, 1865, as follows : 



4S2 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, In the Field, 

Raleigh, North Carolina, April 17, '65. 

The General commanding announces, with pain and sorrow, 
that on the evening of the 14th instant, at the theater in Wash- 
ington City, His Excellency, the President of the United States, 
Mr. Lincoln, was assassinated by one who uttered the State 
Motto of Virginia. At the same time, the Secretary of State. 
Mr. Seward, while suffering from a broken arm was also stabbed 
by another murderer in his own house, but still survives, and 
his son was wounded, supposed fatally. It is believed by per- 
sons capable of judging that other high officers were designed 
to share the same fate. Thus it seems that our enemy despair- 
ing of meeting us in open manly warfare, begins to resort to 
the assassin's tools. 

Your General does not wish to infer that this is universal,, 
for he knows that the great mass of the Confederate Army 
would scorn to sanction such acts, but he believes ittne legiti- 
mate consequence of rebellion against rightful authority. 

We have met every phase which this war has assumed, and 
must now be prepared for it, in its last and worst shape — that 
of assassins and guerrillas ; but woe unto the people who seek 
to expend their wild passions in such a manner, for there is 
but one dread result. By order of, 

Major-General W. T. Sha-man. 

April 17, '65. Raleigh, North Carolina. We heard that 
President Lincoln was assassinated. The whole army is shocked 
and disheartened. William McKibben of Company H died at 
sundown to-day with an epileptic fit. He was sitting up talking 
and fell over; in less then ten minutes he was dead. In the 
evening we drew some meal and shorts, a little flour that our 
foragers had brought in. Some of the boys in our regiment 
visited Raleigh to-day, saw the State House, the Deaf and Dumb 
and Blind asylums, and the railroad depots. Saw in the papers 
that Gen. Sherman had gone out to the front to consult with 
Johnston about a surrender of the Confederate armies, and we 
consider the war as over. 

April 18, '65. A special order was read to us from Gen. Sher- 
man announcing the confirmation of the assassination of Pres- 






History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 488 

ident A. Lincoln which caused a great gloom throughout our 
regiment and the army. McKibben of Company H was buried 
this forenoon. Orders to be ready to march at 11 A. M. .struck 
tents at that time and started on the march at 11 :30 A. M. back 
towards Raleigh, inarched three miles and went into a new 
camp about one mile north of Raleigh. Our regiment camped 
on a nice grassy hillside in a grove of small pine tree?. It 
rained very hard after we came here in this new camp; our 
Division is all here in camp. 

Let us now see what little the soldiers in the army knew of 
what was going on at that time. 

The following we find in the life of Gen. W. T. Sherman. 

It says on April 18th, after consulting fully with his Generals 
and agreeing that some terms of surrender ought to be conclud- 
ed, he (General Sherman) started for his second interview with 
Johnston at the place of the former one. Johnston, meanwhile 
had summoned Breckinridge, Confederate Secretary of War. 
and Reagan, Postmaster General, and they had preparer) terms 
which they thought would be satisfactory to the authorities 
they represented. When they presented them, Gen. Sherman 
objected to dealing with a member of the civic side of the 
Confederacy, but on Johnston's representations that Breckin- 
ridge was also a Major-General and disposed to sink his office 
of Secretary of War in his military title, Gen. Sherman con- 
sented to hear his views. After discussion was exhausted, Gen. 
Sherman sat down and wrote his views which he said he would 
first present to President Johnston for approval, provided both 
armies would maintain the status quo (remain where they were) 
till a reply could be received. Both Generals Johnston and 
Breckinridge assented to Gen. Sherman's views and to the ex- 
tension of the truce. 

The historian would add here that it is unimportant to give 
the terms of surrender of Johnston's army as they are most too 
lengthy, and they were afterwards rejected by the President of 
the United States and his cabinet, and will now resume to 
write from the diaries written at that time. 

April 19, '65. Camp near Raleigh, North Carolina. This 
morning the Raleigh papers came out dressed in mourning on 
account of the assassination of President A. Lincoln, and theei 



484 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

is mourning throughout the army for our beloved President. 
There was a chain guard put clear round our brigade and given 
orders to let no one out without a written pass signed by the 
Brigade Commander. Heard in the evening that Johnston had 
surrendered all the Confederate armies east of the Mississippi, 
but not official. 

April 20, '65. Camp near Raleigh, North Carolina. We 
have no official news from the front as yet; the camp is full of 
rumors about Johnston's surrender. The boys are all thinking 
we will now go home soon. The Raleigh, N. C. papers of this 
morning claim that the war is over, which causes great rejoic- 
ing throughout our camps. We will now go home to see our 
friends again. The Tenth Army Corps had a general review 
to-day. 

April 21, '65. Raleigh, North Carolina. Still in same camp. 
Orders were read to drill twice each day, and inspection to- 
morrow ; had company inspection to-day. 






History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 435 

P. A. Stephenson of Company E, 47th Regiment Ohio, 
wrote a ballad to-day on the assassination of President Lincoln 
which he gave to his company if they would accept it and pay 
for printing it in ballad form. The company accepted it and 
had it printed, which is as follows : 

On the Confirmation of the oAssassination of 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



Dedicated to all Lovers of Liberty, and Friends of American Union, 
and Presented to Company E, 4.7 th 0. V. V.I. by the Author. 



Confirmed 1 The tragic news is true 1 

America may weep of shame ; 
Howe'er sincere her tears may flow, 

They never can cleanse the stain ; 
For oh! her noblest, truest son, 

Her savior and pride, 
For faith to her, at duty's post, 

'Gainst treason's host allied, 
Now fills a martyr's hallow'd grave, 

Bro't thither by the hellish hand 
Of one whose favored lot has been 

To share the blessings of the land. 

Yes, ''Father Abraham" is no morel 

Oh that our tears could wash away 
The dark, dark stain of crimson gore 

That blots with shame his dying day. 
Oh, when hath the electric fire 

Such dreary, sickening tidings borne 
Along the telegraphic wire? • 

When were a people called to mourn 
Such loss as his, by such a fate? 

True death, insatiate, claims us all, 
He feasts alike on mean and great, 

He renders earth a funeral pall. 

But oh! how hard, the good, the true, 

Should fall as fits the base alone ; 
And fall with all the fruits in view, 



486 History of the 47th Regiment (J. V. V. I. 

That of his virtuous course has grown. 
And such has been our martyr's fate, 

The contumelious scorn lie's borne, 
Mistaken in his course, the hate 

Of ignorance on him still would turn. 
Leagued with the vile, whose base deceit 

Seeks, in dire maliciousness, 
E'er to destroy the good and great, 

To blast the flower whose fruit would bless. 

Oh! how he labored for our good, 

And how unselfish sought that end. 
Despite the slanderer's tongue that would 

Most to his country's welfare tend. 
True, other talents blaze as bright, 

But where the flame so pure, so true? 
For the oppressed, a beacon light 

That bids him hope. A light as true 
As that which shone ere sun or star, 

When God first said "Let there be light ;' T 
A flame divine which naught could mar, 

Dispersing dark oppression's night. 

When Moses through the parted waves 

Of the Red Sea his people led 
And 'mid Sinai's sounding caves 

Jehovah's voice re-echoed 
The statutes by which to guide 

These, his select, his chosen band, 
When, having passed through Jordan's tide. 

They dwel't in Canaan, chosen landl 
Through the thorny wilderness, 

O'er the desert's arid plain 
'Mid sickness, sorrow, pain, distress, 

Their murmuring lips what could restrain? 

Yet still, with patient hope, he bore, 

He prayed for them, both night and day, 
That passing Jordan, on its shore, 

In a land far, far away, 
(Though he might never enter there) 

They might, where milk and honey flow, 
Bles't by Jehovah's special care, 

Peace, plenty, liberty forever know. 
His prayer is granted. They have reached 

The confines of the promise land : 
Now only Jordan lies between 

Fair Canaan and the chosen band. 






History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 487 

See the patriarch slowly tread 

Up to Pisgah's towering height, 
To view the land of promise spread 

In beauty for his ravished sight ! 
He views it now! Oil! how his heart 

With rapturous thanks within him swells; 
Yet his, a pure, unselfish part, 

For where the Canaanite now dwells, 
His feet, lie knows, can never tread; 

Yet joys he that his people may, 
For this he thro' the desert led, 

And now had come his happiest day. 

His earthly labor now is done. 

In death's embrace he fades away, 
His body lies beneath the sun, 

His spirit basks in endless day. 
Although he entered not the land, 

He found, hj far, a better shore, 
Across the narrow Jordan, death, 

Where sorrow is no more. 
Well might all Israel mourn him now 

Who labored thus, unselfishly; 
And, 'mid their babbling, brought them through, 

Resenting not contumely. 

80 is it with our hero now, 

How meekly has he sought our good! 
What peril hath he brought us through! 

What babbling murmurs hath withstood! 
Oh! with what parental care, 

He saw us pass the sea of blood. 
How fervent ever was his prayer, 

Offered for a nation's good, 
How he besought the throne of God 

For freedom — boon most choice! 
And heard, or felt, a voice within. 

Like him of old, "a still, small voice." 

It was the voice of God within, 

Inspiring him to lead the way; 
To trust in him, that for the land 

Would soon arise a better day; 
A day when bondsmen's fettered chain, 

Stained with wounds, freedom's blood, 
Must, with power, be rent in twain, 

By the mighty hand of God. 
That Peace, again celestial Dove. 



138 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V I. 

Migbi wave o'er all herolive branch, 

And that again the hand of love, 

War's bleeding wounds might staunch. 

It was at last the dawn of day, 

A day of all most glorious, 
When heavenly seraphs sang the lay, 

"Good will to all — on earth be peace." 
He heard the seraphs' sweetest song 

And saw the dawning of the day. 
It was his only prayer or wish, 

The singing band bore him away. 
Yet, oh ! how hard, that he be reapt 

By death, in manner such as this! 
Of all the good that ever slept, 

Who shares a fate unjust as his? 



The funeral rites of our martyred President were celebrated 
at the Executive Mansion at Washington, D, C, on the 19th 
of April 1865, and the remains lay in state in the Capitol till 
the 21st, when they were conveyed to Springfield, Illinois. The 
whole nation went into mourning, and this good man univer- 
sally lamented as a true patriot, and possessed of an honest 
and upright principle of action, will be held in cherished mem- 
ory of the American people forever. 

April 22, '65. Raleigh, North Carolina. The guard put 
around our brigade received very strict orders to pass no per- 
son out, nor in camp, without a pass signed by a Brigade Com- 
mander. There was a convention held in our regiment to-day, 
and we nominated D. W. Pierson of Company D to represent 
the regiment in the Ohio convention to nominate State Officers 
to be voted for this fall. Weather warm in the day, c>ol at 
night. 

April 23, '65. In same camp At 9 A. M. there was regi- 
mental inspection, and at 4:30 there occurred a general review. 
Heard nothing from the front to-day. Gen. J. E. Johnston 
has not yet surrendered; there must be something wrong with 
the terms or else Johnston has skipped out of our grasp. 

Let us see what Gen. Sherman says. 

On this date Gen. Sherman received orders from Gen. Grant 
as follows: 






History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 439 

Headquarters Armies of the United States 
Washington, D. C, April 21, '65. 

Major-General W. T. Sherman, Commanding Military Division of 
the Mississippi. 

General : — The basis of agreement entered into between your- 
self, and G-en. J. E. Johnston for the disbandment of the 
Southern Army, and the extension of the authority of the gen- 
eral government over all the territory belonging to it is received. 

I read it carefully myself before submitting it to the Presi- 
dent and Secretary of War, and felt satisfied that it could not 
possibly be approved. Mv reason for these views I will give you 
at another time in a more extended letter. 

Your agreement touches upon questions of such vital impor- 
tance, that as soon as read I addressed a note to the Secretary 
of War notifying him of their receipt and the importance of 
immediate action by the President, and suggested in view of 
their importance, that the entire cabinet be called together 
that all might give an expression of their opinions upon the 
matter. The result was a disapproval by the President of the 
basis laid down ; a disapproval of the negotiations altogther, 
except for th* 3 surrender of the army commanded by General 
Johnston, and directions to me to notify you of this decision. 
I cannot do so better than by sending you the enclosed copy of 
a dispatch (penned by the late President, though signed by 
the Secratary of War) in answer to me on sending a letter 
received from General Lee, proposing to meet me for the pur- 
pose of submitting the question of peace to a convention of 
officers. Please notify General Johnston immediately on re- 
ceipt of this and resume hostilities against his army at the 
earliest moment you can, acting in good faith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant 

U. S. Grant, Lie utenant- Genera I . 

The main part of the copy sent with Gen. Grant's letter was, 
the President instructs me to say that you are not to decide, 
discuss, or confer upon any political questions We would also 
add here that Gen. Grant was ordered by the President to pro- 
ceed immediately to the headquarters of Major-General Sher- 



440 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

man in North Carolina, and direct operations against the 
enemy. 

We now resume our diary. 

April 24, '65. Raleigh, North Carolina. We had a very 
heavy frost this morning. We received orders to clean up <>ur 
camp and pack knapsacks. Gen. W. B. Hazen would inspect 
our quarters in the afternoon. Lieutenant-General Grant 
arrived at Raleigh this morning. Our Commissioned Officers 
were ordered to report to General W. B. Hazen' s headquarters 
at 2 P. M. for drill in saber exercise. The order for inspection 
of our camp by Gen. W. B. Hazen was countermanded. 

On pages 459 and 400, Life of Gen. Sherman, we find tin- 
following : 

As negotiations on the lines suggested by Gen. Shermen were 
now practically off, he prepared the two following messages to 
Johnston, and submitted them to Gen. Grant for approval. 
On receiving his approval they were sent to Gen. Johnston by 
courier; they are as follows: 

Headquarters Military Division, of the Mississippi, in the Field. 
Raleigh, N. C, April 24, '65. 6 A M. 

General Johnston, Commanding Confederate Army, Greensboro: 

You will take notice that the truce or suspension of hostilities 
agreed to between us will cease in forty-eight hours after this 
is received at your lines, under the first of the articles of 
agreement. 

Signed W. T. Sherman, Major- General. 

The second and most important message ran : 
1 have replies from Washington to my communication of 
April 18th. I am instructed to limit my operations to your 
immediate command, and not to attempt civil negotiations. 
I therefore demand the surrender of your army on the same 
terms as were given to Gen. Lee , at Appomattox: April 9th inst. 
pure and simple. 

Not knowing what General who was evidently ably advised 
and coached by the members of the Confederate Cabinet, might 
do under the radically changed circumstances, Gen. Sherman 
issued orders to his army to resume the pursuit of Johnston 
at the end of the forty-eight hours truce. 



History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 441 

April 25, '65. We received orders to clean up and get ready 
for inspection. We had the inspection by companies at 8 A. M., 
then went out on drill a few minutes, then was called in and 
ordered to he ready for general inspection at 9 A. M., and was 
inspected by the Adjutant General of the Second Brigade, Sec- 
ond Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. At 12 M. we were called 
out again and we stacked arms on the color line. This after- 
noon we were called, and dressed up our line three different 
times, and was called to attention five times in ahout one hour. 
At 1 P. M. our division was reviewed by Lieutenant-General 
Grant, accompanied by Generals W. T. Sherman, 0. 0. Howard, 
John A, Logan. Win. B Hazen and staff . We saluted them as 
they passed and gave three cheers for Gens. Grant, and Sherman 
wore black crape on his left arm for our late and lamented 
President. After being dismissed from the review, we received 
orders to be ready to march at 6 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

We find the following in the life of Gen. \V. T. Sherman. 

On this date, April 25, 1865, Gen. W. T. Sherman received 
word from Gen. Johnston to the effect that he would meet him 
at Bennett's house on the 26th. Gen. Grant advised Gen. 
Sherman to go and meet him and to propose the same terms 
as Gen. Lee had acceeded to at Appomattox. Gen Sherman' 
went and found Gen. Johnston willing to sign the terms, which i 
were then duly acknowledged and promulgated as follows: 

Terms of a Military Convention entered into this 26th day 
of April 1865, at Bennett's house near Durham's Station, North 
Carolina, between Gen. Joseph E. Johnston commanding the 
Confederate Army, and Major-General W. T. Sherman com- 1 
manding the United States Army in North Carolina. 

1. , All acts of war on the part of the troops under General 
Johnston's command shall cease. 

2. All arms and public property to be deposited at Greens- 
boro, and delivered to an ordnance officer of the United States 
Army. 

8. Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in duplicate: 
one copy to be retained by the commander of the troops, and 
the other to be given to an officer to be designated by General 
Sherman. Each officer and man to give his individual obligation 
in writing not to take up arms against the Government of the 



142 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

United States, until properly released from this obligation. 

4. The side arms of officers and their private horses and 
baggage to be retained by them. 

5. This being done, all the officers and men will be permitted 
to return to their homes; not to be disturbed by the United 
States authorities so long as they observe their obligation and 
the laws in force where they may reside. 

Signed W. T. Sherman, Major-General 

Commanding United States Forces in North Carolina. 

Signed J- E. Johnston, General 

Commanding Confederate Forces in North Carolina. 

Approved: — U. S. Grant, Lieutenant-General . 

Let us see what our diary says was going on in camp. 

April 26, '65. We had inspection in each company in the 
47th, then drilled one hour in the forenoon and afternoon: the 
order to march towards Johnston's Army was countermanded, 
as it is rumored Johnston is to surrender soon; again drilled 
one hour. Orders received that all men who are well drilled 
are excused from that duty. It is reported around the camp 
that the war is over, and that we are to march to Washington. 
D. C. via. Petersburg and Richmond, Va. Weather clear and 
pleasant. 

April 27, '65. Camp near Raleigh, North Carolina. Imme- 
diate steps were taken by Gen. Sherman to carry out the terms 
of surrender of Johnston's Confederate Army, and Gen. Scho- 
field was appointed by Gen. Sherman to carry out the terms 
of the agreement, and this day will long be remembered as the 
day that Gen. Johnston surrendered his army to Gen. W. T. 
Sherman. The aggregate of prisoners surrendered under the 
capitulation of Johnston embraces his army of 36,817 men at 
Greensboro, North Carolina, and 52,453 scattered in Georgia 
and Florida. Total prisoners in this surrender 89,270. [From 
Life of Sherman.] 

Our diaries of this date, says : That a dispatch from Major- 
General Sherman was read to our regiment announcing the 
surrender of General Joseph E Johnston '9 army, which caused 
great cheering throughout this army, as we think now we will 
be discharged soon and go to our homes, our country saved. 



History of the 47th Begiment O. V. V. I. 443 

We will have only one country and one nag, the red. white and 
blue. The boys put in a good part of the day singing patriotic 
songs and the Girl I left behind me. Battery H of our divi- 
sion turned over its ammunitions of war to-day. Rumors in 
camp in the evening are, we are to start on our march to Wash- 
ington, D. C. to-morrow morning. Oh, how proudly we will 
make this march. We learn that it is about 800 miles to Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

April 28, '65. Raleigh, North Carolina. We did not march 
to-day, but received orders to be ready to march at 9 o'clock 
to-morrow morning, and the camps are almost wild with joy. 
We are going to march to Washington, D. C. We drew hard 
tack, coffee and sugar for three days for this march. Weather 
showery. 

April 29, '65. Raleigh, North Carolina. Saturday. This 
day will ever be remembered by the survivors of the 47th Regi- 
ment Ohio and their children and posterity as the day that 
we started on our long march for Washington, D. C, for the 
wicked war is over and the reign of peace once more began. We 
packed up our knapsacks, struck tents, and at 10:30 A. M. 
the 47th fell into line and bid adieu to the capital of the State 
of North Carolina. Our Corps (the Fifteenth) marched north- 
east on the direct road towards Richmond, Va., marched about 
nine miles to Neuse River, without any rest, crossed the River 
on a pontoon bridge, then marched some two miles north of 
the River and went into camp at 4:30 P. M. having marched 
eleven miles. Weather hot and showery. There were several 
men sunstruck in our Brigade ; it is reported some died from 
sunstroke. All the stragglers were picked up and brought to 
headquarters and made|to walk around in a circle for punishment 
The Colonels of the 47th and 54th Ohio and the 111th Illinois 
went to General Hazen and had their men relieved from such 
punishment as the war is over. Got orders to remain here all 
day tomorrow, as it is Sunday. 

April 30, '65. Sunday. We had roll call by sunrise with 
orders to be ready for inspection at 9 o'clock and muster for two 
months pay, this makes eight months pay now due us. In the 
evening orders were read to us prohibiting foraging and all 



444 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

straggling, burning of rails or disturbing any property of any 
kind on our march. 

May 1, '65. Monday. The 47th had reveille at 8:80 A. M.. 
and started on the march towards Louisburg, North Carolina, 
at 5:30 A. M , our Division being in the advance. Marched 
through Kalesville at 8 A. M., passed Harrison's Cross Roads 
at 9 :30 A. M. We crossed Cedar Creek at 12 M., thence inarched 
five miles beyond Cedar Creek (north) to within sight of 
Louisburg. then filed to the right, went about one mile and 
went into camp at 1:30 P. M. having marched nineteen miles. 
Here we had strict orders to burn no rails or other property. 

May 2, '65. Louisburg, North Carolina. We had reveille 
at 5 A. M. and orders to be ready to move at 8 A. M. A man 
by the name of Thomas Thurlby of Company A 47th Ohio was 
found dead in his bed this morning; he marched in rank all 
day yesterday. The 47th marched promptly on time, passed 
through Louisburg, North Carolina, at 9 A. M. As we were 
marching through the streets of the town we saw three men 
who belonged to some battery. They were tied with their 
backs to a board fence and a paper was pinned on their breasts 
with the words 'Pillagers' written on it in large letters, and they 
were kept there until all our troops had marched past them ; 
we hope hereafter theywont pillage anymore. 

Louisburg is a large well laid out town. We marched nine- 
teen miles and went into camp at sundown. Here Gen. Wm. 
B. Hazen, who commands our division, ordered one days rations 
issued, at the request of Colonel A C Parry Now, had w r e been 
told one month ago that this army could have been marched 
through with as strict discipline as we are now, we certainly 
would not have believed it Men who had always straggled 
every day on other marches, keep in the ranks all day; perhaps 
the thoughts of getting home braces them up. The country 
we marched through to-day is somewhat broken, but now and 
then we saw some fine plantations. 

May 3, '65. Wednesday. We had reveille at 4:30 with 
orders to march at 6 A. M. The 47th fell into line and resumed 
the march towards Richmond, turned on the Warrenton Road, 
crossed Fishing Creek, reached Warrenton, the county-seat of 
Warren County, North Carolina, at 11 A. M. The town is a 



History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 445 

very fine place. We saw General O. O. Howard standing on 
the side-walk as we passed through the town; saw a great many 
ex-Confederate soldiers in the town and along the roads ; they 
don't have much to say now. Marched on to Macon Station, 
and crossed the railroad a few miles north of the town of War- 
renton. thence marched to Robin's Ferry on Roanoke River, 
having marched twenty-five miles - The country very rolling. 
Along the line of march were to be seen large negro popula- 
tion of all colors; more than half of them apparently have 
white blood in their veins, some being very white, which shows 
the great sin of slavery. They gathered all along our line of 
march and cheered themselves hoarse, as they considered us 
their deliverers from their bondage. The weather was very 
warm, and the roads very dusty; water quite scarce. 

May 4, '65. We drew three days rations at 1 o'clock this 
morning; had reveille at 4 A. M., was ready to march early but 
we did not march then. The Fourth Division of our Corps 
(the Fifteenth) went in advance ; our Brigade fell in and crossed 
Roanoke River at 12 M., and marched some two miles, then 
crossed the State line from North Carolina into old Virginia; 
passed through seemingly rich country ; there were large prep- 
arations for raising tobacco. The forepart of the day was very 
warm ; rained some in the afternoon and settled the dusty 
roads. Marched seventeen miles then crossed the Meherrin 
River on the Irvington Bridge at dark and went into camp one 
mile north of the river at 8 P. M. The negroes again flocked 
to the road to cheer us to-day; some ®f them shouted them- 
selves hoarse; we made them shout for General Sherman, which 
they did, both men, women, and their children. 

May 5, '65. Friday. We had reveille at 4 A. M. The 47th 
had orders to march at daylight. The First Brigade of our 
Division went in the advance, so it was 6 A. M. when our 
Brigade marched out in a heavy shower of rain, passed through 
Lawrenceville, Va., a small village, at 8:30 A. M. From here 
we marched on the Plank Road to the Notaway River, distance 
seventeen miles; crossed the river at 8:30 P. M., marched on 
same road three miles farther, then turned off to the right on 
the Stoney Creek Road ; on the latter we marched about two 
miles, and went into camp at about 6 P. M., having marched 



14<> History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

twenty-seven miles during the day. Weather very sultry in 
the afternoon. The men were very tired which caused a right 
smart of straggling. The country we marched through was 
very rolling; water good when found. 

May 6, '65. Saturday. We had reveille at 8:30 A. M.,with 
orders to he ready to move at daylight. The 47th started on 
the march at 5:80 A. M. We turned back to the Boydtown 
Plank Road, marched on it towards Petersburg, crossed Stoney 
Creek and reached Dewindie Court House at 10:45 A. M. a lit- 
tle over eight miles marched this morning; here we found a 
temporary line of breastworks. This place is where Gen. Sher- 
idan outflanked Lee's army on the 29th of March last. Marched 
on near one mile farther and passed the Confederate line of 
works, very strong lines of works with four lines of abattis in 
their front. We went one mile further and went into camp at 
2 P. M. being about six miles from Petersburg, Va., having 
marched twenty miles. Some of our boys on looking around 
found some of the Confederate dead still not buried which 
caused an awful stink. The weather was very warm. The 
country through which we came during the day was very roll- 
ing, the red clay hills very sticky. The negroes are still rejoic- 
ing wherever seen along the road ; the whites look sullen, but 
a few of those were rejoicing also. We asked a white man what- 
had become of the Confederacy but could not get a reply from 
him. 

May 7, '65. The pack-up call sounded at 6 A. M., the 47th 
started on the march at 7:80 A. M., our regiment in the ad- 
vance of the brigade, brigade in advance of the division. 
Marched to within one mile of the city of Petersburg, Va., and 
went into camp at 9 A. M. 

Comrade Grirton of Company E wrote in his diary on this date. 

Our division was the first (the writer would add he means of 
Sherman's army) to arrive at Petersburg having left Raleigh, 
North Carolina, on the 29th day of April. Marched six days, 
crossing four rivers, two of them we pontooned and marched 
one hundred and forty miles. Four of those days we averaged 
twenty-five miles per day ; we were on a race with the Seven- 
teenth Army Corps. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 447 

Captain H. Bremfoeder of Company B, wrote in his diary on 
this date as follows : 

In the afternoon took a ride with Colonel W. S. Jones to 
visit the lines of fortifications around the City of Petersburg. 
At one of the Confederate Forts which was undermined and 
blown up by Gen. Grant, a large amount of human bones were 
still bleaching in the sun — the ground covering them having 
been washed gradually by the rain ; a sad sight indeed ; opposite 
to it a large long ditch containing the remains of a large num- 
ber of colored soldiers who were killed in the charge subsequent 
to the blowing up of the mine, were also visible On our re- 
turn we passed through the City Cemetery, and also through 
the principal streets of the town. Received orders that we 
would remain here a day or two. In the evening we drew some 
fresh beef. There are great appearances of rain. Our camp is 
near the Confederate works. 

May 8, '65. Camp at Petersburg, Va. The 47th received 
orders to clean up our guns and accoutrements and clothing to 
go through the city of Petersburg to-morrow in review; the 
Seventeenth Army Corps are marching, and being reviewed to- 
day in Petersburg on their way to Richmond, Va. They were 
passing our camp all the forenoon. 

Comrade George W. Girton of Company E says on this date 
as follows: 

Stephen and I started to go to where General Grant blew up 
the Confederate Fort last summer; it lay nearly due east of 
the city, and was near four miles from our camp. We struck 
the works to the right of the Fort, then went along them until 
we came to the fort. We had never saw any works to compare 
with them, and a description by any person would fall short of 
the works themselves. We will only say that every possible 
use that could have been made of earth for works were used 
here; they slept entirely underground. Where Gen. Grant be- 
gan to mine to go under the fort was about eighty yards from 
the fort, and from the looks of the ground around there it 
must have been a terrible eruption. Although the fort has 
been rebuilt, the destruction of the former fort is very plain 
to be seen yet. There were men's bones lying all around that 
were never buried, and some who had been buried, their feet 



t£8 History of thp: 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

Mini hands are yet above the gound. We saw shoes with the 
bones of the feet in them just as they wereworn. We returned 
to camp passing through the city. Had some rain in the 
evening; windy all day. 

May 9, '65. In camp at Petersburg, Va. Rained a heavy 
shower last night, cloudy and cooler this morning Orders to 
be ready to march at 8 A. M., the 47th Ohio marched promptly 
at that time. Our Division was in the rear of our Corps (the 
Fifteenth) and our Regiment had the post of honor, the rear of 
the Division. Marched out by the imfirmary south of the 
city, thence to the head of Broadway Street, where we filed, 
passing in review through the City of Petersburg, on down to 
Appomattox River Bridge; here our regiment came to a halt; 
we remained here until our division trains all passed. We 
were reviewed in Petersburg, Va., by Major-Generals O. O. 
Howard, J. A. Logan and W. B. Hazen and the Commander of 
the City. At 12 M. we crossed the Appomattox River, marched 
on the road direct for Manchester and Richmond, Va., marched 
eleven miles, and as our Regiment was in the rear of the wagon 
train it was after sundown before we got into camp. Rained 
some in the afternoon and made the roads quite slippery in 
places. 

May 10, '65. Wednesday. The 47th resumed the march 
for Richmond, Va., at 9 A M., the roads being wide and very 
good. Our Division marched two regiments abreast, our trains 
also doubled up and went two wagons abreast. Our Division 
still had the post of honor, the rear; we passed the Confederate 
fortifications, two strong lines at Drewery Bluff, coining within 
rw<> miles of Manchester, Va., at 1 P. M., having marched a 
little over eight miles. We encamped on a plantation owned 
by a Mr. Drewery, near a strong line of forts and fortifications 
built, it is said out of his own means. This line of works ex- 
tended from the James River, near about four miles towards 
Bermudy Hundred. This camp is in sight of Manchester, and 
the late Confederate Capital, Richmond, Va. It is reported 
by some of our boys who ought to know, that some of the 
Seventeenth Army Corps got into a row with some of the eastern 
troops in Manchester, and they had run out the Provost Mar- 
shal and his guards across the James River into Richmond. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 449 

The cause of all this was because the Provost Marshal ordered 
his guards to shoot and did shoot one of our men, belonging to 
the Fourteenth Army Corps, who was in Manchester without a 
pass. It is said this had been done by orders of Gen. Halleck. 
Some of our boys went to Manchester to get some butter, and 
had to pay sixty-five cents per pound, and everything there at 
about this proportion in price. 

May 11, '65. Camp at Drewery's BJutt'. Va Orders came 
round that we could send out our mail at 3 P. M. The Four- 
teenth and Twentieth Army Corps are crossing the James River 
into Richmond, Va. To-day they ?tarted on their way to 
Washington, D C. In the afternoon we drew three days full 
rations. Weather very warm and windy, late in the evening 
we had a very hard thunder shower. Many of the officers and 
soldiers visited Richmond to-day with passes. 

May 12, '65. Camp at Drewery Bluff near Manchester, Va. 
It began to rain at dark last night, and it rained in torrents 
part of the time; rained nearly all the whole night, and there 
was as much vivid lightning as we ever saw with but very 
little thunder. We got orders for all men in the regiment to 
sign for all clothing they will need when we get to Alexandria, 
Va All the men to have caps to wear by order of Colonel 
A. C. Parry; there were also orders for all men who are not 
able to march, to be sent to Washington, D. C. by boats. The 
Seventeenth Army Corps crossed the James River, marched 
through Richmond on their way to Washington. This morn- 
ing, our Corps train crossed, and went through Richmond this 
afternoon. We got orders to be read} 7 for inspection at sun- 
down. At the inspection, Colonel A. C. Parry went along the 
companies in rear open order. Orders were then read for the 
regiment to be ready to march at 7 o'clock to-morrow morning.. 

Captain H Bremfoerder of Company B wrote as follows in 
his diary: 

May 12, '65. In the afternoon took a pleasant ride, passed 
through Manchester, crossed the James River and went into 
Richmond. A large portion of the city along the river was 
laid in ruins by the conflagration at the evacuation of the city 
by the Confederate armies. I visited Castle Thunder and 
Libby Prison ; they were formerly two tobacco warehouses, and 



450 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 

were converted into prisons for Federal prisoners at th« 
commencement of the rebellion. Also visited the Capital 
Building and the Statute of Gen. George Washington. 
The historian would add hern that Captain Bremfoeder 
might have said, that in those two Confederate Prisons almost. 
und,er the very eyes of Jeff. Davis, the chief of traitors, our 
men as prisoners of war, were starved almost to death by the 
thousands, and were made to stay there in filthy rags and body 
lice and scurvey. This was done by the orders of J^ff. Davis 
so that they would not be fit for future service in our armies. 
Those who did not die there had to be discharged, and then 
will never be well of this treatment by the chief traitor, who is 
now in hiding somewhere. We hope our droops will get him 
and that the Government will meet out to him and his cabinet 
the punishment they deserve 

May 13, '65. Richmond, Va. Weather very foggy this morn- 
ing which soon cleared away. Our Brigade being in the ad- 
vance of our Division fell into line and marched eight ranks 
deep with the colors of each regiment in front. The 47th 
started from the camp at 7 A. M., coming to the town of 
Manchester (which is south of Richmond, Va.) The troops 
were massed, as the pontoon bridge over James River was out 
of order. At about 9 A. M. the Fourth Division Fifteenth 
Army Corps which was in the advance, crossed the James River 
into Richmond, then our Division followed marching in eight 
ranks forward on center, passing through Manchester, then 
crossed the pontoon bridge, and entered the late Confederate 
Capital, Richmond, Va., just below where the bridge used to 
cross the river. We marched through the main streets of the 
city, and as we passed along the writer heard a group of little 
boys and girls shout, "Hurrah for Sherman's Army, the bully 
boys that were never whipped ;" on our way through the city 
we passed Castle Thunder, the State House of Virginia, and 
passed in sight of Libby Prison, reached the outskirts of the 
city on the road leading to Hanover Court House a little before 
[2 M., there came to a halt for a short rest, then marched on- 
to and crossed the Chickahominey River, which is small and 
bushy and swampy on each side for some distance. The 
Chickahominey River is nine miles from Richmond, and we 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 451 

marched one and one-half miles beyond the river and went in- 
to camp on Stone Run, having marched thirteen miles during 
the day. Weather clear and very hot. 

May 14, '65. Sunday. The 47th had reveille at 3 A. M.. 
with orders to be ready to move at daylight; fell into line, and 
the 47th marched out at sunrise; marched until 9 A. M. then 
went into camp some two miles from Hanover Court House, 
Va., until further orders. Waiting until the Seventeenth 
Army Corps crossed the Pamunky River; here we drew three 
days rations, and at 5 P. M. the assembly sounded. We fell 
into line and moved half the length of the regiment, then got 
orders to remain here all night. Marched seven miles. The 
country we marched through very rough and hilly. 

May 15, '65. Monday. Camp near the Pamunky River, Va. 
The 47th had reveille at 3 A. M. The 47th started on the 
march at 3:30 A. M., passed through Hanover Court House; 
here we learn that the Court House was built in the year 1735. 
All this country we are marching through is historic ground in 
the Revolution, and the Revolution also, and it has been made 
doubly historic in the past four years by the Armies of the 
Union and those of the Rebellion, and there is scarcely any 
town or township, that has not had a battle fought in the last 
four years. At Hanover Court House we were delayed over 
an hour waiting for the troops crossing the Pamunky River, 
and on account of the pontoon bridge, the water being very 
high. After we crossed the Pamunky River we marched on 
the road leading to Frederickburg via Bowling Green, and 
coming near the Nottaway River ; we had a long circuit to make 
to our right several miles out of the way to cross this river, as 
the bridge on the direct road had been destroyed by the enemy. 
We marched in all over twenty-one miles, and went into camp 
at 3 P. M. A portion of the road we marched over to-day was 
in very bad condition, country very broken. After coming in- 
to camp we learned that Jeff Davis, the chief traitor, and a 
part of his cabinet were captured in Georgia by Gen. Wilson. 

May 16, '65. Tuesday. The 47th had reveille at 3 o'clock 
this morning with orders to march at 6 A. M. The 47th started 
on the march at 6:30 A. M., the First Division Fifteenth Army 
Corps in the advance, our Division followed it, our Brigade in 



£52 History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. 1. 



advance of the Division; marched six miles and passed through 
Bowling Green, Va. It is a very small old place with about 
four hundred inhabitants. We here passed within a mile of 
wheiv Booth, the assassin of our martyred President, was cap- 
tured or shot in a barn. VVe continued on thp road towards 
Fredericksburg, Va., and encamped near Hick's Hill on Long 
Branch at 5 P. M., six miles from Fredericksburg, having 
marched twenty-two miles. Weather very hot and the roads 
dusty; men straggled badly. 

Our camp is in sight of Fredericksburg near trie Rappahan- 
nock River, and is one of the prettiest views of country wp 
have seen lately — a fine valley indeed. The country and valley 
is all cleared of timber, the fences all destroyed by armies on 
both sides, in the past three years, and around Fredericksburg 
is nearly all battle ground. 

May 17, '65. Wednesday. The 47th had reveille at 3 :30 
A. M.. with orders to march at 5 A. M. The 47th started on 
the march at 5:30; passed the First Division Fifteenth Army 
Corps, our Division in the advance, Second Brigade in rear of 
Division; crossed Long Run and reached Fredericksburg abeut 
8 A. M., passed through it. A part of the city had been burned 
in battle some two years ago. Fredericksburg is a very old 
town situated on the south bank of. the Rappahannock River. 
It was here that the Battle of Fredericksburg was fought on 
the 13th day of December, 1862. Our army was commanded 
by Gen. Burnside; the enemy was commanded by Gen. R. E. 
Lee, and at one time in that battle 200 pieces of artillery fired 
on the town ; no wonder the city had been partly burned up,, 
and the remainder of the houses had been riddled by shot 
and shell ; there are many thousands of our men buried here. 
We crossed the Rappahannock River on a pontoon bridge, and 
passed through Falmouth, then took the telegraph road for 
Alexandria, Va., marched through Stafford Court House, Va., 
then four miles beyond it we reached Acquea Creek, then went 
into camp, having marched over twenty-one miles, and was the 
hottest day we had this summer. The roads were very dusty, 
and the country we came through was very mountainous. A 
great many of our men gave out and some were sunstruck, and 
our division battery horses were played out as well as the men. 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 458 

May 18, '65. Had reveille at daybreak, and the 47th resumed 
the march at 8 A. M. The Kirst Division in advance; our Divi- 
sion following, with our Brigade in the center. Our Brigade 
got twenty wagons to haul their knapsacks, which was about 
one-half enough. Marched moderate to-day, reached Dumfries. 
Va. at 12:80, where we had a rest. The town is small and has 
the appearance of having stood the storms of more than on< j 
hundred years. We continued our march crossing several small 
streams, and encamped at 4:80 P. M. two miles from Occquan, 
having marched sixteen miles through a wild mountainous 
country. Weather very warm and sultry during the day; in 
the evening had a thunder storm and a very heavy rain, which 
made us soaking wet. 

May 19, '65. The 47th had reveille a little before daylight, 
resumed the march at 6:80 A. M. The roads were very muddy 
on account of th a heavy rains last night; the weather is rainy 
this morning. Continued our inarch on the telegraph road; 
passed through the town called Occoquan, situated on the bank 
■of a river of the same name ; crossed the river on a pontoon 
bridge ; it was about seventy-five yards wide. The streams were 
considerably swollen from the heavy rains of last night; we 
had to wade two of them about four feet deep. We passed by 
the church were Gen. Washington used to attend divine service; 
the edifice is now in a state of dilapidation. When we got 
within four miles of Alexandria, Va., went into camp near the 
Potomac River, having inarched thirteen miles during the day. 
Towards evening again had heavy rains. The country we came 
through to-day is quite mountainous ; the road was near the 
Potomac River the greater part of the day. 

Ma}* 20, '65. From near Mt. Vernon up towards Washington, 
D. C. Weather cloudy and rainy to-day. Orders to remain 
in this camp until further orders. No marching to-day. 

The following is taken from Captain H. Bremfoeder's diary 
written May 20th, 1865. 

"I visited Mt, Vernon, the estate of Gen. George Washington 
in the morning — the mansion he lived in and also the vault 
he is buried in, which is maintained intact during the war 
However, the grounds in general, fences, flowers and the shru I >- 
•bery need the attention of a good indrustrious superintendent. 



454 History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

Mt. Vernon is a beautiful place, situated on the banks of the 
Potomac River six miles from Alexandria, Va. A splendid 
view of the river can be obtained here " The writer would add 
here that the marble coffins containing the remains of (ieneral 
George Washington and his wife can be seen through the grating 
at the tomb; George Washington on the right and Martha Wash- 
ington, his wife, on the left. Many of the boys in the 47th 
Ohio took advantage of the opportunity to-day and visited the 
tomb of the '"Father of our Country" at Mount Wriioii while 
they had the chance, for they say the war is over and go 
home soon and never get back here. 

May 21/(55. Sunday. Camp near Mt. Vernon, Va. Rained last 
night and is still raining this morning. We got orders to be 
ready for inspection at 9 A. M After the inspection orders 
came round to pack up everything; we could leave our tents 
up (as it was raining very hard) but to be ready to move at a 
moments notice. At 11 :80 the assembly sounded, fell into line, 
our Brigade in the rear of our Division. The 47th marched 
about rive miles and encamped at 2 P. M. over a mile north- 
west of Alexandria. From this camp we have a fine view of 
the Capital of the United States and Washington's monument, 
etc. We can also see Arlington, the late home of R. E. Lee, 
the General-in-Chief of the Confederate Army. Un the road we 
came in we saw some very strong forts which were built for the 
protection of Washington, D. C. We saw for the first time 
some eastern soldiers; our camp is in a thicket of bushes. 

May 22, '65. We had very hard thunder with heavy rain 
last night. We had orders to discharge all men, whose term of 
service expires prior to the 1st day of October, which created 
considerable excitement in our regiment. There was issued to 
us one days rations of wood to do our cooking with. There was 
quite a number out of our regiment who secured passes and 
went to Washington City to view the capital and other public 
buildings of the Government, while a few went to Alexandria 
to view the old town and see Gen. Washington's old pew in a 
church there ; also to see the place where Colonel Elsworth was 
killed, etc. 

May 28, '65. Camp near Alexandria, Va. Tuesday. Re- 
ceived orders to move at 7:80 A. M. The 47th Ohio marched 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 455 

out towards the Long Bridge (which is across the Potomac 
River from Virginia to the city of Washington) marched several 
miles and went into camp at 11 A M. near the Long Bridge. 
Here we received strict orders to clean everything very fine 
as we would be reviewed to-morrow by the President and Cabinet 
and the Foreign Ministers, and the day was spent cleaning and 
drawing clothing. Orders in the afternoon were to put up no 
tents as we would march at 3 A. M. to-morrow; knapsack** to 
be packed and left here, as they would be well guarded. 
Grand review of the Army of the Poto;nac is going on to-day 
before President Johnson and Cabinet,and the Foriegn Ministers, 
Lieutenant-General Grant and nearly all the other Generals 
from him on down. This review of the Army of the Potomac- 
occupied nearly all day. 

May 24, '65. Long Bridge, Va. Reveille sounded at 3 o'clock 
this morning; breakfast was soon over and everything packed 
up before sunrise; our knapsacks were piled up and guards 
placed over them and all was ready for the grandest review of 
the war. Started from our camp at sunrise, the Fifteenth 
Army Corps in the advance. Marched across the Long Bridge 
from old Virginia to Washington D. C, thence marched up in 
the city to the rear of the capital building, and the troops 
were massed, the head of the column resting on Pennsylvania 
Avenue in the following order. First, Fifteenth Army Corps; 
Second, Seventeenth Army Corps; Third, Twentieth Army 
Corps; Fourth, the Fourteenth Army Gorps, in all comprising 
•over 65,000 men. We were waiting at the head of Pennsylvania 
Avenue for the signal gun to fire to start. 

We will state it as Captain H. Bremfoeder tells it: 

He says, promptly at 9 A. M. the signal gun was fired, and 
the column was put in motion at once. There was an enormous 
crowd of spectators along theline of march, also a grand display 
•of flags and decorations, and several appropriate mottos were 
suspended across the streets. We marched past the reviewing 
stand which was in front of the President's Mansion. The 
Corps marched as follows: 

The Fifteenth, Seventeenth, Twentieth and Fourteenth after 
the review. We marched out Ninth street and went into camp 
about three miles from the city. When the signal gun was 



4">r> History of the 47th Regiment O. V. V. I. 

fired the 47th fell in and marched in review; our Division was 
the first to go through in the morning. We saw President 
Johnson as we passed. It was the largest assembly of soldiers 
and citizens we ever saw, and probably the largest that was 
ever seen on this continent, or that will be seen in many years 
to come. After we were reviewed we marched three miles north- 
east of the city on the Baltimore Pike and went into camp. 

The writer would add here that this review was the grandest 
review that was everseen in the world. The city of Washington 
was packed full of the relatives of the soldiers and their friends 
from all the loyal states, and they seem to be together by states, 
for when we passed certain points we were cheered by Ohio 
people and so on with other states, and there was cheer upon 
cheer all along the line the whole day for Sherman's Army; 
even the house tops in many places seemed to he full of people; 
indeed, the people were there by the acre everywhere that we 
could see with general rejoicing by the army and the people; 
that the war was over and our Union restored with one proud 
banner floating over every state and territory of our Union. 

We will now give this review as we find it in the Life of Gen. 
W. T. Sherman, on pages 491 and 492. 

That Gen. Sherman accepted an invitation to witness 
the grand and final review of the Army of the Potomac, 
which had been appointed for May 23rd 1865. The review of 
his own army was appointed for the next day, May 24th. It 
was a magnificent day, and punctually at 9 A. M. General 
Sherman and his staff rode down Pennsylvania Avenue, fallowed 
by Major-General J. A. Logan and his staff at the head of the 
gallant Fifteenth Corps. When the grand reviewing stand was 
reached, General Sherman took his position by the side of the 
President, and witnessed the passage of his veterans for six 
and one-half hours; his four Corps, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, 
Twentieth, and Fourteenth, sixty-five thousand strong, moved 
with the regularity of clock work during all these hours, and 
concluded their two thousand miles' march in the capital and 
amid the plaudits of the Nation. General Sherman was justly 
proud of the appearance of his men, and pronounced his army 
the best in existence. 

May 24, '65. In the evening we had to change our camp ; 



History of the 47th Regiment 0. V. V. I. 457 



moved one-quarter of a mile farther east towards the National 
Military Home. The Brigade and Regimental teams came over 
late in the evening from across the Long Bridge where we left 
them this morning. Weather clear and good luveze all day. 

May 25, '65. Washington, D. G. Weather pleasant. The 
Regiments and the Brigades were moved in their proper places 
into line, and the 47th Ohio wa s shifted from the extreme right 
to the extreme left. New camp ground Our knapsacks did 
not come last night and we put in a miserable night hut 
our knapsacks arrived this evening. We drew one days rations 
and put up our tents. Hope we can sleep to-night, as we will 
have our blankets. 

May 2(3, '65 Washington D. C. It was rainy and bad about 
all day. We have no rations; the commissary issued nothing 
and th? mist >f our aim hive n >thing to ej,fc; this, t>o. in a 
country just redeemed and there is plenty if they would give 
it to us. The 54th Ohio principally all fell in, and some from 
■other regiments in our brigade joined them. They were led by 
a captain, marched down to the Division Commissary to tear 
him out or get some grub. The Quarter-master gave them 
provisions enough for supper and breakfast to get shut of them. 

May 27, '65. Washington, D. C. The 47th had reveille and 
roll call at 2 o'clock this morning with orders to report every 
absentee, on account of a row down in the city; this was done 
in order to find out the guilty parties if they should be from 
our Division. For the past three days nearly all the men in 
our regiment have been visiting the City of Washington, think- 
ing they would never get back here again Well, we visited 
the capital, went in the Senate Chamber and sat in the Vice 
Presidents chair, thence went into the House of Representatives 
and sat in the Speaker's chair, then went to the White House 
and saw President Johnson, then went to the Treasury Depart- 
ment, from there to Department of State and War and the 
Navy, the Postmaster General, then the Pension Office, then 
to the Navy Yard, then the Smithsonian Institute, from there 
to the Patent Office ; here we believe is the grandest thing in 
our country. The writer was there over one day and he believes 
it would take more than a month to see and examine everything 
there. From here we went to the Long Bridge and to the 



458 History of the 47th Regiment, 0. V. V. I. 

Washington Monument; then to Ford's Theater where urn- 
beloved President was assassinated the 14th of last month. I 
want to say here that General Sherman's old boys wherever 
they went seemed to be welcome. 

May 28, '65. Washington, D. C. We got orders for inspec- 
tion at 9 A M., and it was held by company officers. We were 
penned i"n to-day as on yesterday; there was a strong guard 
placed around the Division. In the evening we learned through 
the papers, that General Kirby Smith had surrendered all the 
Confederate troops in the trans-Mississippi Department, includ- 
ing the Confederate Navy. Weather warm ; rain in the evening. 

May 29, '65. Washington, D. C. We again had rain last 
night. All the men who are on detail from the 47th whose 
term expires before the 30th of September next were ordered 
to their respective companies to be discharged on the 31st prox- 
imo. Orders received to be ready to move to-morrow morning. 
It is reported we are to go to Louisville, Kentucky and probably 
from there, home. 

May 30, '65. Washington, D. C. The Brigade fell into line 
at 7:30 A M. and marched about one mile on the road towards 
Baltimore and halted at Division Headquarters for some twenty 
minutes when we were ordered back to our old camp again 
Orders received to he ready to move at a moments notice to go 
westward, when the following order from General Sherman 
was read : 

General Sherman's Farewell Order to his Army. 

Headquarters Military Dioisioa of the Mississippi, in the Field. 

Washington, D. C, May 30, '65. 
The General Commanding announces to the Armies of the 
Tennessee and Georgia that the time has come for us to part. 
Our work is done, and armed enemies no longer defy us. Some 
of you will go to your homes, and others will be retained in 
military services till further ordered; and now, that we are all 
about to separate, to mingle with the civil world, it becomes a 
pleasing duty to recall to mind the situation of National affairs, 
when, but